Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 provides for formal settlements of investigations by the European Commission into suspected infringements of Articles 81 or 82 EC. This paper analyses the origin and optimal use of this provision, the procedure for the adoption of commitment decisions, the content and effect of such decisions, and the scope for judicial review. It also explores the possibilities of informal settlement, and of settlements that include the payment of a fine.
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