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Cani Fernández started by clarifying what compliance means for the Spanish National Commission of Markets and Competition (“CNMC”). Compliance is indeed the goal in achieving a competitive market. One of the tools enforcers consists in engaging companies to credit compliance efforts in order to stop further measures as a result of an infringement. In Europe, however, the Commission considers that if an infringement has been detected, it means that the compliance program was defective and should not be rewarded. Taking the problem from a different perspective, the Spanish Ministry of Finance hiring board can lift public procurement exclusion measures when the company provides guarantees of self-cleaning initiatives. To that aim, they would now require a report from CNMC regarding these self-cleaning commitments. This prompted a debate on the features of an effective compliance program. Among these features, Ms. Fernandez believes that three of them are particularly important : tone from the top, effective training, and adoption of reactive measures if faced with an infringement.