A. Introduction 1. Enforcement against cartels  has been a constant and avowed aim of competition policy in the European Union. The European Commission’s Annual Report on Competition Policy 2020 states: ‘Cartels are the most serious form of competition infringements and cause significant harm to both consumers and the economy as a whole. They can lead to inflated prices, limit consumer choices and restrict innovation. The Commission’s enforcement against hard core cartels prevents companies from profiting from such illegal arrangements and ensures a level playing field for business.’  2. The European Commission recognises in its report that ‘infringements of competition law go against the interests of EU citizens, leading to significantly higher costs for consumers and a risk of
Whistleblowers & Antitrust: An overview of EU and national case law
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