Since the last special edition of e-Competitions on restrictions of parallel trade, there have been a number of national competition authority cases that have helped clarify and confirm this area of antitrust law. Often these have been in familiar sectors where parallel trade has been in the spotlight historically, such as pharmaceuticals and household products. We highlight some of the most interesting ones below. And in a world where offline and online channels overlap and the treatment of online sales has particular implications for the assessment of trade restrictions, perhaps of most significance overall has been the European Commission’s decision in Guess and the new Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (‘‘VBER’’), which came into force on 1 June this year. Trademark exhaustion has also regularly come up in the context of parallel trade restrictions and we highlight a number of recent cases in this foreword. Brexit, of course, has brought trade between the UK and European Union into sharp focus, also with respect to trademark exhaustion. Here the future remains somewhat uncertain, as we discuss below.