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Clemens York and Mike Cowie explained that understanding non-horizontal mergers may be easier through examples. In the first scenario, a major ice-cream manufacturer acquires a large chocolate chips producer. In that case, there may be potential input foreclosure for other ice-cream manufacturers. A second scenario could result in output foreclosure or distribution foreclosure. For instance, a major ice-cream producer would acquire a supermarket company and would then exclude competing ice-cream manufacturers from its distribution system. A third scenario helps to understand why non-horizontal mergers do not only cover vertical transactions. One could think of a transaction between an ice-cream manufacturer and cookie manufacturer. Although there is no vertical relationship, there could be a threat to competition through other means such as tying of products. These are conglomerate mergers.