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Tying and competition law: An overview of EU and national case law

Introduction In Europe, the competitive assessment of the tying and bundling practices of dominant companies has been hotly debated since the seminal Microsoft media player case. In 2004, the European Commission fined Microsoft for tying the sale of its Windows Media Player (WMP) with its Windows operating system. The reason why tying and bundling is controversial is because often pro-competitive and anti-competitive motivations for tying co-exist. Economic theory finds that tying and bundling can lead to efficiencies. However, in certain circumstances, tying and bundling by firms with substantial market power can also result in anti-competitive foreclosure. As this review of cases reveals, the antitrust assessment of tying requires a careful analysis of the likely effects on the

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Jorge Padilla, Ciara Kalmus, Tying and competition law : An overview of EU and national case law, 7 mars 2012, e-Competitions Tying, Art. N° 43907

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