1. Introduction State aid to the energy sector has grown steadily in volume and as consecutive issues of the Commission’s ‘State Aid Scoreboard’ have confirmed, it is after emergency or crisis aid granted on the basis of Article 107(3)(b), the second most important type of aid in terms of spending across the 27 Member States.  In accordance with its obligations under the Governance Regulation of 2018 , the European Commission (EC) must delivers an annual ‘State of the Energy Union report with a number of supporting analyses, including an annual assessment of ‘Member States' progress towards phasing out energy subsidies, in particular fossil fuel subsidies.  The 2021 Report on energy subsidies, concluded that; ‘the EU and its Member States have to do more to reduce fossil fuel
Energy & State aid: An overview of EU and national case law
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