Licensing agreements

Anticompetitive practices

The UK Supreme Court confirms that it is possible to set global FRAND rates and global licences to portfolios of standard essential patents (Unwired Planet / Huawei)
Baker Botts (Brussels)
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Baker Botts (Brussels)
The U.K. Supreme Court’s 26 August ruling on standard-essential patents (SEPs) is the latest in a series of recent decisions that are likely to have a profound effect on FRAND license negotiations across the globe, in particular for the next generation 4G and 5G mobile telecommunication (...)

The UK Supreme Court hands down a judgement between a software and a telecommunication company, providing answers on questions concerning the English Courts’ approach to FRAND disputes (Unwired Planet / Huawei)
Hogan Lovells (London)
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Hogan Lovells (London)
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Hogan Lovells (London)
The UK Supreme Court has handed down its long-awaited judgment in the Unwired Planet v Huawei and Conversant v Huawei & ZTE proceedings ([2020] UKSC 37), providing answers on several key questions concerning the English Courts’ approach to FRAND disputes. In a unanimous judgment, the (...)

The UK Supreme Court confirms that English courts may set the terms of global licences to portfolios of standard essential patents (Unwired Planet / Huawei)
Bristows (London)
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Bristows (London)
English courts given green light to set terms of global FRAND licences* On 26 August 2020, the UK Supreme Court (UKSC) gave its eagerly awaited judgment in Unwired Planet v Huawei and Conversant v Huawei & ZTE. In a unanimous policy-driven decision, the Court dismissed the appeals brought (...)

The Mannheim Regional Court grants injunctive relief to a telecommunication provider and clarifies the application of FRAND in the supply chain (Daimler / Nokia)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
According to a press release of the Mannheim Regional Court of 18 August 2020 in the matter Nokia v Daimler, the Regional Court of Mannheim (the “Court”) ruled in favour of Nokia that Daimler had infringed Nokia’s patent and could not invoke a FRAND objection. The Court held that Daimler and a (...)

The US District Court for the Southern District of New York terminates long-standing Paramount consent decrees, thereby allowing after 7 decades the classic movie studios to form closer agreements with movie distributors (Paramount Pictures)
US Department of Justice - Antitrust Division (Washington)
Federal Court Terminates Paramount Consent Decrees* A federal court in the Southern District of New York today terminated the Paramount Consent Decrees, which for over seventy years have regulated how certain movie studios distribute films to movie theatres. The review and termination of these (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of Illinois dismisses antitrust case challenging patent thicket (Humira)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On June 8, 2020, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois granted defendants’ motion to dismiss an antitrust case challenging behavior arising out of a massive collection of patents known as a “patent thicket.” In re Humira (Adalimumab) Antitrust Litigation, 2020 WL 3051309 (...)

The EU Commission fines several companies for restricting sales of film merchandise products (NBCUniversal)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission fines NBCUniversal €14.3 million for restricting sales of film merchandise products* The European Commission has fined several companies belonging to Comcast Corporation, including NBCUniversal LLC, (“NBCUniversal”) €14 327 000 for restricting traders from selling licensed (...)

The EU Commission fines €14.3 million several companies for restricting sales of licensed film merchandise (NBCUniversal)
Bird & Bird (Brussels)
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Bird & Bird (Brussels)
On 30 January 2020, the Commission imposed a fine on NBCUniversal for the restriction of sales of film merchandise relating to Minions and Shrek, among others. In June 2017, the Commission opened investigations into the licensing deals entered into by Nike, Sanrio (Hello Kitty), and (...)

The EU Commission reiterates its position that if a business allows for the non-exclusive licensing of its products in the EEA, the licensor can no longer control the sale of the product (NBCUniversal Media / Comcast)
Norton Rose Fulbright (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
The European Commission has reiterated its position that if a business allows for the non-exclusive licensing of its products in the EEA, such licensor can no longer control where, to whom, and in what manner (online/off-line) the products can be sold within the EEA. On 30 January 2020, the (...)

The EU Commission imposes €14.3 million fine on companies for territorial, customer and online sales restrictions of merchandising products (NBCUniversal)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 30 January 2020, the European Commission (“Commission”) announced its decision to fine several companies belonging to Comcast Corporation, including NBCUniversal, € 14,327,000 for limiting the ability of licensees to sell licensed merchandising products to other EEA countries and non-allocated (...)

The EU Commission fines several film companies for implementing territorial, consumer and online sales restrictions through merchandising licence agreements (NBC Universal)
Liège University
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Liège University
On 30 January 2020, the European Commission (‘the Commission’) announced its decision to fine several film companies belonging to Comcast Corporation, including NBCUniversal LLC (‘Universal’), €14,327,000 for the implementation of territorial, consumer and online sales restrictions through their (...)

The EU Commission fines a company for restricting cross-border sales of merchandising products featuring their brand characters (Sanrio)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission fines Sanrio €6.2 million for restricting cross-border sales of merchandising products featuring Hello Kitty characters* The European Commission has fined Sanrio €6.2 million for banning traders from selling licensed merchandise to other countries within the EEA. This (...)

The EU Commission fines a company for restricting cross-border sales of merchandising products (Sanrio)
Gomez Acebo & Pombo (Brussels)
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Gomez Acebo & Pombo (Brussels)
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Gomez Acebo & Pombo (Brussels)
The investigation of the Commission has found that Sanrio banned traders from selling licensed merchandise of Hello Kitty and other characters outside their territorial coverage but within the European Economic Area (“EEA”). Sanrio is a Japanese company that designs, licenses, produces and sells (...)

The EU Commission fines a company €6.2 million for restricting cross-border sales of merchandising products (Sanrio)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 9 July 2019, the Japanese company Sanrio was fined € 6.2 million by the European Commission (“Commission”) for infringing Article 101 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union by restricting cross-border sales by its licensees. According to the Commission’s press release, the case (...)

The Shanghai IP Court holds that fictitiously increasing the number of views of videos is an act of false propaganda (Feiyi / IQiYi)
Beijing Foreign Studies University (Beijing)
From the perspective of anti-unfair competition law, Feiyi Company fictitiously increased the video visits of IQiYi’s website by technical means - the first case of inflating traffic on video websites in China. In recent years, the excessive pursuit of traffic in the Internet industry has (...)

The Hague Court of Appeal delivers its judgment on an alleged infringement of patent essential to the universal mobile telecommunications system standard (Asus / Philips)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 7 May 2019, the Court of Appeal of the Hague delivered its judgment in a case pitting Philips against ASUS regarding the alleged infringement of Philips’ European patent EP 1 623 511, which was considered essential to the High Speed Uplink Packet Access (“HSUPA”) protocol of the Universal (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal delivers the first judgement on FRAND terms and applies the French legislation implementing the trade secrets directive (Conversant / LG)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 16 April 2019, the Paris Court of Appeal delivered a judgment in Conversant v. LG, a case dealing with the concept of licensing under fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (“FRAND”) terms. While the court did not set a much-anticipated FRAND royalty rate, the case is noteworthy because of (...)

The UK Competition Authority launches an investigation into online gaming companies’ roll-over contracts
Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
The UK Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) announced on 05 April 2019 that it is launching an investigation into online gaming companies’ use of auto-renewal, cancellation, and refund policies in relation to online services. The investigation is being conducted using the CMA’s consumer (...)

The EU Commission fines a company for restricting cross-border and online sales of branded merchandise by its European licensees (Nike)
Crowell & Moring (Brussels)
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Crowell & Moring (Brussels)
E-Commerce in Europe: A Look into Nike’s Huge Antitrust Fines* On March 25, the European Commission (EC) fined Nike €12.5 million for restricting cross-border and online sales of branded merchandise by its European licensees. In December last year, the EC fined Guess €40 million for imposing (...)

The EU Commission imposes €12.5 million fine on a company for restricting cross-border sales of merchandising products (Nike)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 25 March 2019, the European Commission (“Commission”) announced its decision to fine Nike € 12,555,000 for limiting the ability of licensees to sell licensed merchandising products to other EEA countries. According to the Commission’s press release, the restrictions concerned the merchandise (...)

The EU Commission accepts final commitments in a cross-border access to pay-TV case (Disney / NBC Universal / Sony Pictures / Warner Bros / Sky)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
According to a press release issued on 7 March 2019, the European Commission (“Commission”) has formally accepted the commitments offered by Disney, NBC Universal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Sky in Case 40.023, Cross-border access to pay-TV, under Article 9 of Regulation 1/2003. The (...)

The EU Commission accepts remedies proposed by entertainment companies ending competition concerns in the pay-TV services market (Disney / NBC Universal / Sony Pictures / Warner Bros / Sky)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission accepts commitments by Disney, NBCUniversal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Sky on cross-border pay-TV services* The European Commission has made commitments offered by Disney, NBCUniversal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Sky legally binding under EU antitrust rules. (...)

The EU General Court rules that territorial exclusivity clauses in copyright licensing agreements raise competition concerns (Canal+)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 12 December 2018, the EU General Court (“GC” or “Court”) dismissed the application for annulment which Canal + SA (“Canal +”) had brought against a European Commission (“Commission”) decision that had made commitments offered by Paramount Pictures Ltd (“Paramount”) in the context of copyright (...)

The US District Court for the Eastern District of Texas declares that a licensing offer based on end-device is compliant with FRAND commitments (HTC / Ericsson)
Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Washington)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Washington)
Standard-essential patent holders and implementers may face uncertainty regarding licensing practices following a May 23 Texas court ruling. In the ruling, a Texas federal judge reached a conclusion different from a recent California court decision — FTC v. Qualcomm — on the question of whether (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upholds dismissal of an antitrust suit where a jury verdict in a parallel case found no patent infringement (Casacade Computer / RPX / Samsung)
McDermott Will & Emery (Washington)
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Crowell & Moring (Washington)
What Happened: Wading into the merging streams of antitrust and patents, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld dismissal of an antitrust suit where a jury verdict in a parallel case found no patent infringement. Cascades Computer Innovation, LLC v. RPX Corp. and Samsung (...)

The EU Commission publishes its final report on the e-commerce sector inquiry
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
On 10 May 2017, two years after launching its e-commerce sector inquiry on 6 May 2015, the European Commission published its final report (Final Report) on the inquiry. The inquiry was opened in the framework of the Commission’s broader Digital Single Market strategy, which was aimed at (...)

The U.S. FTC and DOJ publish revised antitrust guidelines for the licensing of intellectual property
Weil, Gotshal & Manges (New York)
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Weil, Gotshal & Manges (Washington)
FTC and DOJ finalize revised Antitrust Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property* On January 12, 2017 the DOJ and FTC jointly issued final updated Antitrust Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property (Updated IP Guidelines). Acting Assistant Attorney General Renata (...)

The US Federal Trade Commission issues report on patent assertion entities
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On October 6, 2016, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued its long-awaited report on patent assertion entities (PAEs). Sometimes called “patent trolls,” these actors have elicited fierce debate, with critics lamenting their ability to demand ransom money and hold up an industry while (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit offers misguided analysis of product hopping (Mayne / Warner Chilcott / Mylan)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On September 28, 2016, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit issued a misguided ruling granting defendants’ motion for summary judgment and ignoring the regulatory framework relevant to “product hopping,” by which a drug company switches from one version of a drug to another, sometimes (...)

The EU Commission accepts commitments on geo-blocking practices restricting passive sales of audio-visual content (Paramount)
Fieldfisher (London)
Territorial restrictions in media content licensing – lessons from the Paramount commitments decision* The European Commission’s battle against territorial restrictions in media content licences continues on a number of fronts. One of those is an investigation launched in January 2014 into (...)

The EU Commission accepts commitments that correct passive sales restrictions caused by geo-blocking of audio-visual content (Paramount)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 26 July 2016, the Commission made legally binding the commitments offered by Paramount Pictures (“Paramount”) as it considered that they adequately addressed its concerns regarding specific contractual clauses restricting passive sales. In July 2015, the Commission had expressed concerns that (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules that payment of royalties under a licence agreement where the patent was held invalid may be compatible with Article 101 TFEU (Genentech / Hoechst)
Blackstone Chambers (London)
License fees, invalid patents and Article 101 TFEU: Genentech v Hoechst and Sanofi Aventis* Consider an agreement under which a license fee is payable for use of a patented technology even if it transpires that the patent is invalid. Is such an agreement contrary to Article 101 TFEU? The answer (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules that payment of royalties under a licence agreement where the patent was held invalid may be compatible with Article 101 TFEU (Genentech / Hoechst)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 7 July 2016, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the “ECJ”) issued its judgment on a request for a preliminary ruling from the Paris Court of Appeal, which had enquired whether Article 101 TFEU precludes a licensee from paying royalties pursuant to a licensing agreement when the patent (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules that royalties for unpatented technology are not necessarily anticompetitive (Genentech)
McDermott Will & Emery (Paris)
EU COURT RULES THAT ROYALTIES FOR UNPATENTED TECHNOLOGY ARE NOT NECESSARILY ANTICOMPETITIVE* On 7 July 2016, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) handed down a judgment on whether Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) must be interpreted as (...)

The Italian Competition Authority fines undertakings for an anticompetitive agreement concerning the assignment of broadcasting rights to Italian football league matches (Vendita diritti televisivi Serie A 2015-2018)
Bonelli Erede (Rome)
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Bonelli Erede (Rome)
In its decision of 19 April 2016, the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) imposed fines totalling EUR 66 million on Sky and Mediaset, the main television operators in the pay-tv market, and on the Italian Football League (“Lega Calcio”) and its advisor Infront, for breach of Article 101 of the (...)

Advocate General Wathelet concludes that payment of royalties under a licence agreement where the patent was held invalid may be compatible with Article 101 TFEU (Genentech / Hoechst)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 17 March 2016, Advocate General Wathelet issued his opinion on a request for a preliminary ruling from the Paris Court of Appeal, which inquired as to whether Article 101 TFEU precludes a licensee from paying royalties pursuant to a licensing agreement when the patent, which is the subject (...)

The Italian Council of State refers to the EU Court of Justice for a preliminary ruling in a case regarding an agreement to artificially differentiate competing drugs (Roche / Novartis)
Bonelli Erede (Rome)
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Bonelli Erede (Rome)
By its decision of 11 March 2016 , the Italian Administrative Court of Last Instance (“Council of State”) referred to the European Court of Justice certain preliminary questions raised by Novartis and Roche in the appeals brought against the judgment of the Administrative Court of First Instance, (...)

The Competition Commission of India finds prima facie case for abuse of dominance and anti-competitive terms in technology licensing agreement (Mahyco Monsanto Biotech)
Tata Institute of Social Sciences (Mumbai)
Background Reference from Ministry of Agriculture and separate complaint from Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd and certain other seed companies alleging abuse of dominant position and anti-competitive practices in Bt-cotton technology licensing process by Mahyco Monsanto Biotech (MMB) has led to this prima (...)

The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York dismisses lawsuit over patent settlement where generics were granted early-entry licenses with acceleration clauses (Takeda Pharmaceuticals)
Siemens (New York)
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Patterson Belknap Webb & Tyler (New York)
Better Early than Never: SDNY Dismisses Lawsuit over Patent Settlement where Generics were Granted Early-Entry Licenses with Acceleration Clauses* On September 22, Judge Ronnie Abrams of the Southern District of New York dismissed an antitrust lawsuit against Takeda Pharmaceuticals and three (...)

The EU Commission issues a statement of objection against companies offering pay-TV services for geographical market sharing (Disney / NBCUniversal / Paramount Pictures / Sony / Twentieth Century Fox / Warner Bros)
University of East Anglia (Norwich)
The European Commission’s Battle Over Pay-TV Services: Can Segmenting the EU Market Be Justified?* Yesterday the European Commission issued a Statement of Objections to Sky UK and six major US film studios, taking the preliminary view that restrictions put in place to prevent consumers located (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit concludes that the Actavis ruling applies to non-cash payments (Lamictal)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On June 26, 2015, in the first federal appellate drug patent settlement ruling since the Supreme Court’s decision in FTC v. Actavis, 133 S. Ct. 2223 (2013), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit overturned a lower court decision granting a motion to dismiss for defendants. Writing for (...)

The Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia rejects a challenge to an FTC rule that makes the HSR Act reporting requirements cover pharmaceutical patent licenses that transfer all commercially significant rights (PhRMA)
Jones Day (Washington DC)
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Sheppard Mullin (Washington)
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Jones Day (Chicago)
The D.C. Circuit has rejected a challenge by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America ("PhRMA") to an FTC rule that makes the HSR Act reporting requirements cover pharmaceutical patent licenses that transfer "all commercially significant rights." The rule, adopted in 2013, (...)

The California Supreme Court cements vigorous scrutiny of reverse-payment settlements (Cipro)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On May 7, 2015, in the first appellate reverse-payment ruling since the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in FTC v. Actavis, 133 S. Ct. 2223 (2013), the California Supreme Court overturned a lower court decision granting summary judgment for defendants. On behalf of all seven Justices, Justice (...)

The California Supreme Court delineates a structured rule of reason analysis for evaluating reverse payments or pay-for-delay settlements (Cipro)
Sheppard Mullin (San Francisco)
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Reed Smith (Washington)
California Supreme Court Delineates a Structured Rule of Reason Analysis for Evaluating Reverse Payment or Pay-for-Delay Settlements* On May 7, 2015, the California Supreme Court issued its long-awaited decision in In re Cipro Cases I & II, Case No. S198616 (May 7, 2015) (Cipro). Cipro (...)

The California Supreme Court crafts "structured rule of reason" test for evaluating pay-for-delay settlements (Cipro)
Siemens (New York)
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Patterson Belknap Webb & Tyler (New York)
Following Actavis, California Supreme Court Crafts “Structured Rule of Reason” Test for Evaluating Pay-for-Delay Settlements* Last Thursday the Supreme Court of California decided In re Cipro Cases I & II, No. S198616 (Cal. May 7, 2015), holding that reverse payment, or “pay-for-delay,” (...)

The US Supreme Court hears arguments before the decision on whether post-expiration license royalty obligations are caught in the web of patent policies or antitrust analysis (Kimble / Marvel)
Constantine Cannon (Washington)
Supreme Court Seeks To Untangle Patent And Antitrust Principles Caught In Spider-Man’s Web* The Supreme Court heard oral argument today on whether litigation over a toy based on Spider-Man’s web should be used to vanquish a 50-year-old precedent precluding patent owners from collecting patent (...)

The Electronic Intellectual Property Center of China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) releases a draft “Template for Intellectual Property Policies in Industry Standardization Organizations”
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Hong Kong)
The Electronic Intellectual Property Center of China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) has released a draft “Template for Intellectual Property Policies in Industry Standardization Organizations” (the Draft Template), seeking public comments by January 30. The Draft Template (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit decides on the reasonableness of licensing royalty for standard-essential patents (Ericsson / D-Link)
Constantine Cannon (Washington)
Reasonableness Of Licensing Royalties Is On Trial As Courts And Standard-Setting Organizations Wrestle With Standard-Essential Patents* The ongoing battle over what constitutes a “reasonable” licensing royalty for standard-essential patents has now been joined by the U.S. Court of Appeals for (...)

The Advocate General Wathelet renders his opinion and provides a fresh perspective on FRAND licenses (Huawei / ZTE)
DLA Piper (Brussels)
The long-awaited Opinion delivered by Advocate General Wathelet on 20 November 2014 in the dispute opposing Huawei and ZTE (Case C-170/13) sheds a new and bright light on the legal landscape for injunctions in SEP-FRAND licensing contexts, provided the Court of Justice follows the Advocate (...)

The EU Commission sends formal charges to companies regarding a cooperation agreement which may have limited availability of a product and technical development (Honeywell / DuPont)
Ashurst (Milan)
Commission sends formal charges to Honeywell and DuPont regarding cooperation on car air conditioning refrigerant* On 21 October 2014 the European Commission issued formal charges to Honeywell and DuPont, based on allegations that the cooperation agreement they entered into in 2010 on the (...)

The U.S. FTC files a complaint against five pharmaceutical companies for pay-for-delay settlements (AbbVie)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (New York)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (New York)
On September 8, 2014, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) filed a federal antitrust complaint in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania against defendants AbbVie, Abbott Laboratories, Unimed Pharmaceuticals, Besins Healthcare and Teva Pharmaceuticals alleging (...)

The US District Court for the District of Rhode Island issues concerning ruling on drug patent settlements (Loestrin)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On September 4, 2014, Judge William Smith of the U.S. District Court for the District of Rhode Island issued a concerning ruling on drug patent settlements. In In re Loestrin 24 FE Antitrust Litigation, 2014 WL 4368924 (D.R.I., Sept. 4, 2014), Judge Smith misapplied the Supreme Court’s landmark (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California finds that an athletics association’s rules restricting payments to student-athletes violate antitrust laws (O’Bannon / NCAA)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On August 8, 2014, in O’Bannon v. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Judge Claudia Wilken of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California found that the NCAA violated the antitrust laws by enacting rules that prevented student-athletes from being paid for the use (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California holds that NCAA restrictions on college players exploiting and receiving licensing revenue from the use of their names, images and likenesses violate antitrust law (O’Bannon / NCAA)
Constantine Cannon (New York)
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Constantine Cannon (New York)
NCAA’s Loss In O’Bannon Trial May Be Only A Partial Victory For Competition* Although competition scored a win on Friday in the student athletes’ antitrust suit led by former UCLA basketball player Ed O’Bannon against the NCAA, it wasn’t a complete blowout. Judge Claudia Wilken of the U.S. (...)

The US FTC approves two final orders settling charges that ski equipment manufacturers for many years illegally agreed not to compete for one another’s ski endorsers or employees (Marker Völkl / Tecnica Group)
Bona Law (San Diego)
The FTC Orders Ski-Equipment Companies to Start Competing Again* Sometimes competition is a real hassle. If your company has a loyal customer or longtime employee, you feel betrayed when a competitor swoops in to try to “steal them.” If you are the Miami Heat, you probably don’t like that the (...)

The English High Court dismisses a competition law challenge to a disciplinary rule imposing sanctions for actions assessed to be inimical to the sport (Baker / The British Boxing Board of Control)
Blackstone Chambers (London)
Avoiding the clinch: judicial respect for the rules inherent to sport* In a recent bout in the High Court, the specificity of sporting disputes once again came to the fore. In Bruce Baker v British Boxing Board of Control [2014] EWHC 2074 (QB), 25 June 2014, Sir David Eady was faced with the (...)

The US District Court for the Southern District of New York denies motion to dismiss the complaint finding insufficient arguments to warrant a dismissal of the claims on per se tying and block-booking on the market for cable television (Cablevision / Viacom International)
Womble Bond Dickinson (Charlotte)
Suit Challenging Cable Bundling Survives Motion to Dismiss* Cable subscribers, tired of being forced to purchase more obscure channels like VH1 Classic and Teen Nick in order to get their nightly Daily Show fix on Comedy Central, should be encouraged by a recent antitrust decision out of the (...)

The Australian Competition Authority files an application seeking to challenge compulsory examination notices being part of an antitrust investigation into allegations of cartel conduct regarding a tender process for an exploration mining licence (Paul and Moses Obeid)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
Moses and Paul Obeid issue court challenge to ACCC examination notices* In response to media inquiries, the ACCC confirms that an application has been filed in the Federal Court of Australia which seeks to challenge compulsory examination notices issued by the ACCC to Paul and Moses Obeid (...)

The US DoJ opens a review of the consent decrees and expects comments on the competitive concerns that arise from the joint licensing in the music industry (ASCAP / BMI)
Sheppard Mullin (New York)
Department of Justice Opens Review of ASCAP and BMI Consent Decrees* The Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice announced in June 2014 that it has opened a review of the 73-year-old ASCAP and BMI Consent Decrees. In its press release, the DOJ noted that it is most interested in (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California deals with anti-competitive restrictions preventing payments to basketball players for use of their name, image, and likeness (O’Bannon / NCAA)
Womble Bond Dickinson (Charlotte)
Three Questions for the Third Week of the O’Bannon v. NCAA Trial* As the O’Bannon v. NCAA trial enters its third week, commentators are already predicting the fall of the “college sports cartel.” In the case, a group of about 20 current and former college men’s basketball and football players, led (...)

Licensing agreements and competition law : An overview of EU and national case law
Dentons (Brussels)
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Arnold & Porter Kaye Scholer (Brussels)
Introduction The interplay between intellectual property (“IP”) and competition law has long been the subject of debate. However, this debate has recently gained momentum, with particular focus on the IP-intensive pharmaceutical and IT industries. In cases under Article 101 and 102 TFEU and (...)

The EU Commission issues new rules for assessing technology licensing agreements under Article 101 TFEU
Jones Day (Brussels)
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Jones Day (Brussels)
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Jones Day (Brussels)
European Union Adopts New Rules for Technology Licensing Agreements* The European Union has a new regime for assessing technology licensing agreements under EU competition law. The new rules include a new technology transfer block exemption regulation (“TTBER”), which exempts certain bilateral (...)

The EU Commission announces the adoption of a revised technology transfer block exemption regulation and new accompanying guidelines
Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
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Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
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Norton Rose Fulbright (London)
This article has been nominated for the 2015 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Introduction The European Commission has recently announced its adoption of a revised Technology Transfer Block Exemption Regulation and new accompanying (...)

The EU Commission adopts revised competition regime for technology transfer agreements
European Commission (Brussels)
European Commission adopts revised Competition Regime for Technology Transfer Agreements* The European Commission (Commission) adopted in March 2014 new competition rules for assessing technology transfer agreements, through which a licensor permits a licensee to exploit patents, know- how (...)

The Danish Competition Authority accepts new commitments regarding football clubs’ joint sale of media rights for national league football (Superliga)
Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (Copenhagen)
Danish Competition Council Accepts New Commitments regarding Danish Football Clubs’ Joint Sale of Media Rights* On 26 February 2014 the Danish Competition Council accepted new commitments offered by the Association of Danish League Clubs regarding the clubs’ joint sale of media rights to Danish (...)

The Danish Competition Authority accepts new commitments in relation to a joint sales agreement between football clubs in the top Danish league (Superliga)
DLA Piper (Copenhagen)
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TDC Group (Copenhague)
On 26 February 2014 the Danish Competition Council (“DCC”) accepted revised commitments offered by the Association of Danish League Clubs (“ADLC”) regarding the joint sale of media rights to the premier Danish football leagues. The new commitments allow for a longer rights period (6 years), but (...)

A US Court issues formalistic ruling on reverse-payment settlements after ’Actavis’ (GSK / Teva)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On January 24, 2014, Judge William Walls of the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey issued one of the first rulings interpreting the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in FTC v. Actavis, 133 S. Ct. 2223 (2013). The Court in Actavis made clear that settlements by which brand-name (...)

The EU Commission initiates a formal investigation into potentially anti-competitive restrictions in pay-TV licensing arrangements
Blackstone Chambers (London)
This article has been nominated for the 2014 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Murphy, round 2: does exclusive territorial licensing of pay-TV breach EU competition law?* According to a report in the Financial Times on 24 November 2013, the (...)

The Swiss Federal Administrative Court upholds fines imposed by the Competition Authority to a toothpaste manufacturer and licensor and its distributor and licensee for prohibiting parallel imports from Austria to Switzerland (Gaba International)
Bourgeois Avocats (Lausanne)
Background and Court decision Back in 2009, the Swiss Competition Commission (COMCO) hit Gaba International AG – an undertaking part of the Colgate-Palmolive Group and manufacturer of the toothpaste brands Elmex and Meridol – with a CHF 4.8 mio (about EUR 3.9 mio) fine for restricting passive (...)

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission proposes to grant authorisation to enable a chain of up-market department stores to continue to invite certain businesses to participate in various promotions (Myer)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
ACCC proposes to grant authorisation to Myer* The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission has issued a draft determination proposing to grant authorisation to Myer to enable it to continue to invite certain businesses operating within Myer Stores to participate in various promotions. (...)

The U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California denies the motions to dismiss the plaintiff’s amended complaint against the "anti-troll" group organizing a boycott of android related patents (Cascades Computer Innovation / RPX)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (San Francisco)
“Anti-Patent Troll” Fails to Secure Dismissal of Amended Antitrust Complaint* Back in January, I covered the case of Cascades Computer Innovation LLC v. RPX Corp., 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10526 (N.D. Cal. Jan. 24, 2013), where Judge Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers dismissed – with leave to amend – Cascades’ (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California certifies a class of student athletes seeking injunctive relief, though declines to certify a damages class arising from the allegedly preclusive effect of rules that would impede group licensing arrangements with videogame developers and broadcasters (NCAA Student Athletes)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (San Francisco)
Injunctive Relief, but not Damages Class, Certified in NCAA Student-Athlete Litigation* In In re NCAA Student-Athlete Name & Likeness Licensing Litigation, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 160739 (N.D. Cal. Nov. 8, 2013) (Wilken, J.)., the Court certified a class of current and former (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California rejects the defendants’ motion to dismiss challenging antitrust claims arising out of an exclusive license deal (Patrick Dang / San Francisco Forty Niners)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (San Francisco)
Single-Brand Market Claims Are Not Dead* Modern antitrust law’s focus on inter-brand competition has made it much more difficult to plead and prove single-brand market claims. The law’s concern with inter-brand competition is so strong that some observers have all but written off such claims as (...)

The US Supreme Court issues first ruling on antitrust legality of reverse-payment drug patent settlements (Actavis)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On June 17, 2013, in FTC v. Actavis, the U.S. Supreme Court for the first time examined the antitrust legality of agreements by which brand-name drug companies pay generics to delay entering the market. Justice Stephen Breyer wrote the majority opinion for five Justices, concluding that these (...)

The Canadian Competition Bureau recognizes the importance of competition audits for increasing the effectiveness of compliance
Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg (Toronto)
,
Temple Law School
,
Mars
Conducting a competition law compliance audit: a checklist for corporate counsel* Canada’s Competition Bureau, like other competition enforcement agencies, identifies “compliance audits” as one of the essential elements of a credible and effective competition compliance program. The following is (...)

The Italian Competition Authority opens investigation against pharmaceutical companies over suspected cartel activity in the ophthalmologic medicines market (Roche / Novartis)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 14 February 2013, the Italian Competition Authority (the “Authority”) announced that it had opened an investigation against Genentech Inc., Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Novartis AG, Novartis Farma S.p.A. and Roche S.p.A., over suspicions that these may have been operating an illegal cartel in (...)

The Italian Competition Authority launches an investigation against pharmaceutical companies suspected of restricting drug sales (Roche / Novartis)
Studio Legale Scoccini (Rome)
On February 6, 2013, the Italian Competition Authority ("ICA") launched a cartel investigation against Hoffmann-La Roche ("Roche"), Novartis, their respective Italian subsidiaries, and Genentec, a US company controlled by Roche and in which Novartis holds a 33% shareholding. The companies (...)

The Italian Competition Authority opens proceedings against pharmaceutical companies in relation to an alleged anticompetitive agreement for restricting drug sales (Roche / Novartis)
Ashurst (Milan)
Roche and Novartis investigated for an alleged cartel in Italy* On 6 February 2013 the Italian Competition Authority opened proceedings against the Roche Group and the Novartis Group in relation to an alleged anticompetitive agreement for excluding the ophthalmic use of Roche’s Avastin in order (...)

The U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California dismisses with leave to amend antitrust claims against high-tech producers employing the android operating system (Cascades Computer Innovation / RPX)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (San Francisco)
Can An “Anti-Patent Troll” Be a Monopsonist or a Section 1 Conspirator?* A recent interesting case suggests that “anti-patent trolls” may in theory face antitrust liability. In Cascades Computer Innovation LLC v. RPX Corp., 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10526 (N.D. Cal. Jan. 24, 2013), Judge Yvonne (...)

The US FTC releases a summary of its new report on pharma patent litigation finding an increase in "reverse payment" settlements based on expanded definition of "payments"
Jones Day (Washington DC)
,
Jones Day (Washington DC)
,
Jones Day (Chicago)
With the Supreme Court set to address the validity of "reverse payment" settlements of pharmaceutical patent litigation, the FTC released a summary of its new report, announcing that in 2012 drug companies entered "a record number" of such settlements. However, the underlying data and analysis (...)

The US FTC imposes limits on enforcing FRAND licensing of standards-essential patents through the threat of seeking of injunctions (Google / Motorola)
International Center for Law & Economics (Portland)
,
International Center for Law & Economics (Portland)
Introduction In January of 2013, the Federal Trade Commission and Google (acting through its subsidiary, Motorola Mobility) signed a Consent Order ending the agency’s investigation into a number of practices. Much of the Order is aimed at imposing antitrust-based limits on the allowable process (...)

The EU Commission renders legally binding commitments regarding competition concerns on markets for aluminium smelting equipment (Rio Tinto Alcan)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission renders legally binding commitments on Rio Tinto Alcan* On 20 December 2012, the Commission issued a press release stating that it has made legally binding the commitments offered by Rio Tinto Alcan (“Alcan”) to address the Commission’s concerns that Alcan might have infringed (...)

The US Supreme Court reviews the Eleventh Circuit’s decision regarding reverse payment patent settlements (AndroGel)
Gibson Dunn (New York)
Important U.S. Developments Relating to “Reverse Payment” Patent Settlements* There have been two key recent developments in the U.S. relating to the legal dispute over patent settlements including so-called “reverse payments.” First, the U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to review an Eleventh Circuit (...)

A US District Court holds that “No-authorised generic” agreements are not considered as “Reverse Payments” (Lamictal litigation)
Gibson Dunn (New York)
Important U.S. Developments Relating to “Reverse Payment” Patent Settlements* There have been two key recent developments in the U.S. relating to the legal dispute over patent settlements including so-called “reverse payments.” First, the U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to review an Eleventh Circuit (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit adopts the rule of reason analysis in evaluating the legality of reverse payment settlements by rejecting the "scope of patent" test and creating a Circuit split on this issue (Louisiana Wholesale Drug Company / Schering / Upsher-Smith)
Gill Jennings & Every (London)
On 16 July 2012, the US Third Circuit Court of Appeals rejected the scope of the patent test used by the New Jersey District Court in concluding that the patent settlement agreements (“Agreements”), providing for payments from Schering-Plough Corporation (“Schering”) (subsequently acquired by Merck (...)

Licensing agreements and competition law: An overview of EU and national case law
Shell (London)
,
Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner (Brussels)
1. Introduction The subject of licensing and competition law at EU level has benefitted from great debate and evolution over the last few decades. The first iteration of the Technology Transfer Block Exemption Regulation ("TTBER"), published in 1996 and viewed by some as rather sceptical and (...)

The EU Commission opens proceedings against two manufacturers of refrigerants used in car air conditioning (Honeywell / du Pont)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission investigates DuPont and Honeywell practices in relation to new refrigerant* On 16 December 2011 the European Commission opened proceedings to investigate alleged anti-competitive practices relating to the development of a new generation refrigerant for air conditioning (...)

The EU Court of Justice issues its preliminary ruling holding that restricting the sale of European foreign satellite decoder cards is “contrary to the freedom to provide services” (Football Association Premier League)
Max Findlay (London)
Little, large and not proven* The big story for British sports fans has been the recent ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) in the FA Premier League / Karen Murphy case. Effectively, the ECJ has said that British viewers can buy live English Premier League football (...)

The EU Court of Justice renders its judgment on licensing of satellite broadcasting holding that national law blocking the importation of foreign decoders is contrary to the freedom to provide services (Football Association Premier League)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
The Court of Justice Speaks On Licensing Of Satellite Broadcasting* On October 4, the European Court of Justice rendered its judgment in Premier League v QC Leisure. The Court concludes that blocking the importation of Greek pay-TV decoders into the UK restricts the freedom to provide services (...)

The EU Court of Justice validates exclusive rights for broadcasting of sports events provided they do not grant absolute territorial exclusivity (Football Association Premier League)
Vogel & Vogel (Paris)
The Football Association Premier League (FAPL), holder of the television broadcasting rights for the Premier League, the leading professional football league competition for football clubs in England, grants exclusive licences in respect of those broadcasting rights to one TV channel per (...)

The EU Court of Justice rejects the argument that the prohibition on the import, sale and use of foreign decoding devices was necessary to ensure compliance with the UK blackout rule (Football Association Premier League)
University of Leiden - Europa Institute
Premier League fans in Europe worse off after Murphy judgment* When the European Court of Justice (CJ) delivered its judgment in joined cases FA Premier League v QC Leisure and others (C-403/08) and Karen Murphy v Media Protection Services (C-429/08) (Murphy), it was deemed a radical (...)

The EU Court of Justice Advocate General Kokott considers that territorial exclusivity agreements relating to transmission of live football matches are contrary to EU law (Football Association Premier League)
Wiggin (London)
I. Background The Football Association Premier League (“FAPL”) is the governing body of English Premier League football. Every year FAPL organises a competition in which 20 member clubs play against each other. FAPL is authorised by its members to license broadcasters to provide audiovisual (...)

The Advocate General Kokott renders her opinion holding that the principle of exhaustion applies to the transmission of live football matches in the same way as to physical products (Football Association Premier League)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
UK Pubs And Greek Decoders – The Implications Of The Premier League Case For The Dissemination Of Digital Content* The European Court of Justice is expected to render its judgment in Premier League v QC Leisure in the next few months. At the heart of the case, lies the question whether (...)

The German Higher Regional Court Düsseldorf specifies the requirements for granting a compulsory license under antitrust law (Zwangslizenzeinwand)
Dentons (Berlin)
In its decision of 20 January 2011, the Higher Regional Court Düsseldorf (“OLG Düsseldorf“) specified the requirements for granting a compulsory license under antitrust law, resulting from Article 102 TFEU. The court thereby clarified the requirement of indispensability and the definition of a new (...)

The EU Commission publishes new guidelines on the applicability of article 101 TFEU to horizontal co-operation agreements
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
,
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
This article has been nominated for the 2012 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On January 14, 2011, the European Commission (the “Commission”) published new Guidelines on the Applicability of Article 101 TFEU to Horizontal Co-operation (...)

The US District Court for the Southern District of New York dismisses an antitrust suit brought against transactions on the market for licenses of mobile wireless-related patents (Siti / AST)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
Antitrust suit against defensive patent purchasing organization dismissed* On 29 December 2010, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York dismissed an antitrust suit brought by Siti-Sites.com, Inc. (“Siti”) against Allied Security Trust (“AST”) and allegedly associated entities (...)

The Croatian Competition Authority grants an individual exemption in relation to non-compete obligation contained in a settlement agreement (Intereuropa sajam međunarodno otpremništvo / UPS Worldwide Forwarding)
University of Macau - Faculty of Law
On 16 December 2010 the Croatian Competition Authority (AZTN) granted an individual exemption in relation to a non-compete obligation contained in a settlement agreement between international courier services providers Intereuropa sajam međunarodno otpremništvo d.o.o.(Intereuropa) and UPS (...)

The EU Commission declares that it won’t open formal proceedings against changed policies on restrictions imposed on the development of applications for smart phones operating system and cross-border warranties (Apple iPhone)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission closes preliminary investigations into Apple’s iPhone policies* On 25 September 2010, the European Commission declared that it would not open formal proceedings against Apple, following Apple’s iPhone change of policies on restrictions on the development of applications (or (...)

The Finnish Competition Authority issues a study on EU Competition rules concerning technology agreements
European Commission (Brussels)
Finland: Study on EU Competition Rules concerning Technology Agreements* On 12 August 2010, the Ministry of Employment and the Economy published a report on competition rules applicable to technology agreements prepared by the Finnish Competition Authority. This report examines how EU (...)

The US Supreme Court reverses the lower court’s decisions addressing the issue of single entity notion under antitrust law (American Needle / National Football League)
University of Pennsylvania
American Needle, Inc. v. National Football League* In American Needle, Inc. v. National Football League, 130 S.Ct. 2201 (2010), the Supreme Court held that the NFL acting through its incorporated subsidiary NFL Properties, Inc. (NFLP) was not a single entity but rather a combination of its 32 (...)

The Danish Maritime and Commercial Court finds royalty provision contrary to the Danish Competition Act (Pandora Production / Lise Aagaard Copenhagen)
DLA Piper (Copenhagen)
On 29 April 2010 the Danish Maritime and Commercial Court found that a provision in a license agreement according to which the licensee is required to pay royalty on sales even when the licensor’s IPR is not used was contrary to Article 101 TFEU and the equivalent provision under Danish law and (...)

The French Supreme Court agrees with EU Court of Justice that a trademark owner can oppose the resale of its luxury goods by discount stores (Caud / Chanel)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In its recently published judgment in Caud/Chanel, the French Supreme Court (Cour de Cassation) followed the approach of the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) in Copad/Christian Dior Coutureconcerning the exhaustion of trademark rights in respect of luxury goods. In that judgment, the ECJ held (...)

The US DoJ issues business review letter regarding a proposed Internet media subscription news aggregation service (Global News Service)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. Department of Justice does not challenge online subscription news service* On 24 February 2010 the Department of Justice issued a business review letter regarding a proposed Internet media subscription news aggregation service (Global News Service) that would be operated by MyWire, Inc. (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules that a trademark owner can oppose the resale of his luxury goods by discount stores (Copad / Christian Dior couture)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 23 April 2009, in its judgment in Case C-59/08 Copad SA v Christian Dior couture SA, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) shed further light on the often contentious topic of exhaustion of trade mark rights in respect of luxury goods. Christian Dior Couture SA (“Dior”) had concluded a licence (...)

The Mannheim Regional Court holds that reciprocal representation agreements concluded between national collecting societies are not void (GEMA / BUMA / STEMRA)
Gleiss Lutz (Munich)
,
Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (Munich)
On 7 November 2008, the Regional Court of Mannheim issued a decision on the validity of territorial limitations contained in reciprocal representation agreements concluded between national collecting societies. The case concerned the question whether a national collecting society was entitled (...)

The Haarlem District Court rules on a dispute between the Dutch collecting society and the UK collecting society regarding the licensing of portfolio (BUMA / PRS)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In a judgment dated 19 August 2008 (published only recently), the District Court of Haarlem in the Netherlands ruled on a dispute between the Dutch collecting society BUMA (“BUMA”) and the UK collecting society Performing Right Society Limited (“PRS”), regarding the licensing by BUMA of PRS‘ (...)

The EU Commission prohibits collecting societies from restricting competition into the conditions for the management and licensing of authors’ public performance rights for musical works (CISAC)
DG COMP (Brussels)
,
DG COMP (Brussels)
"The CISAC decision - creating competition between collecting societies for music rights"* I. Introduction On 16 July 2008 the European Commission adopted a decision prohibiting 24 European collecting societies from restricting competition as regards the conditions for the management and (...)

The German Competition Authority tolerates cooperation between Pay-TV operators for sports events broadcasting (Premiere / Arena - Bundesliga)
McDermott Will & Emery (Düsseldorf)
Background Premiere AG (“Premiere”) is the leading German Pay-TV operator. One of the main features of Premiere’s program are live broadcastings of football events. Over the last years, this included in particular broadcastings of the German Bundesliga (football league). However, in September (...)

The Bulgarian Competition Authority holds than an exclusive and indefinite duration brand licence is valid as it does not aim at restricting or distorting competition but also grants leniency (Unilever / Kaliakra)
US Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
In a potentially far-reaching case, the Bulgarian Commission for the Protection of Competition (the Commission or CPC) addressed the balance between licensing rights and competition regulation. In 2000, a well-established Bulgarian producer of vegetal oils and fats, Kaliakra AD (Kaliakra), (...)

The German Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt decides on the relationship between copyright, trademark and title protection law on the one hand and competition law on the other hand (Harry Potter)
Gleiss Lutz (Munich)
,
Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (Munich)
On 11 April 2007, the German Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt issued a decision on the relationship between copyright, trademark and title protection law on the one hand and competition law on the other hand. The question at stake was whether restrictive clauses concerning the distribution of (...)

The Paris Court of First Instance rules on the anticompetitive effect of a patent infringement collective complaint lodged against a search engine’s adwords system (Gifam / Google)
DS Avocats (Paris)
AdWords is Google’s flagship advertising product, and its main source of revenue. It offers pay-per-click advertising, and site-targeted advertising for both text and banner ads. But many of the words sold by Google to its clients are registered trademarks and Google has been recently facing (...)

The Belgian Competition Authority rejects a complaint on alleged discriminatory licensing practices from the national football union (URBSFA)
BECI (Brussels)
,
Liège University
The Parties SA Tilleur-Liège is a company which main activity was the management of a football team (Tilleur-Liège). It went in bankruptcy in 2004. The URBSFA (Union Royale Belge des Sociétés Football Association) is responsible for the organization of football events in Belgium. It holds (...)

The US DoJ requires two digital jukebox undertakings to end an illegal non-compete agreement (NSM / Ecast)
Jones Day (Washington DC)
On September 2, 2005, the DOJ Antitrust Division issued a complaint and proposed settlement involving two digital jukebox companies — NSM Music Group Ltd.(NSM) and Ecast Inc. (Ecast) — that allegedly entered into an unlawful agreement pursuant to which NSM agreed not to enter the U.S. market with (...)

The Belgian Competition Authority concludes that the joint selling of media rights is in line with the decision practice of the EU Commission and is not infringing Art. 81(1) EC (Jupiler League / Belgacom Skynet)
Leuven University
,
Leuven University
On 29 July 2005 the Belgian Competition Council approved the award of TV broadcasting rights by the Liga Beroepsvoetbal (“LBV”) to Belgacom Skynet, since there was no infringement of Art. 81 EC. The Council has found that the broadcasting rights of matches of the Belgian first (and second) (...)

The German Federal Court declares settlement concerning royalties for shipments to countries outside the territorial scope of a patent to be void (“Abgasreinigungsvorrichtung”)
Helmut Schmidt University of the Armed Forces (Hamburg)
I. Facts of the case and case history The claimant/licensee produces devices for cleaning exhaust fumes. The defendant/licensor owns a European patent protecting a specified process for cleaning exhaust fumes, with territorial effect (seeEuropean Patent Convention, Art. 3) in Germany, France, (...)

The Irish Competition Authority calls for further amendments to the Intoxicating Liquor Bill 2005 in order to enhance competition between Licenced Premises
London School of Economics
Irish National Competition Authority, Press Release, 13 June, 2005 The Irish National Competition Authority (henceforth “NCA”) took the opportunity in June, 2005 to comment on the proposed reform of the liquor licensing regime to be introduced by the Intoxicating Liquor Bill 2005 (hereinafter (...)

The EU Commission adopts new safe harbour for licensing of patents, know-how and software copyright
Brussels School of Competition (BSC)
,
DG COMP (Brussels)
,
Latham & Watkins (Brussels)
"Commission adopts new safe harbour for licensing of patents, know-how and software copyright"* The European Commission has adopted on the 7th of April new rules for applying competition policy to the licensing of patents, know-how and software copyright. The new block exemption regulation, (...)

The EU Commission settles allegations of abuse and clears patent pools in the CD market (Sony / Philips)
European Commission - DG MARE
Commission settles allegations of abuse and clears patent pools in the CD market 1. The complaints Several manufacturers of pre-recorded CD discs (that is CD discs that include already content – music or software – provided by content-owners) lodged complaints against Philips and Sony a number (...)

The EU Commission clears agreements to set up and operate a world-wide mechanism to evaluate, certify and license patents for third generation mobile communications systems (3G3P)
European Commission (Brussels)
"Competition law analysis of patent licensing arrangements — the particular case of 3G3P"* On 12 November 2002, the Commission’s Competition Directorate-General cleared agreements to set up and operate a world-wide mechanism to evaluate, certify and license essential patents for third generation (...)

The German Competition Authority examines in formal proceedings whether a contract system for acquiring waste services is compatible with competition law (Der Grüne Punkt Duales System)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt examines whether DSD is compatible with competition law* The Bundeskartellamt will examine in formal proceedings whether the contract system of “Der Grüne Punkt – Duales System Deutschland AG” (DSD, “The Green Dot”) is compatible with the Act Against Restraints of Competition (ARC). (...)

The U.S. FTC publishes a report on generic drug entry prior to patent expiration raising issues on patent-shortening settlement agreements
White & Case (Washington)
The Federal Trade Commission’s recent report, Generic Drug Entry Prior to Patent Expiration (Federal Trade Commission, Generic Drug Entry Prior to Patent Expiration: An FTC Study, July 2002, ("FTC Report")), raises a number of competition issues that merit further discussion and research. This (...)

The UK OFT clears the standard licensing conditions of an association following amendments (Association of Film Distributors)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (London)
I. Introduction On 1 February 2002, the UK Office of Fair Trading (“OFT”) published its decision on the amended standard conditions for licensing the commercial exhibition of films (the “Amended Conditions”) notified by the Film Distributors’ Association Ltd (“FDA”) . Following recommendations from (...)

The EU Commission issues an evaluation report on the transfer of technology block exemption regulation
Brussels School of Competition (BSC)
,
DG COMP (Brussels)
"Review of the block exemption Regulation on technology transfer agreements"* While the Block Exemption Regulation n° 240 on transfer of technology (hereafter ‘TTBE’) is expected to apply until 31 March 2006, Article 12 requires the Commission to carry out regular assessments of the application (...)

The EU Commission terminates infringement procedures against production and sales license agreements between cigarettes manufacturers (Philip Morris / Altadis)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Commission terminates infringement procedure against production and sales license agreements between Philip Morris and Altadis* The European Commission has decided to close an infringement procedure against tobacco companies Philip Morris of the United States and Spain’s Tabacalera (merged with (...)

The European Commission approves a license agreement between two Swedish brewers companies (Pripps/Tuborg)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"Pripps/Tuborg"* On 26.6.1998 the Commission approved a license agreement between Tuborg International A/S (“Tuborg”) and AB Pripps Bryggerier (“Pripps”) for Tuborg beer in Sweden, but only after the license had been made nonexclusive and a second licensee had been appointed. Pripps belongs to (...)

The EU Commission rejects an application for interim measures lodged by luxury car manufacturer concerning possible abuses of trademark rights (Vickers / Rolls-Royce)
Studio Legale Clarizia (Rome)
"Vickers/Rolls-Royce"* On 6 April 1998, the Commission adopted a Decision rejecting an application for interim measures lodged by Vickers PLC. On the occasion, it pointed out that, at the stage of a prima facie appraisal, the assessment under competiton law of a clause granting the trade mark (...)

The EU Commission clears interim intellectual property rights arrangements in the telecommunications industry (ETSI)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"ETSI IPR Policy"* The Commission issued a negative clearance-type comfort letter with respect to ETSI‘s (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) Interim IPR Policy. The intellectual property rights arrangements which ETSI developed and notified to the Commission, provided that members (...)

The EU Court of Justice Advocate General Saugmandsgaard Øe indicates that providing misleading information aimed at undermining the reputation of one drug to the benefit of another drug might constitute a restriction by object (Hoffmann-La Roche)
Liège University
,
Liège University
On 21 September 2017 Advocate General Saugmandsgaard Øe (‘AG’) issued his opinion in F. Hoffmann-La Roche vs Autorità Garante della Concurrenza e del Mercato (AGCM). In his opinion the AG provides guidance to the Court of Justice of the European Union (‘CJEU’) on the various questions raised by the (...)

The Finnish Competition Authority releases a report concerning the lack of uniformity among authorities in licensing and supervision practices
Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority (Helsinki)
FCCA: Lack of uniformity in licensing and supervision practices hurt the ability of companies to operate on the market* The lack of uniformity among authorities in licensing and supervision practices make it more difficult for companies to enter the field and expand their operations, according (...)

Dominance

The US FTC requests rehearing en banc by the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in the case of global semiconductor company’s standard-essential patent licensing practices (Qualcomm)
US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (Washington)
FTC Requests Rehearing En Banc of Qualcomm Appeals Panel Decision* The Federal Trade Commission today filed a petition with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit requesting rehearing en banc of the August 11, 2020, decision of a panel of that court in the matter of FTC v. Qualcomm (...)

The Regional Court of Munich rules in favor of an electronic manufacturer in standard essential patent proceeding (Sharp / Daimler)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
,
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 10 September 2020, the Regional Court of Munich (“Munich Court”) ruled in favour of Sharp that Daimler had infringed a standard essential patent (“SEP”) of Sharp. Sharp is the patent holder of EP 2667676B1 which is standard essential for the Long-Term Evolution (“LTE”) telecommunications (...)

The French Competition Authority imposes a fine worth a total of €444 million on three pharmaceutical companies for collective abuse of dominance practices designed to sustain the sale of an expensive drug (Novartis / Roche / Genentech)
Ashurst (Paris)
The French Competition Authority ("FCA") has issued a rare decision sanctioning three laboratories active in treatment of age-related macular degeneration on the basis of collective abuse of dominance practices designed to sustain the sale of an expensive drug, Lucentis, to the detriment of a (...)

The French Competition Authority fines 3 laboratories for abusive efforts to segment market (Novartis / Roche / Genentech)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Background On 9 September 2020, the French Competition Authority (the “FCA”) imposed a fine of € 444 million on Genentech, Novartis and Roche for abusing their collective dominant position on the market for the commercialisation of drugs for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (...)

The French Competition Authority fines three laboratories for abusive practices (Novartis / Roche / Genentech)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
Treatment for AMD: the Autorité fines 3 laboratories for abusive practices* The Autorité de la concurrence has imposed fines worth a total of €444 million on three pharmaceutical companies, Novartis, Roche and Genentech, for abusive practices designed to sustain the sales of Lucentis for AMD (...)

The UK Supreme Court rules in a licence dispute between a software and a telecommunication company and clarifies the English Courts’ approach to FRAND royalty cases (Unwired Planet / Huawei)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 26 August 2020, the UK Supreme Court issued a judgment in a licence dispute involving Standard Essential Patents (“SEPs”) pitting Unwired Planet, a US based patent assertion entity, against Huawei, a Chinese telecommunications company that produces smartphones. Unwired Planet brought an (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturns a ruling finding that a semiconductor company’s licensing practice abused dominant position (Qualcomm)
Hogan Lovells (Washington)
,
Hogan Lovells (Washington)
,
Hogan Lovells (Washington)
On 11 August 2020, a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (“Ninth Circuit”), in a unanimous opinion by Judge Callahan, reversed the U.S. Federal Trade Commission’s (“FTC’s”) win in the district court against Qualcomm Inc. (“Qualcomm”) and upheld Qualcomm’s licensing practices, (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reverses a ruling finding that a semiconductor company abuses its dominant position regarding its standard-essential patents (Qualcomm)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
,
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Washington)
,
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (New York)
On August 11, 2020, a Ninth Circuit panel reversed the District Court for the Northern District of California’s judgment in FTC v. Qualcomm, Inc. The panel held that Qualcomm’s conduct—(a) refusing to license its standards essential patents (SEPs) to rival chipset manufacturers; (b) refusing to (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rules that there is no antitrust violation in a multinational semiconductor company’s licensing of its standard-essential patents (Qualcomm)
Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo PC (Boston)
,
Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo PC (Washington)
,
Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo PC (New York)
Ninth Circuit Reverses FTC Win in FTC v. Qualcomm, Finding No Antitrust Violations from Qualcomm’s Licensing of its Standard-Essential Patents* In a reversal that came as no surprise to many observers, on Tuesday, August 11, 2020, a unanimous panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit strikes down sweeping injunction against semiconductor company and reins in expansive interpretation of Sherman Act (Qualcomm)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (New York)
,
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
,
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
On August 11, 2020, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit decisively reversed the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC or Commission) controversial district court win challenging Qualcomm’s licensing practices. In rejecting every aspect of the lower court’s decision, the Ninth Circuit panel (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice issues a judgment in a case involving SEP licensing negotiations on FRAND terms between two companies active in the mobile telecommunication market (Sisvel / Haier)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 5 May 2020, the German Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof - the “FCJ”) delivered a judgment in a case pitting Sisvel against Haier which deals with the licensing of Standard Essential Patents (“SEP”) on terms that are fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (“FRAND”). This is the first (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice rules on SEP licensing negotiations on FRAND terms in the mobile telecommunications market (Sisvel / Haier)
McDermott Will & Emery (Düsseldorf)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Düsseldorf)
The German Federal Court of Justice (FCJ) has issued its decision in a landmark case regarding standard essential patents (SEPs) and fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory (FRAND) licensing of SEPs. The judgment, dated 5 May 2020, was handed down in litigation between the Sisvel patent pool and (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice clarifies obligations of parties in SEP licensing negotiations on FRAND terms (Haier / Sisvel)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In its judgment of 5 May 2020, the Federal Court of Justice (“FCJ”) overturned the appeal ruling of the Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf (the “Düsseldorf Court”) and found that Haier’s mobile telephones and tablets infringed Sisvel’s standard-essential patent (“SEP”) and that Sisvel had not abused (...)

The French Competition Authority imposes interim measures on a dominant big tech company requiring it to enter into good faith negotiations with publishers and new agencies (Google)
Hausfeld (Brussels)
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Hausfeld (London)
After the record fine of 1.1 billion euros against Apple, the French Competition Authority continues to show a strong leadership in its fight against “Big Tech” — Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon, the “GAFAs,” — by imposing interim measures on Google, requiring it to enter into good faith (...)

The French Competition Authority imposes interim measures on a big tech giant to negotiate in good faith with press publishers and news agencies the remuneration associated to the use of their content based on transparent, objective and non-discriminatory criteria (Google)
Bird & Bird (Paris)
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Bird & Bird (Paris)
On 9 April 2020, the FCA imposed interim measures on Google, ordering the big tech giant to negotiate in good faith with press publishers and news agencies the remuneration associated to the use of their content based on transparent, objective and non-discriminatory criteria. These interim (...)

The Dutch Competition Authority expresses its satisfaction with commitments made by a pharmaceutical company regarding the supply of testing material for a drug test (Roche)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 3 April 2020, the Dutch competition authority (Autoriteit Consument en Markt or “ACM”) published a press release expressing its satisfaction with commitments made by Roche Diagnostics (“Roche”) regarding the supply of testing materials for the SARS- CoV-2 test. Roche, which the ACM says has a (...)

The Indian Competition Authority closes a case of alleged abuse of dominance by the Indian state broadcaster and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Next Radio / Prasar Bharti / Ministry of Information and Broadcasting)
Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
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Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
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Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
The CCI closed a case of alleged abuse of dominance by Indian state broadcaster Prasar Bharti and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Opposite Parties). [1] Two private broadcasters complained that the Opposite Parties had abused their dominance in the market for the provision of (...)

The Czech Competition Authority fines the collective rights management organisation for abuse of a dominant position (OSA)
Bird & Bird (Prague)
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Bird & Bird (Prague)
In a first-instance decision, the Office for the Protection of Competition ("Office") imposed a fine amounting to CZK 10,676,000 on the collective rights management organisation, Ochranný svaz autorský pro práva k dílům hudebním ("OSA"), for an abuse of a dominant position. The decision has been (...)

The Antwerp Enterprise Court refers request for a preliminary ruling to the EU Court of Justice in excessive pricing case between festival organisers (SABAM / BVBA / Wecandance)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 10 May 2019, the Antwerp Enterprise Court (the “Court”) referred a request for a preliminary ruling to the Court of Justice of the European Union (the “ECJ”) in two separate cases between Belgian festival organisers Weareone. World BVBA (the organisers of Tomorrowland) and Wecandance NV (the (...)

The Egyptian Economic Court fines the President and the Secretary General of a sports association for abuse of dominance regarding an exclusive licensing agreement (Confederation of African Football)
Egyptian Competition Authority (Cairo)
Economic Court has Fined Mr. Isaa Hayatou (President of CAF) and Mr. Hicham El Amrani (Secretary General of CAF) 500 Million EGP Each*
 Background of the case: 
January 3rd 2017, the Egyptian Competition Authority (ECA) requested the Prosecutor’s Office to press criminal charges pursuant to (...)

The US Northern District Court of California requires the holder of a standard-essential patent for cellular communication to license it to all those willing to pay a fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory rate (Qualcomm)
Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Washington)
This article has been nominated for the 2019 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. FTC Secures Partial Victory Requiring SEP Holder to License to All Comers in Antitrust Case* Summary Recently, a federal district court in California granted (...)

The EU Commission imposes a record fine to a Big Tech company for restrictions on smartphone manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google)
Wolters Kluwer (Chicago)
Record Google fine over restrictions on Android devices draws strong reactions* A record €4.34 billion (approximately $5 billion) fine was imposed on Google last week by the European Commission (EC) in response to the company’s imposition of restrictions on Android device manufacturers and (...)

The EU Commission fines a multinational technology company for abuse of dominance by imposing illegal restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission fines Google €4.34 billion for illegal practices regarding Android mobile devices to strengthen dominance of Google’s search engine* The European Commission has fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. Since 2011, Google has imposed illegal restrictions (...)

The EU Commission fines a multinational company prompting it to announce new licensing options and structure its business model to comply with the Commission’s decision (Google Android)
Bruegel (Brussels)
Google has announced new licensing options and structure in its business model to comply with the Commission’s Android decision. These options came into effect on October 29, 2018. While full details over the announced chances are not yet known, in this piece we attempt to analyze the (...)

The EU Commission fines a multinational technology company for abuse of dominant position in the smartphone operating system sector (Google Android)
Baker McKenzie (London)
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Baker McKenzie (Brussels)
This article has been nominated for the 2020 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On 18 July 2018 the European Commission imposed a record fine of €4.34 billion on Google. In such an innovative and competitive industry, a decision and fine on (...)

The EU Commission fines a tech company for illegal tying in the market for third-party mobile device manufacturing (Google Android)
Economists Incorporated (Washington)
European Commission Fines Google for Illegal Tying* The European Commission (“EC”) recently fined Google €4.34 billion, stating that “Google has imposed illegal restrictions on Android device manufacturers and mobile network operators to cement its dominant position in general internet search.” (...)

The US Supreme Court finds that there was no abuse of dominance in a dominant firm’s requirements against competitors because the market is a two-sided platform (American Express)
Economists Incorporated (San Francisco)
The Supreme Court’s American Express Decision – Two-sided Platforms and Harm to Consumers* The Supreme Court determined, in its June 2018 decision, that American Express (“Amex”) did not violate the antitrust laws by requiring merchants to refrain from encouraging patrons at the point of sale to (...)

The Indian Competition Authority opens investigation into abuse of dominance and price discrimination by national media conglomerate in the market for cable TV distribution (Thiruvananthapuram Entertainment Network / Star India)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI opens investigation against Star India Pvt. Ltd. for alleged abuse of dominance / price discrimination* The Competition Commission of India (CCI) vide order dated December 29, 2017 has initiated an investigation against Star India Pvt. Ltd (“Star India/ Opposite Party”) for alleged violation (...)

The US District Court sets out FRAND rates for licensing standard-essential patents for 2G, 3G and 4G wireless communications (TCL / Ericsson)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Latham & Watkins (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (New York)
This article has been nominated for the 2019 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On December 21, 2017, the District Court for the Central District of California issued TCL v. Ericsson, resolving a long-standing dispute between the parties (...)

The Italian Competition Authority imposes FRAND licensing to a local newspaper in a paradigm for the essential facility doctrine applied to copyrights (Società Iniziative Editoriali)
Portolano Cavallo (Milan)
On 20 December 2017, the Italian Competition Authority (or “ICA”) issued a rare infringement decision in an abuse of dominance investigation against the publisher of a local daily newspaper (“SIE”), which refused to deal with a player (the “complainant” or “Euregio”) in the downstream local market for (...)

The Indian Competition Authority reinstates fine against the national governing body for cricket for abuse of dominance and granting of exclusive licenses (Board of Control for Cricket in India)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI re- imposes penalty of INR 52.24 crores on BCCI for abuse of dominance* The Competition Commission of India (“Commission/CCI”) vide its Order dated November 29, 2017 has re-imposed the penalty of INR 52.24 Crores on the Board of Control for Cricket in India (“BCCI”) after fresh inquiry that (...)

The US District Court Southern District of California receives a claim from a smartphone manufacturer against one of its suppliers over allegedly abusive wireless patents (Apple / Qualcomm)
DLA Piper Weiss-Tessbach (Vienna)
Apple and Qualcomm proceeding* In January 2017 Apple filed suit against Qualcomm over its allegedly abusive licensing practices regarding wireless patents. Apple filed patent, antitrust and breach of contract claims against Qualcomm; this could result in damages of billions of dollars. (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority closes proceedings through a commitments decision against a tonic water company in a case related to restrictions of parallel trade (Schweppes)
Callol, Coca & Asociados (Madrid)
The NMCC has closed with commitments an investigation against Schweppes, S.A. related to restrictions of parallel trade. The Coca-Cola group and Orangina Schweppes Holding B.V. (OSHBV) share the ownership of the Schweppes trademark in the EU. Coca-Cola owns the Schweppes trademark in the UK (...)

The Indian Competition Authority opens an investigation for abuse of dominance by a global agricultural company but closes it due to its similarity with other open cases against the same company (Sri Rama Agri Genetics India / Mahyco Monsanto Biotech India)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI initiates investigation against Mahyco Monsanto Group entities for abuse of dominance* CCI by its order dated March 14, 2017 has initiated an investigation against Mahyco Monsanto Group for abuse of dominance in relation to sub-license agreements through which Bt. technology is (...)

The EU General Court upholds the Commission’s decision making legally binding commitments remedying a finding of an abuse of dominance in the market for consolidated real-time data feeds (Morningstar / Thomson Reuters)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 15 September 2016, the General Court upheld the Commission’s decision accepting commitments proposed by Thomson Reuters with a view to remedying a finding of an abuse of a dominant position in the market for consolidated real-time data feeds, in breach of Article 102 TFEU. The Commission had (...)

The EU Commission accepts remedies to alleviate concerns in film licensing contracts in cross-border pay-TV services (Paramount / Sky UK)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission accepts commitments by Paramount on cross-border pay-TV services* The European Commission has made commitments offered by Paramount legally binding under EU antitrust rules. These address the Commission’s concerns regarding certain clauses in film licensing contracts for (...)

The Moscow Arbitration Court confirms the Competition Authority’s decision and prescription concerning the operating systems for smartphones (Yandex / Google)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
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FAS Russia
In March 2016, the Moscow Arbitration Court expressed its support of the position of the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS Russia) on the case of abuse of dominance by the Google group of companies involving its actions on the Android operation system. The decision of FAS Russia was taken as (...)

The Indian Competition Authority opens investigation into abuse of dominance by global hybrid seeds manufacturer through its alleged excessive royalties (Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare / Mahyco Monsanto Biotech)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI to investigate global hybrid seeds giant Monsanto for abuse of dominance in relation to excessive royalties for Bt cotton seeds* CCI by its majority order dated February 10, 2016 has initiated a detailed investigation into the allegedly excessive royalty fee charged by Monsanto, Inc. (USA) (...)

The Indian Competition Authority dismisses allegations of anticompetitive conduct against antivirus software company due to lack of dominance (Systweak Software / Symantec)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI closes case against an American Technology Company* CCI vide its order dated November 17, 2015 closed the case filed by M/s Systweak Software, engaged in the development and distribution of computer software operating with Windows and Mac Operating Systems, against an American based (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upholds that a college athletics association’s restrictions on compensation should be subject to antitrust scrutiny (O’Bannon / NCAA)
Constantine Cannon (New York)
NCCA Gains Ground Against Student-Athletes In Appeal Of O’Bannon Case* Last week, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that the NCAA may restrict colleges from compensating student-athletes beyond the cost of attendance, handing the NCAA a partial victory in its (...)

The Indian Competition Authority investigates mobile telephony SEP holder for practices contrary to FRAND terms (iBall / Ericsson)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI commences another investigation against Ericsson in relation to Standard Essential Patents (SEPs)* CCI by its order dated May 12, 2015 has initiated an investigation against M/s Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) & M/s Ericsson India Private Limited for alleged contravention of (...)

The US District Court for the District of Maryland upholds an antitrust action against a patent troll (Intellectual Ventures / Capital One)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
This article has been nominated for the 2016 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On March 2, 2015, Judge Paul W. Grimm of the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland offered a wide-ranging analysis of antitrust claims against the (...)

The Finnish Competition Authority issues report on collective management organisations and the promotion of healthy competition in the market of the copyrighted works (Teosto / Gramex / Kopiosto / Tuotos)
Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority (Helsinki)
Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority: Numerous problems on the copyright market* The ambiguity of the legislation and the complexity of the market serve to fortify the monopoly of the collective management organisations on the market, says the Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority (...)

The EU Commission receives an antitrust complaint concerning patent licensing practices engaged by an owner of numerous standard-essential patents on telecommunications standards (ZTE / Vringo)
DLA Piper Weiss-Tessbach (Vienna)
ZTE files antitrust complaint with the European Commission against the patent-licensing practices of Vringo* On 18 June 2014 ZTE Corporation (ZTE) announced that it filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission against Vringo Inc.’s (Vringo) patent-licensing practices. ZTE alleged (...)

The Australian Competition Authority authorises for the second time arrangements for the acquisition and licensing of performing rights in music, subject to certain conditions (APRA)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
ACCC requires improved dispute resolution in performing rights arrangements* The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission has reauthorised the Australasian Performing Right Association’s (APRA) arrangements for the acquisition and licensing of performing rights in music, subject to (...)

The EU Commission finds that the order sought and the enforcement of an injunction before a German Court based on a smartphone standard essential patent constituted an abuse of dominance (Motorola Mobility)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission finds that Motorola Mobility misused standard essential patents* On 29 April 2014, the European Commission European held that it has adopted a decision which found that Motorola Mobility’s (“Motorola”) seeking and enforcement of an injunction against Apple before a German (...)

The US DoJ issues statement as regards the closing of an investigation into the use of a portfolio of standards-essential patents on the pursuit of obtaining exclusion orders from the U.S. ITC relating to certain iPhone and iPad models (Samsung)
DLA Piper Weiss-Tessbach (Vienna)
U.S. DOJ closes its investigation of Samsung’s use of its SEPs* On February 7, 2014 the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) issued a statement declaring that it closed its investigation into Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.’s (“Samsung”) use of its Standards-Essential Patent (“SEP”) portfolio to license (...)

The Guangdong High Court settles a high profile case dealing with a refusal to license intellectual property, which must be taken with caution (Huawei / InterDigital)
AnJie Law (Beijing)
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AnJie Law (Beijing)
A Rational Thinking on the Refusal to License Intellectual Property under China’s Antitrust Legal Framework* 1. Introduction This article will address the perplexing issue of refusal to license a patent or copyright to other undertakings conducted by intellectual property proprietors under (...)

The EU Commission consults on commitments to license on FRAND terms regarding the use of standard-essential patents (Samsung)
Garrigues (Brussels)
Samsung offers commitments to appease DG Comp* The most important (antitrust-related) news last week was the European Commission’s announcement that it will market test a commitment proposal submitted by Samsung regarding the enforcement of its SEPs (Standard Essential Patents) related to (...)

The EU Commission consults on commitments to close UMTS standards-essential patents investigation (Samsung)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission tests Samsung’s proposed commitments to close UMTS standards essential patents investigation* Last 17 October 2013, the European Commission advised (see also here) that it is testing the commitments Samsung offered in connection with investigations into the alleged abuse of (...)

The Australian Competition Authority proposes to allow the national music copyright collection society to continue its arrangement for the acquisition and licensing of performing rights subject to a range of conditions (APRA)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
ACCC proposes changes to performing rights arrangement* The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission proposes to allow the Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA) to continue its arrangements for the acquisition and licensing of performing rights in music subject to a range of (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of Illinois issues second ruling determining RAND rate for standard essential patent (Innovatio)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On October 3, 2013, Judge James F. Holderman of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois offered the second analysis by a U.S. court of an appropriate royalty that a patentee could obtain after promising to license its patent on reasonable and nondiscriminatory (RAND) (...)

The US Court of Western District of Washington makes determinations of the RAND licensing terms for a standard-essential patent (Microsoft / Motorola)
DLA Piper Weiss-Tessbach (Vienna)
U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington makes determinations of RAND licensing terms* On 25 April 2013 Judge Robart issued the non-confidential version of his Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law in the Microsoft Corp. v. Motorola Inc. case. This is the first time that a (...)

The Slovak Supreme Court upholds the Authority’s decision on prohibition of abuse in ‘green dot’ licensing (ENVI‑PAK)
European Commission (Brussels)
Slovakia: The Supreme Court upholds Authority’s Decision in Banking Cartel Case* On 23 May 2013, the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (Supreme Court) confirmed the decision of the Antimonopoly Office of the Slovak Republic (the Office) imposing a fine of € 18 394 on ENVI‑PAK, a. s. (...)

The US District Court for the Western District of Washington issues first analysis of an appropriate royalty that a patentee could obtain after promising to license its patent on reasonable and nondiscriminatory (RAND) terms (Microsoft / Motorola)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On April 25, 2013, Judge James L. Robart of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington offered the first analysis by a U.S. court of an appropriate royalty that a patentee could obtain after promising to license its patent on reasonable and nondiscriminatory (RAND) terms. (...)

The US Court of Western District of Washington awards $14.5 million of damages due to breached commitments to license certain standard-essential patents on FRAND terms (Microsoft / Motorola)
McDermott Will & Emery (Washington)
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Crowell & Moring (Washington)
In the long-running patent dispute between Microsoft and Motorola, a U.S. District Court jury in Seattle found that Motorola breached its commitment to license certain standard-essential patents on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND or RAND) terms. The jury awarded Microsoft (...)

The US Court of the Western District of Washington finds that the patented technology didn’t play a significant role in the overall functionality of the plaintiff’s products (Microsoft / Motorola)
Weil, Gotshal & Manges (Washington)
District Court Enters the FRAND Fray* A number of federal court decisions and recent enforcement actions by the US antitrust agencies have highlighted the importance of abiding by commitments to license patents that have been declared essential (SEPs) on “fair, reasonable, and (...)

The Italian Competition Authority finds that the acquisition of exclusive pay-tv rights is not precluded by antitrust law (Sky Italia)
Ashurst (Milan)
Italian Competition Authority finds that Sky Italia did not abuse of its dominant position* On 23 April 2013 the Italian Competition Authority (“AGCM”) decided (the decision is only available in Italian) to close the proceedings against Sky Italia S.r.l. (“Sky Italia”) of The News Corporation Ltd. (...)

The German Regional Court of Düsseldorf refers to a preliminary ruling to the CJEU on standard-essential patents (Huawei / ZTE)
Ashurst (Milan)
German Court makes reference for a preliminary ruling to the CJEU on standard-essential patents* On 21 March 2013, the Landgericht Düsseldorf (“Düsseldorf Regional Court”) made a reference (the order is only available in German) for a preliminary ruling to the Court of Justice of the European (...)

The Cypriot Competition Authority rejects complaint filed by licensee of large shopping mall alleging abuse of economic dependence and discriminatory practices (Tiffany Investments)
Chrysses Demetriades (Limassol)
1. Background In its decision dated 19/3/2013 the Cypriot Commission for the Protection of Competition (the “CPC”) decided to reject a complaint which was filed by a shopping mall licensee (the “complainant”) against the two companies which respectively own and manage a large shopping mall located (...)

The EU Commission sends a statement of objections regarding its alleged abuse of mobile phone standard-essential patents (Samsung)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission sends Samsung Statements of Objections regarding its alleged abuse of mobile phone standard-essential patents* On 21 December 2012, the European Commission sent a Statement of Objections to Samsung, based on concerns that Samsung’s conduct in seeking injunctions against (...)

The EU Commission renders legally binding commitments concerning the use of RICs for data sourced competitors (Thomson Reuters)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission accepts commitments from Thomson Reuters* On 20 December 2012, the Commission issued a press release stating that it has made legally binding the commitments offered by Thomson Reuters to address the Commission’s concerns that Thomson Reuters might have abused its dominant (...)

The EU Commission adopts decision rendering international news media agency’s commitments legally binding (Thomson Reuters)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 20 December 2012, the Commission announced that it had adopted a decision that renders legally binding the commitments offered by Thomson Reuters to create a new licence ("ERL") allowing customers, for a monthly fee, to use Reuters Instrument Codes (“RICs”) for data sourced from Thomson (...)

The EU Commission considers that the commitments proposed by the dominant undertaking in the worldwide market for consolidated real-time datafeeds were sufficient to address the abusive restrictions concerning the use of financial instrument codes (Reuters Instrument Codes)
Norton Rose Fulbright (Brussels)
The Thomson Reuters Commitment Decision* On November 12, 2013, the European Commission published a summary of its December 20, 2012 decision (the “Decision”) accepting commitments offered by members of the Thomson Reuters group (“Thomson Reuters”). The Decision ended a three-year-long (...)

The EU Commission announces new market testing of proposal by international news media agency regarding its licensing practices (Thomson Reuters)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 12 July 2012, the Commission announced that it was consulting interested third parties on a new proposal from Thomson Reuters to address concerns that its licensing practices in relation to Reuters Instrument Codes (RICs) may be in breach of Article 102 TFEU. The proposal is intended (...)

The EU Court of Justice holds that the doctrine of exhaustion applies to downloaded software (UsedSoft/Oracle)
Sideman & Bancroft (San Francisco)
European Court of Justice holds that the doctrine of exhaustion applies to downloaded software (UsedSoft v. Oracle)* On 3 July 2012, the European Court of Justice issued a groundbreaking judgment regarding the resale of used software licenses in the European Union. Oracle develops and markets (...)

The Indian Patents Office grants its first compulsory licence in the pharmaceutical industry (Natco / Bayer)
Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
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Talwar, Thakore & Associates (New Delhi)
This article has been nominated for the 2013 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. The Curious Case of Compulsory Licensing in India* In a move that has alarmed the pharmaceutical industry, in March 2012 the Indian Patents Office granted its (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority fines a professional association for fixing abusive fees (EGEDA)
European Commission (Brussels)
Spain: The Comisión de la Competencia (CNC) fines EGEDA for fixing abusive Fees* On 2 March 2012, the CNC Council concluded that the decision of Entidad de Gestión de Derechos de los Productores Audiovisuales (EGEDA) to charge general monthly fees for the public broadcasting of audio-visual (...)

The Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe preliminarily suspends the enforcement of a judgment since a non-acceptance of an offered license agreement would infringe Art. 102 TFEU (Lizenzvertragsangebot)
Gleiss Lutz (Frankfurt)
In its decision of 27 February 2012, the Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe preliminarily suspended the enforcement of a previous judgement of the Regional Court of Mannheim. The court decided that the holder of the affected standard-essential patent cannot refuse a license agreement offered by (...)

An Italian Civil Court rejects to dispose of the delay of a new product launch for patent infringement claim and assumes a leading competitor’s abuse of dominant position as the refusal to license (Samsung Italy / Apple Italy)
Luiss Guido Carli University (Rome)
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Luiss Guido Carli University (Rome)
The facts The rivalry between Samsung and Apple gave birth to a terrific number of disputes around the globe. One of the last chapters of this never ending saga took place in Milan when Samsung asked to the court a precautionary measure to stop the sale of the Apple smart-phone that supposedly (...)

The EU Commission market tests international multimedia news agency’s commitments on its licensing practices (Thomson Reuters)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 14 December 2011, the Commission announced that it was inviting comments on commitments offered by Thomson Reuters to address concerns that its licensing practices in relation to the Reuters Instrument Codes (“RICs”) may infringe Article 102 TFEU. RICs are codes that identify securities (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority fines a company and its subsidiary for abuse of dominant position in the market of resale of audiovisual retransmission of Spanish football clubs (Mediapro / Gol Tv)
Callol, Coca & Asociados (Madrid)
Mediapro holds the broadcasting rights for the Spanish first division league (Liga) and King’s Cup (Copa de S.M. el Rey) for 2009/2010 and subsequent seasons. Therefore Mediapro has a dominant position in the market for the resale of broadcasting rights. Furthermore, Mediapro is (...)

The EU Commission declares that it would not open formal proceedings following the change of policies on restrictions on the development of apps for smartphone operating system and cross-border warranties (Apple’s iPhone)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission closes preliminary investigations into Apple’s iPhone policies* On 25 September 2010, the European Commission declared that it would not open formal proceedings against Apple, following Apple’s iPhone change of policies on restrictions on the development of applications (or (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit limits patent misuse doctrine and distinguishes it from antitrust violation (Princo)
Jones Day (Washington DC)
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Kirkland & Ellis (Chicago)
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Jones Day (Cleveland)
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit issued an en banc decision with significant implications for the doctrine of patent misuse. The decision issued last week overturns part of a Federal Circuit panel decision last year holding that Philips may have committed patent misuse by (...)

The Polish Competition Authority issues first commitment decision on the basis of EU Law (ZAiKS)
European Commission (Brussels)
Poland: UOKiK issues first Commitment Decision on the Basis of EU Law On 24 August 2010, the President of the Polish Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (UOKiK) issued the UOKiK‘s first commitment decision on the basis of both national and EU law in a case concerning an abuse of (...)

The Slovak Competition Authority gives an unprecedented definition of relevant product market for trademark licensing (Envi-Pak)
University of Oxford
Background On 28 August 2009, the Slovak Antimonopoly Office (“AMO“) adopted a decision against, and delivered to ENVI-PAK, a.s. (“ENVI-PAK”), a company engaged in the waste package materials processing business. ENVI-PAK is the registered holder of the “Der Grüne Punkt” trade mark in Slovakia, (...)

The US FTC settles charges of anticompetitive conduct against a manufacturer of computer chips (Intel)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
FTC settles complaint against Intel* On 4 August 2010 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) approved a settlement with Intel Corp. on charges that the company violated Section 5 of the FTC Act by engaging in unfair methods of competition and deceptive acts and practices in commerce, (...)

The US Federal Court of Justice denies an infringement of Art. 102 TFEU holding that offering the entry to a monopolized market only under the conditions set by the Federal Network Agency does not constitute abuse (GSM-Wandler)
Gleiss Lutz (Frankfurt)
In its judgement of 29 June 2010, the Federal Court of Justice (FCJ) reversed a judgement of the Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf. The FCJ stated that an undertaking holding a market dominant position does generally not act abusively by offering the entry to a monopolized market under the (...)

The EU Commission welcomes a company’s public declaration on FRAND terms to patents essential for various standards set by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (IPCom)
Ashurst (Milan)
IPCom publicly accepts to take over Bosch’s FRAND terms commitments* On 10 December 2009, the European Commission issued a press release regarding the public declaration by IPCom, a German IP licensing company, in relation to the disputes on a portfolio of patents key to mobile standards (...)

The EU Commission confirms sending statements of objection to a financial company alleging unfair pricing (Standard & Poor’s)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
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Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 19 November 2009, the Commission announced that on 16 November 2009 it had sent a Statement of Objections to Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) for an alleged violation of Article 82 EC. According to the Commission’s press release, S&P is the sole-appointed National Numbering Agency (“NNA”) (...)

The US District Court for the Southern District of New York dismisses antitrust claims raised by a distributor of compatible mainframe computers produced by the plaintiff (IBM / T3 Technologies)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. District Court dismisses T3’s antitrust claims against IBM* On 30 September 2009 the U.S. District Court of S.D.N.Y. granted in International Business Machines Corp. v. Platform Solutions, Inc. and T3 Technologies, Inc. (No. 06 Civ. 13565(LAK)) IBM’s motion for summary judgment on antitrust (...)

The Japanese FTC challenges "essential" patent licenses (Qualcomm)
Jones Day (Tokyo)
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Jones Day (Tokyo)
,
Jones Day (Tokyo)
The Japan Fair Trade Commission ("JFTC") has announced a cease and desist order requiring that Qualcomm Inc. rescind license provisions that required licensees to cross-license their patents to Qualcomm and refrain from asserting their own patents against Qualcomm or Qualcomm licensees. The (...)

The Japanese FTC issues a cease and desist order against a company for having coerced Japanese manufacturers to conclude a restrictive license agreement on essential patents (Qualcomm)
Japan Fair Trade Commission (Tokyo)
Cease and Desist Order against QUALCOMM Inc orporated* The Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC) has investigated QUALCOMM Incorporated (QUALCOMM) in accordance with the provisions of the Antimonopoly Act (AMA) and found it to be in violation of Article 19 of the AMA (falling within Paragraph 13 (...)

The EU Court of Justice dismisses an appeal against the Court of First Instance judgment in a case of abuse of a dominant position in the market for collecting and processing packaging waste (’Green Dot’ case)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
,
Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 16 July 2009, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) issued its judgment in the appeal of Duales System Deutschland (DSD) against a 2007 judgment of the Court of First Instance (CFI), which had upheld a Commission decision finding that the German recycling company’s licensing scheme for its (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice clarifies that defendants can invoke the abuse of dominance against an injunction claim of a patentee if the latter has refused a license in an abusive manner (Orange-book standard)
University of East Anglia (Norwich)
Summary In its decision of 6 May 2009 the German Federal Court of Justice held that a defendant can invoke the abuse of dominance against an injunction claim of the patentee if the latter refused a licence in an abusive manner. The patentee acts in an abusive manner if he refuses an (...)

The EU Commission opens formal proceedings against a financial company regarding its use of Securities Identification Numbers (Standard & Poor’s)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
,
Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 12 January 2009, the Commission announced that it has opened formal proceedings into Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) licensing conditions regarding International Securities Identification Numbers (“ISINs”). ISINs are unique identifiers for securities issued throughout the world, and S&P is (...)

The Korean FTC plans to strengthen enforcement against abuse of intellectual property rights by IT and pharmaceutical companies
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Winston & Strawn (New York)
,
Jones Day (Tokyo)
On December 18, 2008, the primary competition law agency of Korea, the Korea Fair Trade Commission (« KFTC »), submitted to the President of Korea the KFTC’s business plan for 2009. Among other priorities, the KFTC stated that it plans to « strengthen enforcement against abuse of intellectual (...)

The Japanese FTC issues a cease and desist order against NAP clause preventing licensees from asserting certain intellectual property rights against its holder and customers (Microsoft)
Morrison & Foerster (Tokyo)
On September 16, 2008, Japan Fair Trade Commission (the “JFTC”) issued a ruling against Microsoft Corporation (“MS”) regarding its use of a so-called “NAP” clause in its software licenses. The MS NAP clause prevented licensees from asserting certain intellectual property rights against MS and its (...)

The Japanese FTC orders the remove of Non-Assertion Provision (NAP) from Windows (Microsoft)
Japan Fair Trade Commission (Tokyo)
Hearing Decision against Microsoft Corporation* The Japan Fair Trade Commission (“JFTC”) decided on September 1,2004 to commence hearing procedures against Microsoft Corporation,(hereinafter referred to as “the Respondent”) and subsequently instructed the hearing examiners to go through the (...)

The Hungarian Competition Authority refuses to condemn for dominant position the postal incumbent’s conduct due to the lack of palpable market effects (Magyar Posta)
Szeged University
The Hungarian Competition Office refused to condemn the defendant’s conduct in a dominant position case due to the lack of palpable market effects. The behaviour would have admittedly amounted to an abuse in case of perceptible market consequences. However, in the absence of such impairment to (...)

The Polish Competition Authority conducts antitrust proceedings against the Polish authors’ association in order to stop alleged monopolist practices (ZAiKS)
Kochanski (Warsaw)
Background For several years now, the Polish Office of Competition and Consumer Protection is carefully monitoring the practices of the copyright protection organizations and, as a result, there are few cases pending nowadays related to the competition protection within the copyright market. (...)

The EU Commission examines a licensing agreement for chipset technology for mobile phones (Nokia / Qualcomm)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Nokia and Qualcomm have entered into a 15-year licensing agreement for chipset technology for mobile phones, giving Nokia a licence to use Qualcomm‘s patents in its handsets and certain infrastructure equipment. Nokia has also agreed «not to use any of its patents against Qualcomm«, meaning that (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on competition, patents and innovation
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the round table, the delegates’ written submissions and the Secretariat’s background paper, several key points emerge: (1) The pressure of competition can spur innovation, and so can the promise of exclusive intellectual (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority fines a bowling association €8 000 for abuse against independent bowling clubs concerning audiovisual rights (Emisión de Partidos de Bolos)
London School of Economics
The Spanish Bowling Association (hereinafter, the “FEB”) is a non-profit association in charge of the organisation and the regulation of bowling tournaments in Spain. Participation in the different tournaments organised by the FEB requires a licence delivered by this association. Bowling can be (...)

The U.S. Court of Appeals Fourth Circuit confirms the dismissal of antitrust claims related to an alleged loss of competitive technologies being deemed so diffuse that it could not possibly be adequately measured (Kloth / Microsoft)
Sheppard Mullin (San Francisco)
Indirect Purchaser and Remoteness Doctrines Barred Antitrust Claims Against Microsoft by End-User Software Licensees* A question arising from end-user license agreements ("EULAs"), which accompany applications software programs that have been preinstalled on personal computers, is whether they (...)

The Italian Competition Authority obliges a pharmaceutical company to grant a drug production license (Glaxo - Principi attivi)
Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer (Rome)
On 8 February 2006, the Italian Antitrust Authority (IAA) closed a one-year long Article 82 investigation in relation to Glaxo refusal to grant a production license to FIS (Fabbrica Italiana Sintetici), for manufacturing in Italy an active compound essential for the production of triptans (...)

The UK telecommunications regulator closes an investigation under Art. 81 and 82 EC, and equivalent UK provisions, on alleged anticompetitive and abusive price of telephone services to hospital patients in spite of long duration exclusivity clause (Patientline / Premier)
Compass Lexecon (London)
Summary The Office of Communications (“Ofcom”) has decided to close an investigation under Articles 81 and 82, and equivalent UK national competition law, into the price of telephone services to hospital patients. Patientline plc (“Patientline”) and Premier Telecom Contracts Limited (“Premier”), (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit finds that the application of misuse of patent standard related to CD-R/CD-RW licensing dispute was flawed (Philips / ITC)
Sheppard Mullin (Los Angeles)
Patent Misuse And Antitrust Tying Analysis – Close But Imperfect Substitutes* Federal Circuit Holds That Patent Pools Without Anticompetitive Effects Are Lawful In U.S. Philips Corp. v. International Trade Commission. On September 21, 2005, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed (...)

The Belgian Supreme Court adopts an in concreto approach to the definition of the relevant market product for the provision of directory services in the telecommunications sector (Kapitol / Telekom Austria)
Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton (Brussels)
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Hogan Lovells (Brussels)
Following a request by Kapitol, a Belgian provider of phone directories, based on Directive 98/10/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 26 February 1998, on the application of open network provision (ONP) to voice telephony and on universal service for telecommunications in a (...)

The Italian Competition Authority adopts an interim measure ordering that a firm, dominant in the market for the production of a certain antibiotic, must grant a license for the production of a key ingredient of the antibiotic (Merck / Carbapenem)
Shearman & Sterling (Rome)
Merck manufactures, and holds the patent of, a key active ingredient necessary for the production of an antibiotic (carbapenem) used in the treatment of particular types of infection. Merck’s patent rights have expired in most European countries and outside the EU (except the US) but, due to the (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts commitments to address competition concerns in the market for postage stamp valuation catalogues (Yvert & Tellier)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
Conseil de la concurrence accepts commitments offered by Yvert &Tellier and closes the litigation proceedings brought by Dallay. Operators who wish to create correspondence tables between their own numbering systems and that of Yvert & Tellier, can now purchase licences to use the (...)

The Japanese FTC issues its recommendations on Non-Assertion Provision (NAP) provisions in software license agreements (Microsoft)
Japan Fair Trade Commission (Tokyo)
The JFTC renders a Recommendation to Microsoft Corporation* The Japan Fair Trade Commission (hereinafter “JFTC”), upon conducting an investigation into Microsoft Corporation (hereinafter “Microsoft”), found that Microsoft is conducting “Dealing on Restrictive Terms” and issued a recommendation to (...)

The EU Commission closes probe into computers manufacturer’s licensing terms for speech recognition engines (IBM)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"Commission closes probe into IBM’s licensing terms for speech recognition engines"* In June 2002, the European Commission decided to close an investigation triggered by a complaint from UK voice recognition software company, AllVoice Computing plc, against IBM Corp., after the latter agreed to (...)

The EU Commission imposes interim measures on the world leader in data collection on pharmaceutical sales and prescriptions considering that its refusal to grant license constitutes an abuse of dominance (IMS Health)
White & Case (Brussels)
This article analyses the three major recent cases dealing with the boundary between EC competition law and intellectual property rights: the Commission’s interim measures decision in the IMS case, the European Court of Justice’s later judgment in IMS and, finally, the Commission’s decision in the (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remands a case due to the lower court’s provision of several incorrect jury instructions and failure to instruct on the “essential facilities” doctrine in a case affecting the market for major-league professional football (Hecht / Pro Football)
Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld (Dallas)
The U.S. District of Columbia Circuit Court of Appeals remanded a jury verdict in a case between a potential franchisor and the operator of the Washington Redskins football team because the lower court improperly instructed the jury on a number of issues. This Court determined that the lower (...)

Mergers

The Australian Competition Authority is not opposed to a pharmaceutical merger after offered divestments overcome competition concerns (Mylan / Upjohn)
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (Canberra)
Divestments overcome strong competition concerns with pharmaceutical merger* The ACCC will not oppose Mylan NV’s proposed merger with Pfizer’s Upjohn Inc division, after Mylan and Upjohn offered a court-enforceable undertaking to divest three off-patent branded pharmaceuticals in response to the (...)

The Australian Competition Authority accepts a proposed merger between two pharmaceutical companies despite concerns of a significant reduction in competition in the supply of the products (Mylan / Upjohn)
Ashurst (Sydney)
On 10 September 2020, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission ("ACCC") decided to not oppose Mylan NV’s ("Mylan") proposed merger with Pfizer’s Upjohn Inc division ("Upjohn"), despite concerns that competition in the supply of pharmaceutical products to treat cardiovascular conditions (...)

The Russian Competition Authority reaches an agreement with the HSE Technology Transfer Center to further simplify the terms of technology transfer in the breeding sector after negotiating with a pharma company (Bayer)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
Bayer offered more favorable conditions for transfer of germplasm to russian breeders* Russian breeding companies that receive germplasm transferred by Bayer as part of the FAS Russia’s ruling based on the result of the Bayer&Monsanto transaction will be fully exempt from paying royalties (...)

The New Zealand Competition Authority clears merger of two IP professional service businesses (AJ Park / Baldwins)
New Zealand Commerce Commission
Commission clears AJ Park’s acquisition of Baldwins* The Commerce Commission has granted clearance for AJ Park IP Limited, in conjunction with AJ Park Law Limited (together, AJ Park), to acquire the assets of Baldwins Intellectual Property, Baldwin Holdings Limited, Baldwins Intellectual (...)

The EU Commission approves acquisition of a payment solution provider’s account-to-account payment business by global payment card company, subject to conditions (Nets / Mastercard)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission approves acquisition of Nets’ account-to-account payment business by Mastercard, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Nets’ account-to-account payment business by Mastercard. The decision is (...)

The EU Commission conditionally clears an acquisition between a pharmaceutical company and an off-patent medicines producer and distributor (Milan / Upjohn)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 22 April 2020, the Commission conditionally cleared Dutch pharmaceutical company Mylan’s acquisition of Upjohn, a division of Pfizer. Upjohn, which is based in China, produces and distributes off-patent branded and generic medicines. Mylan is also active in the production and distribution of (...)

The EU Commission clears a merger subject to remedies in the market of telecommunications and TV broadcasting (Telia / Bonnier Broadcasting)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission clears Telia’s acquisition of Bonnier Broadcasting, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Bonnier Broadcasting by Telia. The approval is conditional on full compliance with a commitments (...)

The EU Commission clears subject to behavioural commitments a merger in the telecommunications sector (Telia / Bonnier Broadcasting)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 12 November 2019, the European Commission (“Commission”) conditionally cleared Telia Company’s acquisition of Bonnier Broadcasting Company after a Phase II investigation. Telia is a Swedish telecommunications company that provides fixed and mobile telecommunications, broadband and television (...)

The Indian Competition Authority approves acquisition of global agricultural company by global pharmaceutical company subject to permanent divestments and 7-year FRAND licensing of genetically modified and non-GM agricultural products (Bayer / Monsanto)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI approves the acquisition of Monsanto by Bayer AG subject to structural modifications* The CCI by its order dated June 14, 2018 has approved the proposed acquisition of Monsanto Company (Monsanto) by Bayer Aktiengesellschaft (Bayer). The CCI approved the proposed combination, subject to the (...)

The Indian Competition Authority unconditionally clears merger between an international and a national telecommunications company but also warns that parties must comply with DoT Merger Guidelines by the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Bharti Airtel / Telenor)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
India: CCI approves combination of Bharti Airtel and Telenor* The CCI vide its order dated 30 May, 2017 has approved the amalgamation of Telenor India along with its assets, liabilities, interests and obligations with Airtel through a court driven scheme of merger. Airtel, a part of the (...)

The US FTC challenges a merger using a monopolisation theory to allege that the merger would eliminate nascent competition in the therapeutic adrenocorticotropic hormones (Questcor Pharmaceuticals / Mallinckrodt)
McDermott Will & Emery (Washington)
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) challenged a consummated transaction using a monopolization theory to allege that the acquisition would eliminate “nascent” competition for therapeutic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) in the United States. WHAT HAPPENED: Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s (...)

The EU Commission clears the acquisition of two undertakings subject to commitment to license technology to any customer interested at FRAND conditions (Equens / Wordline)
Norton Rose Fulbright (Brussels)
EU: MERGER CASE CLEARED FOLLOWING OFFER OF FRAND TECHNOLOGY LICENSE* On 20 April 2016, the European Commission (Commission) cleared, under its merger control rules, the acquisition of Equens and PaySquare by Worldline subject to, amongst others, a commitment to license technology to any (...)

The UK Competition Authority orders licensing remedy to meet concerns over horizontal unilateral effects resulting from a merger in the personal lubricants market (Reckitt Benckiser / Johnson & Johnson)
Herbert Smith Freehills (Brussels)
Introduction and background On 4 November 2015, the UK Competition and Markets Authority ("CMA") accepted final undertakings from Reckitt Benckiser Group plc ("RB") and Johnson & Johnson ("J&J") in relation to RB’s proposed acquisition from J&J of the K-Y brand of personal lubricant (...)

The EU Commission approves a joint venture for cross-border licensing of online music between three music collecting societies (PRSfM / STIM / GEMA)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Commission approves joint venture for cross-border licensing of online music between PRSfM, STIM and GEMA, subject to commitments* Following an in-depth investigation, the European Commission has approved under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed creation of a joint venture for (...)

The EU Commission conditionally approves online rights licensing and administration joint venture between collective management organisations (PRSfM / STIM / GEMA)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 16 June 2015, the EU Commission conditionally approved the proposed joint venture between music collective management organisations PRS for music Limited (“PRSfm”) of the UK, Föreningen Svenska Tonsättares Internationella musikbyrå u.p.a. (“STIm”) of Sweden, and Gesellschaft für musikalische (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally clears a merger in the smartphone market (Microsoft / Nokia)
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Gibson Dunn (Hong Kong)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
On April 8, MOFCOM approved Microsoft’s acquisition of Nokia’s mobile handset business. MOFCOM’s review focused on three product markets: smartphones, mobile operating systems, and the licensing of standard-essential and non-essential patents for smartphones. Geographically, MOFCOM focused on (...)

The South African Competition Commission awaits notification of a merger in the telecom sector (Vodacome / Neotel)
Primerio (Washington)
Telecom adversaries to remain “principled” in their competing bids for 4G spectrum* The telecoms are at it again, and MTN and Vodacom find themselves close together once more. Last October, we reported on their being jointly targeted by competitor Cell C for predatory “on-net” pricing. Today, (...)

The U.S. FTC issues final changes to the premerger notification rules that require companies in the pharmaceutical industry to report certain proposed acquisitions of exclusive patent rights to the FTC and the DoJ for antitrust review
Bona Law (Detroit)
Is the FTC Picking on the Pharmaceutical Industry Through New HSR Rules?* Effective December 16, 2013, Hart-Scott-Rodino (HSR) coverage of exclusive licenses of patents will change. As HSR practitioners know well, the Federal Trade Commission’s Premerger Notification Office (PNO) has (...)

The US FTC requires divestiture of production and intellectual property assets before clearing an acquisition in the market for desktop hard drives (Western Digital / Hitachi GST)
Sheppard Mullin (New York)
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WilmerHale (Washington)
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US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (Washington)
On May 8, 2012, Western Digital Corporation (“Western Digital”) completed its acquisition of Viviti Technologies (formerly, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Ltd., or, “Hitachi GST”) for approximately $4.8 billion, after the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) approved a consent order requiring (...)

The US DoJ reaches a flexible settlement in crafting structural remedies in a merger between two leading brewers (AB InBev / Grupo Modelo)
Jones Day (Washington DC)
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Jones Day (Washington DC)
The U.S. Department of Justice ("DOJ") has reached a settlement with Anheuser-Busch InBev ("ABI") and Grupo Modelo S.A.B. de C.V. ("Modelo"), requiring ABI to divest Modelo’s entire U.S. business to Constellation Brands Inc. ("Constellation"). The consent decree provides for a straightforward (...)

The South African Competition Tribunal approves conditionally large merger on the market for infant-nutrition products (Nestlé / Pfizer)
Primerio (Washington)
S.A. Clears 3-to-2 Infant Nutrition Merger with Remedies* The South African Competition Tribunal has green-lighted the almost $12bn (R106bn) Nestlé/Pfizer deal, which will combine the largest and 3rd-largest infant-nutrition companies in the South African republic, leaving competitor Aspen in (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally clears an off-shore joint venture involving European computer technology groups (ARM / Giesecke & Devrient / Gemalto)
First Principles Economics (London)
On the 6th December 2012 MOFCOM published its 6th and last merger decision of the year - a clearance, with conditions, of the Trustonic joint venture between ARM, Giesecke & Devrient (G&D), and Gemalto. Process The parties submitted their initial notification on 4th May 2012. MOFCOM (...)

The US FTC orders divestitures plus novel standard essential patent remedy in a merger between two leading suppliers in the air conditioning recycling products market (Bosch / SPX)
Goodwin Procter (Washington)
On November 26, 2012, by a 3-2 vote, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced a settlement in connection with the acquisition of SPX Service Solutions US, LLC (SPX) by Robert Bosch GmbH (Bosch). The settlement is noteworthy not because it contained a predictable requirement to (...)

The US FTC requires FRAND commitments as part of merger settlement in the industry of automotive diagnostics (SPX / Bosch)
Jenner & Block (Washington)
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Dechert (Washington)
FTC Requires FRAND Commitments as Part of Merger Settlement with Broad Implications* On November 26, 2012, the FTC and Robert Bosch GmbH entered into a Consent Agreement that resolved the FTC’s inquiry into Bosch’s $1 billion acquisition of SPX Services. As part of the Consent Agreement the FTC (...)

The US FTC announces an unusual proposed consent agreement to resolve unprecedented allegations on enforcement of standards-essential patents (Bosch / SPX)
Jones Day (Washington DC)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
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Jones Day (Sillicon Valley)
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission this week announced a highly unusual proposed consent agreement reached with Robert Bosch GmbH ("Bosch") that permits Bosch’s acquisition of SPX Service Solutions U.S. LLC ("SPX Service Solutions") from SPX Corporation ("SPX") to proceed. More significantly, it (...)

The EU Commission approves joint-venture offering enhanced security services for applications such as mobile payments running on smartphones and tablets (Giesecke & Devrient / Gemalto)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission approves joint-venture in the market of Trusted Execution Environments* On 7 November 2012, the European Commission has approved, subject to conditions, the creation of the joint-venture (“the JV”) between ARM, Giesecke & Devrient and Gemalto, under the European (...)

The EU Commission develops a novel theory of harm based on the effect of the transaction on the new entity’s bargaining power (Universal Music Group / EMI Music)
CRA International (Brussels)
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The Graduate Institute for International and Development Studies (Geneva)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
This article has been nominated for the 2014 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Mergers and bargaining power: back to the future? Insights from the Universal/EMI merger* The decision to approve the acquisition of EMI’s recorded music rights (...)

The US antitrust agencies propose new Hart-Scott-Rodino merger control rules to require enhanced reporting of pharma, biological and diagnostic licenses
Thompson Hine (New York)
New FTC/DOJ position will require heightened regulatory reporting of pharma, biological and diagnostic licenses* The Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice recently announced revisions to the Hart-Scott-Rodino (HSR) Act’s premerger notification rules to require enhanced reporting of (...)

The French Competition Authority sanctions a company active in the slaughtering and meat processing sector for breaching an important commitment conditioning a merger clearance (Bigard / Socopa)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority. The Autorité de la concurrence sanctions the Bigard Group for breaching an important commitment conditioning the takeover of Socopa* The Autorité de la concurrence, noting that the Bigard Group failed to fulfil (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM approves acquisition subject to what some observers believe were over-cautious conditions linked to a lack of experience and institutional resources (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Sheppard Mullin (Beijing)
China’s MOFCOM Grapples With Open Source Issues In Google-Motorola Deal* This past February the US Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and European Commission ( “Commission” ) cleared Google Inc.’s acquisition of Motorola Mobility Holdings Inc. without any conditions. In contrast, on May 19, 2012 the (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally clears an acquisition in the smartphone and smartphone operating system sectors (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Institute of American Studies (Beijing)
China’s Ministry of Commerce Conditionally Clears the Google/Motorola Mobility Deal* On 19 May 2012, China’s Ministry of Commerce (‘MOFCOM’) announced its conditional clearance decision on the acquisition of Motorola Mobility by Google, which removed the last hurdle for the USD12.5 billion (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM imposes conditions on a transaction in the smartphone sector (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Ingram Yuzek Gainen Carroll & Bertolotti (New York)
The notification for Google‘s acquisition of Motorola Mobility was submitted to China’s Ministry of Commerce on 30 September 2011. It was ultimately accepted on 21 November 2011 by MOFCOM after supplementation. At the expiration of the Phase III, or extended Phase II, period, on 19 May 2012, (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM approves an acquisition subject to conditions in the IT industry (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Gibson Dunn (Hong Kong)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
On 19 May 2012, the PRC Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM") approved the acquisition by Google Inc. of Motorola Mobility, Inc. under the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law ("AML"), but imposed conditions to require that Google continue to license the Android operating system and the patents acquired from (...)

The U.S. DoJ clears acquisition involving standards-essential patents relevant to wireless devices (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. DOJ clears Google’s acquisition of Motorola Mobility and other transactions involving standards-essential patents* On 13 February 2012 the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) announced the closing of investigations concerning the acquisition of Motorola Mobility Holdings Inc. (“Motorola (...)

The EU Commission clears the acquisition of a smartphone and tablet manufacturer’s patent pool by a leading smartphone operating system developer (Google / Motorola Mobility)
Womerang (Monterrey)
This article has been nominated for the 2013 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. “Honor your commitments” - The patent gatekeeping problem after antitrust regulators in the United States and the European Union cleared Google’s acquisition of (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority clears, subject to commitments, merger in the credit card terminal sector (Verifone / Hypercom)
Callol, Coca & Asociados (Madrid)
This is an interesting case and we are reporting it based on the publicly available (press) information. The merger Decision on the case is not public. Verifone Systems, Inc is a global leader in secure electronic payment solutions, and Hypercom Corporation, a high security electronic payment (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM publishes a conditional approval of a transaction in the coal sector under Anti-Monopoly Law (Shenhua)
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Gibson Dunn (Hong Kong)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
The Chinese Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM") has published a conditional approval of proposed transaction under China’s Anti-Monopoly Law ("AML"). This decision reflects China’s view of the broad reach of the AML’s merger provisions and the lengthy procedure that merging parties can expect. (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM conditionally clears a joint venture involving a Chinese State-owned company in order to license coal-water slurry gasification technology (GE / Shenhua)
King & Wood Mallesons (Beijing)
MOFCOM Imposed Conditions on SOEs - GE/Shenhua Deal* Only 10 days after its conditional clearance of the Alpha V/Savio deal, the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) published, on 10 November 2011, the third conditional merger clearance of this year approving the proposed joint venture between (...)

The US DoJ demands conduct remedies from two strong competitors in related markets before approving a vertical merger that will allow the combined company to enter into the online travel search market (Google / ITA)
Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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United Airlines (Chicago)
U.S. antitrust agencies, in a flurry of recent actions, have reinvigorated vertical merger enforcement, claiming competitive harm from what, in the past, would potentially have been viewed as efficiency-enhancing vertical integration. The Department of Justice (“DOJ”), in particular, has (...)

The US DoJ requires conduct remedies before allowing a vertical merger between a generic online search engine and a widely-used flight information services provider to go forward (Google / ITA)
Robins Kaplan (Minneapolis)
According to conventional wisdom, the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission prefer structural merger remedies like divestiture over remedies that require ongoing monitoring of post-merger conduct. Structural remedies offer comparative ease of implementation and require (...)

The US DoJ imposes conduct remedies, including "FRAND" licensing, before approving a vertical merger with anticompetitive concerns in the comparative-flight-search industry (Google / ITA)
Robins Kaplan (Minneapolis)
According to conventional wisdom, the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission prefer structural merger remedies like divestiture over remedies that require ongoing monitoring of post-merger conduct. Structural remedies offer comparative ease of implementation and require (...)

The US DoJ requires conduct remedies before allowing a vertical merger between a popular generic online search engine and a widely-used flight information services provider (Google / ITA)
Economists Incorporated (San Francisco)
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Economists Incorporated (Washington)
On July 1, 2010, Google Inc. (“Google”) and ITA Software, Inc. (“ITA”) announced an agreement for Google to acquire ITA for $700 million. On April 8, 2011, the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) announced that it would allow the proposed acquisition subject to certain conditions. DOJ filed a complaint (...)

The US DoJ seeks conduct remedies prior to approving a joint venture in order to prevent exclusionary conduct in the markets for online video distribution and video programming (Comcast / NBC Universal)
American University’s Washington College of Law (Washington)
The Federal Communication Commission’s recent decision to allow the transaction between Comcast and General Electric’s NBC Universal (NBCU) affiliate to proceed subject to conditions helped to fill a gap in the contemporary treatment of vertical mergers. The existence of this gap was (...)

The US DoJ conditionally approves a joint venture under behavioural remedies in the industries of online video distribution and video programming (Comcast / NBC Universal)
Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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United Airlines (Chicago)
U.S. antitrust agencies, in a flurry of recent actions, have reinvigorated vertical merger enforcement, claiming competitive harm from what, in the past, would potentially have been viewed as efficiency-enhancing vertical integration. The Department of Justice (“DOJ”), in particular, has (...)

The US DoJ conditionally approves a joint venture in the telecommunications sector, subject to remedies resolving antitrust concerns (Comcast / NBC Universal)
Wolters Kluwer (Riverwoods)
Comcast/NBC Universal Joint Venture Receives Regulatory Approval* The Department of Justice Antitrust Division and the Federal Communications Commission today conditionally approved a joint venture between Comcast Corp. and General Electric Co.’s subsidiary NBC Universal Inc. The joint (...)

The European Commission conditionally approves acquisition in the household and body care market (Unilever / Sara Lee)
Linklaters (Hong Kong)
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Sidley Austin (London)
Imposing a broad remedy to address competition issues, the European Commission cleared Unilever‘s acquisition of Sara Lee‘s household and body care business on 17 November 2010. This merger decision is a reminder that the EC has the power to seek a remedy from merging parties that goes further (...)

The US FTC imposes conduct remedies prior to clearing a vertical merger causing anticompetitive concerns in the soft drink industry (PepsiCo / Pepsi Bottling)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Cologne)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Washington)
After a decade of what was perceived by many as relatively restrained merger enforcement, the Obama administration has repeatedly and vocally vowed to “reinvigorate antitrust enforcement” and to “take effective action to stop or restructure mergers that are likely to harm consumer[s]”. Many (...)

The US DoJ and FTC issue new horizontal merger guidelines increasing antitrust attention on mergers limiting innovation
University of Pennsylvania
The 2010 Horizontal Merger Guidelines and Restraints on Innovation* The 2010 Horizontal Merger Guidelines give increased treatment to a topic that was not well developed in previous Guidelines – namely, mergers that threaten to restrain innovation. The 1968 Guidelines had contained a statement (...)

The US DoJ imposes divestiture and conduct remedies before approving a merger in order to maintain competition in the market for primary ticketing services (Ticketmaster / Live Nation)
Robins Kaplan (Minneapolis)
According to conventional wisdom, the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission prefer structural merger remedies like divestiture over remedies that require ongoing monitoring of post-merger conduct. Structural remedies offer comparative ease of implementation and require (...)

The US DoJ seeks to divest part of the business and requires the licensing of software in order to mitigate anticompetitive effects of a merger in the ticketing services industry (Ticketmaster / Live Nation)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Cologne)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Washington)
After a decade of what was perceived by many as relatively restrained merger enforcement, the Obama administration has repeatedly and vocally vowed to “reinvigorate antitrust enforcement” and to “take effective action to stop or restructure mergers that are likely to harm consumer[s]”. Many (...)

The US DoJ conditionally approves a vertical merger upon the implementation of structural and behavioural remedies in the market for primary ticketing services (Ticketmaster / Live Nation)
Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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Crowell & Moring (Washington)
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United Airlines (Chicago)
U.S. antitrust agencies, in a flurry of recent actions, have reinvigorated vertical merger enforcement, claiming competitive harm from what, in the past, would potentially have been viewed as efficiency-enhancing vertical integration. The Department of Justice (“DOJ”), in particular, has (...)

The US DoJ demands divestiture and licensing to create two new competitors and imposes conduct remedies to limit the benefits of vertical integration in a merger in the primary ticketing services market (Ticketmaster / Live Nation)
Kelley Drye & Warren (Washington)
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Kelley Drye & Warren (New York)
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Kelley Drye & Warren (Washington)
The Department of Justice Antitrust Division (“DoJ”), along with 17 state attorneys general, reached an agreement with the parties last week that allows the merger of Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. (“Ticketmaster”) and Live Nation, Inc. (“Live Nation”) to proceed. The parties agreed to a (...)

The EU Commission clears in phase I a merger in the internet search market addressing the concept of concentration and conducting a detailed two-sided market analysis (Microsoft / Yahoo!)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
Microsoft/Yahoo! – the concept of a concentration* The Commission’s recent decision approving Microsoft’s acquisition of Yahoo!’s Search Business (including internet search and search advertising) contains an interesting application of the definition of a concentration under the Merger Regulation. (...)

The EU Commission welcomes the declaration of a telecom operator to take over previous commitment after a merger (Nokia / Bosch / IPCom)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Several developments that took place during December 2009 suggest that the issue of standards-setting is one that is currently of renewed interest to the European Commission, and likely to remain that way under the next Commission. On 10 December 2009, the European Commission welcomed the (...)

The US DoJ requires the sale of copies of three databases before approving a merger in the financial data sector (Thomson / Reuters)
US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (Washington)
Despite the presence of a number of competitive overlaps and a nine– month investigation by the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”), after agreeing to sell copies of three databases in the U.S., Reuters Group PLC (Reuters) and The Thomson Corporation (Thomson) (...)

The Portuguese Competition Authority clears a merger in the food and fuel retail distribution markets with remedies, including limitation and reduction of sale areas and not to apply for new licences (Sonae / Carrefour)
PLMJ (Lisbon)
The operation Sonae Distribuição (Sonae) is a sub-holding of the Sonae Group which operates in food and non-food retail markets. Carrefour Portugal (Carrefour) is a company of the Carrefour Group which operates in food retail markets. Sonae proposed acquiring 99,8648% of Carrefour issued share (...)

The EU Commission conditionally approves a merger in the music publishing business addressing the issue of market power of music publishers in view of evolutions in digital music publishing (Universal / BMG)
European Commission (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Universal / BMG: Market power of music publishers in view of evolutions in digital music publishing"* On 22 May 2007, the European Commission approved, subject to conditions, the acquisition by Universal Music Group Inc. (“Universal”) of BMG Music Publishing (“BMG”). Both companies are active in (...)

The Maltese Office for Fair Competition clears a merger in the market for the provision of digital terrestrial television transmission services subject to the surrender of a license (Maltacom/Multiplus)
Camilleri Preziosi (Malta)
The operation By means of a decision of the 26th January 2007, the Director of the OC cleared a concentration, subject to the surrender by the notifying party, of a DTTV licence. The concentration consisted of an acquisition of sole control over Multiplus Limited (a company providing DTTV (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice clarifies to what extent acquisition of a licence may be subject to merger regulations and prohibits a concentration in the science magazines press market (National Geographic)
Hengeler Mueller (Dusseldorf)
I. Background and history of the case In March 1999, the German publishing company Gruner + Jahr and the Spanish based publishing company RBA Publicaciones (RBA) entered as joint licensees into a licence agreement with the US based National Geographic Society, publisher of the English edition (...)

The UK OFT accepts undertakings in lieu of a reference to the Competition Commission, including an exclusive licence of intellectual property rights to an upfront purchaser thereby clearing the merger in the equipment for industrial cheese production market (Tetra Laval / Carlisle Process Systems-CPS)
Baker McKenzie (Dusseldorf)
The operation By way of decision of 20 November 2006 the OFT decided to accept undertakings offered by Tetra Laval to address the competition concerns arising from the anticipated acquisition by Tetra Laval of part of CPS from Carlisle Companies Inc. Tetra Laval is a group of companies active (...)

The Hungarian Competition Office establishes that a sale and purchase agreement on trademarks does not qualify as a concentration of undertakings (Maspex / Apenta)
Lakatos, Köves (Budapest)
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Lakatos, Köves (Budapest)
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DKKR Partners
Upon the request of Maspex z.o.o. ("Maspex"), the Hungarian Competition Office ("HCO") initiated an investigation in order to assess whether the transfer of trademarks owned by Apenta Ásványvíz és Üdítõ Kft. ("Apenta"), a mineral water and soft drink producer, to Maspex would qualify as concentration (...)

The EU Commission conditionally clears a merger in the financial data industry (Telerate / Reuters)
JG Associates (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers — Main developments between 1 May and 31 August 2005"* The European Commission cleared the acquisition of the financial data provider Moneyline Telerate Holding (‘Telerate’) by its major global competitor, Reuters Limited (‘Reuters’). The Commission’s review of the operation highlighted (...)

The European Commission conditionally clears a merger in the chemical products industry used in variety of end-applications (Bakelite / Appollo)
JG Associates (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers — Main developments between 1 January to 30 April 2005"* In March, the European Commission cleared the proposed acquisition of the German chemical company, Bakelite AG, by the investment group Apollo, subject to conditions. The Commission found that the proposed transaction could give (...)

The EU Commission acknowledges the withdrawal of a proposed joint acquisition in the digital rights management (DRM) industry (Microsoft / Time Warner / Contentguard)
JG Associates (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers — Main developments between 1 January to 30 April 2005"* Microsoft and Time Warner had notified the Commission of their intention to acquire joint control of Contentguard. Contentguard is one of the main Digital Rights Management (DRM) patent-holders. The Commission launched an (...)

The US FTC employs an uncommon remedy to resolve the anticompetitive concerns of a merger-to-monopoly by requiring the merged firm to license a generic form of its breakthrough cancer pain drug to a third party (Cephalon / CIMA)
US Department of Justice
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BakerHostetler (Washington)
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Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman (New York)
In two recent decisions involving pharmaceutical mergers – Cephalon/Cima, in August 2004, and Genzyme/Novazyme, in January 2004, a divided Federal Trade Commission was accused by dissenting Commissioners of breaking with precedent and allowing acquisitions involving innovator pharmaceuticals (...)

The EU Commission revises notice on ancillary restraints following adoption of the new merger regulation
European Commission (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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Mazars (Brussels)
"Commission revises notices following adoption of the new merger regulation"* Following the adoption of the new Merger Regulation and of the Implementing Regulation, the Commission approved, in July 2004, three new notices dealing respectively with ancillary restraints, simplified procedure (...)

The European Commission conditionally approves a merger in the market for haircare products (Procter & Gamble / Wella)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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JG Associates (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
"Merger control: main developments between 1st May and 31st August 2003"* On 30 July the Commission cleared the proposed acquisition by the American corporation Procter & Gamble of the German company Wella AG subject to a package of commitments. Procter & Gamble is an international (...)

The US FTC imposes divestiture of assets for one product and licensing of patents for two other products prior to approving a merger in the pharmaceuticals industry (Amgen / Immunex)
Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld (Dallas)
Amgen Inc. and Immunex Corporation entered into a consent decree with the FTC on September 3, 2002 in order to proceed with the merger of the two pharmaceutical giants. To obtain clearance from the FTC, Amgen and Immunex agreed to divest Immunex’s business concerning the production of one (...)

The US FTC seeks divestiture of an exact copy of software, thereby resolving anticompetitive effects from a completed merger in the engineering software industry (MSC / UAI / CSAR)
Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld (Dallas)
On August 14, 2002, the FTC announced that MSC Software Corporation had agreed to enter into a consent settlement, resolving concerns that arose after MSC acquired Universal Analytics, Inc. (“UAI”) and Computerized Structural Analysis & Research Corp. (“CSAR”) in 1999. The FTC determined that (...)

The EU Commission clears an acquisition in the markets for crop protection, professional pest control and animal health products subject to substantial divestitures (Bayer / Aventis / Crop Science)
DG Economic and Financial Affairs (ECFIN) (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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Financial Conduct Authority (London)
"Merger Control: Main developments between 1st January 2002 and 30th April 2002"* The Commission decided to clear Bayer‘s acquisition of Aventis Crop Science (ACS), subject to substantial divestitures. As initially notified, the operation would have led to the creation or strengthening of (...)

The Japanese FTC clears an acquisition in the beverage and vending machine sector following remedy proposals by the parties (Fuji Electric / SANYO Electric Vending Machine)
Japan Fair Trade Commission (Tokyo)
Acquisition of the Stock of SANYO Electric Vending Machine Co., Ltd. by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.* The Fair Trade Commission (hereinafter referred to as "FTC") received a request from Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Fuji") and SANYO Electric Vending Machine Co., Ltd. (...)

The EU Commission conditionally clears a merger in the market for small electrical household appliances (SEB / Moulinex)
DG Economic and Financial Affairs (ECFIN) (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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Financial Conduct Authority (London)
"Merger Control: Main developments between 1st January 2002 and 30th April 2002"* The Commission authorised SEB to acquire sole control of Moulinex. Both are French companies manufacturing small electrical household appliances. The Commission has imposed the condition that SEB must not use the (...)

The Spanish Council of Ministers overturns a decision of the Spanish Competition Authority, and allows a merger in the beer market subject to remedies (Mahou / San Miguel)
RBB Economics (Madrid)
The operation The operation consisted of the acquisition by Mahou of 100% of the shares of Enterprise Resource Planning, the mother company of San Miguel. Mahou and San Miguel were two of the main beer manufacturers in the Spanish market (combined market share of about 35%). The Spanish (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority clears a merger in the chemicals sector subject to transfer of products licenses to a third party (Glaxo-SmithKline)
Esin (Istanbul)
The operation Prior to the transaction Glaxo was a public company which was engaged in research, development, production and marketing in the pharmaceuticals sector. Glaxo had a Turkish subsidiary named Glaxo Wellcome Ilaclarý San. A.S. (“Glaxo Turkey”) through which Glaxo carried out its (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority clears with remedy a merger in the pharmaceuticals sector subject to remedies, including transfer of licences to third parties (Glaxo-SmithKline)
Esin (Istanbul)
The operation Prior to the transaction Glaxo was a public company which was engaged in research, development, production and marketing in the pharmaceuticals sector. Glaxo had a Turkish subsidiary named Glaxo Wellcome Ilaclarý San. A.S. (“Glaxo Turkey”) through which Glaxo carried out its (...)

The EU Commission authorises, subject to remedies, the participation of a UK Broadcaster in the pay-tv operator in Germany (BSkyB / KirchPayTV)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"The Commission’s assessment of the participation of BSkyB in the pay-tv operator in germany"* Pay-TV KirchPayTV has a virtual monopoly on the German pay-TV market, although with a loss making business. BSkyB adds a very successful pay-TV company, with experience of digital interactive TV (...)

The US FTC imposes the largest retail divestiture of its history, affecting multiple levels of the production chain, before clearing one of the largest mergers in the gasoline industry (Exxon / Mobil)
Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld (Dallas)
On November 30, 1999 after an extensive and in-depth investigation, the FTC announced that Exxon Corporation and Mobil Corporation agreed to enter into a consent decree, in which the FTC mandated significant structural changes to the corporations prior to approving their merger. The consent (...)

The French Minister of Economics prohibits a merger in the market for soft drinks despite proposed remedies of a long duration (Coca-Cola / Orangina)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
The operation By the present transaction, TCCC, a major brand owner and global supplier of soft drink including Coca-Cola notified the acquisition of the Orangina trademak. Following the negative opinion given by the French competition council, the merger was prohibited by the Minister. The (...)

The EU Commission initiates a detailed investigation into the creation of a joint venture between US leading soft drinks company and Danish brewing company (Coca-Cola / Carlsberg)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"Merger : Summary of the most important recent developments"* On 2nd May, the Commission decided to initiate a detailed investigation into the creation of a joint venture and the transfer of assets between The Coca-Cola Company and Carlsberg. In the first stage, the operation only affects (...)

State Aids

The EU General Court dismisses an action for annulment brought by a competitor against a Commission decision finding no state aid in relation to licensing of software terms offered by a university (Scheepsbouwkundig Advies / en Rekencentrum)
University of Bristol - Law School
State aid and (university) software licensing: who’s interested? (T-488/11)* In its Judgment of 12 June 2014 in case Sarc v Commission, T-488/11, EU:T:2014:441, the General Court of the EU (GC) has assessed an interesting case concerned with the licensing of software developed at a Dutch (...)

Procedures

The US DoJ updates its business review letter to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers concerning their patent policy
US Department of Justice - Antitrust Division (Washington)
Justice Department Updates 2015 Business Review Letter To The Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers* The Justice Department today issued a supplement to its Feb. 2, 2015 Business Review Letter from the Antitrust Division to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, (...)

The Chinese State Administration for Market Regulation publishes anti-monopoly guidelines on intellectual property
Jones Day (Beijing)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
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Jones Day (Beijing)
In August 2020, the Anti-Monopoly Bureau of China’s State Administration for Market Regulation released four long-awaited sets of anti-monopoly guidelines addressing issues relating to leniency, commitments, the automobile industry, and intellectual property rights. The subjects of this White (...)

The Chinese State Administration for Market Regulation releases IP antitrust guidelines
King & Wood Mallesons (Beijing)
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King & Wood Mallesons (Beijing)
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King & Wood Mallesons (Beijing)
China’s IP Antitrust Guidelines Released to the Public* Preface Recently, the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for the Intellectual Property (“IP Guidelines”) was published in the Collection of Antitrust Regulations and Guidelines in 2019 released by the Anti-Monopoly Bureau of the State Administration (...)

The High Court of Delhi sides with the Indian Competition Authority and resolves the jurisdictional issue between the latter and the Intellectual Property Rights Authorities under the Patents Act (Monsanto)
Hidayatullah National Law University (Raipur)
Following the appeal made against several orders of Competition Commission of India (“CCI”) by Monsanto Holdings Pvt. Ltd. (“MHPL”), the Delhi High Court on 20th May, 2020 handed down the judgement of MHPL & Ors. v. CCI, clarifying mainly the jurisdictional issues between the IPR authorities (...)

The German Regional Court of Munich provides a guidance document which sets out how the Court intends to apply a landmark ruling of the EU Court of Justice (Huawei / ZTE)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In February 2020, the Regional Court of Munich published a guidance document that sets out how that court intends to apply the landmark ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union (the “ECJ”) in Huawei v. ZTE (Case C-170/13). The ECJ’s ruling provided the practical steps which Standard (...)

The Indian Supreme Court upholds Bombay High Court decision and clarifies jurisdiction between sectoral and competition regulator in telecommunications markets (Reliance Jio / Bharti Airtel / Idea Cellular / Vodafone India)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
Supreme Court clears the jurisdictional conflict between CCI & TRAI- dismisses CCI and Jio appeals* The Hon’ble Supreme Court by way of its judgement dated 05.12.2018 has finally cleared the uncertainty surrounding the jurisdiction of CCI and TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India). (...)

The EU Commission publishes a fact sheet on IP rights enforcement and a communication setting out the EU’s approach to standard essential patents
Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
The European Commission today published a Fact Sheet on Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement and a Communication setting out the EU’s approach to Standard Essential Patents (SEPs). In recognition of what it perceives as the strategic importance of SEPs and Europe’s need to grasp the enormous (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit applies an appropriate post-Actavis pleading standard (Lipitor)
Rutgers University (New Jersey)
On August 21, 2017, the Third Circuit overturned a decision that had applied excessive pleading standards against plaintiffs challenging reverse-payment settlements. Writing for a unanimous panel, Chief Judge Smith held that, in the wake of FTC v. Actavis, 133 S. Ct. 2223 (2013), courts should (...)

The US Supreme Court holds that patentees extinguishes patents rights on a product once it makes a sale of it (Impression Products / Lexmark International)
Crowell & Moring (Washington)
Reversing long-standing Federal Circuit precedent, the United States Supreme Court has now held that a patentee extinguishes its patent rights on a product upon its sale of that product, regardless of (1) whether the patentee placed a restriction on the sale (prohibiting reuse or resale), or (...)

The Anti-monopoly Commission of China’s State Council releases a draft for comments of anti-monopoly guidelines on abuse of intellectual property rights
Gaopeng & Partners (Beijing)
I. Introduction On March 23, 2017, the Anti-monopoly Commission of China’s State Council released the Anti-monopoly Guidelines on Abuse of Intellectual Property Rights (Draft for Comments) (hereinafter referred to as the ’Draft’) on the official website of the Ministry of Commerce of China. The (...)

The U.S. FTC releases long-awaited report on patent assertion entities
Jones Day (Washington DC)
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Jones Day (Cleveland)
Three years after initiating an extensive sector study under section 6(b) of the FTC Act, the Federal Trade Commission has issued its report on the activities of patent assertion entities ("PAEs"). The report, titled Patent Assertion Entity Activity: An FTC Study ("PAE Report"), sets forth the (...)

The UK Competition Authority provides guidance for appealing energy price controls (British Gas and Northern Powergrid / Ofgem)
Blackstone Chambers (London)
Appealing energy price controls: guidance for beginners from the CMA* The CMA recently published its final determinations in two appeals brought by British Gas and Northern Powergrid against Ofgem’s electricity price controls for the next 8 years. The appeals were the first under section 11C of (...)

The EU Commission publishes its 5th patent monitoring report
General Court of the European Union (Luxembourg)
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White & Case (Brussels)
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White & Case (Brussels)
This article has been nominated for the 2015 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. DG Competition of the European Commission just published its 5th patent monitoring report. It covers patent settlements entered into in 2013. Each year, the (...)

A U.S. District Court denies three motions for summary judgment for failing to provide sufficient evidence of a relevant market and of manifest anticompetitive effects (American Needle / New Orleans Louisiana Saints)
Bona Law (Detroit)
So Whatever Happened to American Needle?* You remember American Needle, right? It is the 2010 U.S. Supreme Court opinion that explains when the action of a joint venture is the action of a single entity or, instead, the result of an agreement among the joint venture members. Now back on (...)

The U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) decides to review the entire final initial determination issued by the presiding administrative law judge concerning RAND defenses in a case regarding potential infringements of standard essential patents (LSI / Realtek)
DLA Piper Weiss-Tessbach (Vienna)
U.S. ITC reviews the ALJ’s entire initial determination in the LSI-Realtek 337 case* On 17 October 2013 the International Trade Commission (ITC) issued a Notice determining that it will review the final initial determination (ID) issued by the presiding administrative law judge (ALJ) of 18 July (...)

A U.S. District Court determines the RAND licensing rate per Wi-Fi chip while considering related issues such as hold-up, royalty stacking and reverse hold-up (Innovatio)
DLA Piper Weiss-Tessbach (Vienna)
The second judicial determination of F/RAND rates* On 27 September 2013 the second judicial determination – after Judge Robart’s ruling in Microsoft v Motorola – on F/RAND royalty rates was handed down by Judge Holderman. Innovatio IP Ventures LLC owns several patents essential to the 802.11 (...)

The Chinese State Administration of Industry and Commerce makes another attempt to define anticompetitive exercise of intellectual property rights
University of International Business & Economics (Beijing)
In mid-August, 2012, the Chinese State Administration of Industry & Commerce (SAIC) released a Draft Guide on Anti-Monopoly Law Enforcement in the Field of Intellectual Property Rights in a conference open to media and public. That was the fifth draft in a series, and a newstep after three (...)

A U.S. Administrative Law Judge of International Trade Commission rejects the patent misuse defense as a matter of law (Barnes & Noble)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. ITC ALJ rejects Barnes & Noble allegations of patent misuse as a matter of law* On 31 January 2012 an administrative law judge of the U.S. International Trade Commission (“U.S. ITC”) found that Microsoft’s conduct did not amount to patent misuse as a matter of law (In the Matter of (...)

The U.S. FTC publishes a report on patent system recommending reforms on notice and remedies to benefit both consumers and competition
Gibson Dunn (New York)
U.S. Federal Trade Commission Recommends Changes to U.S. Patent System* The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) has issued a report analyzing the U.S. patent system from a competition policy perspective. The FTC recognizes that, like the competitive process fostered by competition law, the (...)

The UK Government publishes the Health and Social Care Bill establishing an economic regulator with concurrent competition powers for the UK healthcare services
Linklaters (London)
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Kirkland & Ellis (London)
Introduction > On 19 January 2011 the Health and Social Care Bill (the “Bill”) was published and had its first reading in the House of Commons. The Bill represents a significant overhaul of the current regulatory framework applying to the National Health Service (“NHS”) and contains, among other (...)

A U.S. Court of Appeals overturns a lower court decision addressing the issue of the copyright’s first sale doctrine in the computer software industry (Vernor / Autodesk)
University of Chicago - Law School
Vernor v. Autodesk: Copyright, Software Upgrades and Secondary Markets* Earlier today, the Ninth Circuit decided an important case about the scope of the first sale doctrine in copyright as applied to computer software. In Vernor v. Autodesk, the court concluded that the documents in question (...)

The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania adopts "scope of patent" test for analyzing Hatch-Waxman patent settlements (Cephalon)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
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Fordham Competition Law Institute - FCLI (New York)
On March 29, 2010, Judge Mitchell S. Goldberg upheld antitrust lawsuits filed by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and private plaintiffs against drug maker Cephalon, Inc. (Cephalon), alleging that Cephalon conspired with four generic drug manufacturers to delay generic competition for the (...)

The EU Commission publishes comments on its e-commerce “issues paper”
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
The European Commission recently published on its website comments it has received from industry on an internet commerce “issues paper” published by DG Competition in September 2008. Respondents as diverse as, among others, the British Sky Broadcasting Group, Estée Lauder, Google, Hewlett-Packard, (...)

The Higher Regional Court of Thuringia analyses Art. 81 EC and § 1 of the German Act against Restraints of Competition as part of the ordre public with respect to the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards (Schott)
Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen
I. Preliminary remarks and facts of the case The field of civil antitrust litigation is much debated about with respect to the enforcement of national and European competition laws before the German courts. Yet also important and even more complex in some way is the question how and to what (...)

A Dutch Court of Appeal refuses to order the execution of an award adopted by an American arbitration panel for breach of a licensing agreement, on the grounds that it violates Art. 81.1 EC and that it is contrary to the public policy (Marketing Displays International / VR)
European Commission - DG HR (Brussels)
The companies concerned, Marketing Displays International (“MDI”) and VR, established in the United States of America and in The Netherlands respectively, are both active in the manufacture and marketing of bill boards. On 7 September 1990, MDI and VR concluded a licensing agreement, by which MDI (...)

The Maltese Commission for Fair Trading confirms that the Transport Authority was not an undertaking, consequently its monopoly was not subject to the Competition Act (Carmel Mifsud)
King’s College (London)
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Superior Courts of Malta (Valletta)
Competition law controls the anti-competitive agreements and the abusive behaviour of undertakings, but much anti-competitive behaviour is caused by the state. Complainants are often frustrated when they discover that the conduct of which they complain is attributable to the state acting in its (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on competition policy and intellectual property rights
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Key documents: Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the background paper, and papers by panellists and delegates, the following key points emerge: (1) (...)

Regulations

The UK Competition Authority reaches its final price control determination on a dispute between the aviation regulator and air traffic control service provider without taking into account the effects of COVID-19 until they are more definitely known (Civil Aviation Authority / NERL) Free
United Kingdom’s Competition Authority - CMA (London)
CMA final decision on air traffic control charges* The CMA has sent the CAA its final price control determination on a dispute between the aviation regulator and NERL regarding air traffic control charges. The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has acted as the independent body charged (...)

The US DoJ and PTO issue a policy statement on standard-essential patents subject to a commitment to license on FRAND terms
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (Washington)
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Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (Washington)
After withdrawing support from a 2013 policy statement on appropriate remedies for standard-essential patents subject to a commitment to license on fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory terms, the U.S. Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, along (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on the licensing of IP rights and competition law
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
IP rights, which create temporary exclusive rights that protect investments in research and some creative activities, have taken on an increasingly prominent and extensive role in economic activity – and in market competition as well. As the economy digitalises and the importance of intangible (...)

The US FTC and DoJ issue antitrust guidelines for the licensing of intellectual property
Mc Dermott Will & Emery (Irvine)
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Crowell & Moring (Washington)
On January 12, 2017, the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division of the US Department of Justice issued updated Antitrust Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property (the Guidelines). The revised Guidelines follow nearly half a year of consideration and public commentary. (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on generic pharmaceuticals and competition
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Executive summary, by the Secretariat * Considering the roundtable discussion and the delegates’ written contributions, the following key points emerge: (1) The existence of originator drugs and innovation by originator companies is vital to develop new treatments against different illnesses (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on fighting corruption and promoting competition
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Executive summary, by the Secretariat * The 13th edition of the Global Forum on Competition held a roundtable discussion on 27 February 2014 to discuss the fight against corruption and the promotion of competition so as to address five main questions: The relationship between competition and (...)

The Irish Competition Authority submits that proposed new taxi regulations could create barriers to entry, increasing prices and waiting times for taxi users
Irish Competition Authority (Dublin)
New taxi regulations could increase prices and waiting times for consumers – Competition Authority* In a submission to the National Transport Authority (NTA), the Competition Authority warned that proposed new taxi regulations could create a barrier to entry that will increase prices and (...)

The Irish Competition Authority publishes a study of competition in the ports sector, finding that competition in port services could be improved
Irish Competition Authority (Dublin)
Competition Authority recommends changes to improve competition in Irish ports* The Competition Authority has published on 29 November 2013 a study of competition in the ports sector in Ireland which found competition in port services could be improved. The study was commissioned by Minister (...)