I. Introduction “We are a utility,” said Mark Zuckerberg about his company Facebook in 2012. [1] A decade later, EU legislators appear to deliver what Zuckerberg (unwillingly) called for: being regulated like a utility. On 1 November 2022, European a new landmark Big Tech regulation, the Digital Markets Act (“DMA”), entered into force and will apply from 2 May 2023. [2] The law imposes specific obligations on the world’s Big Tech firms, which it labels ‘gatekeepers.’ The DMA comes after years of rapid growth in the tech sector which is today dominated worldwide by a few firms summarized as “GAFA” (Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Apple). Their size and corresponding conduct triggered numerous antitrust actions in Europe and the United States, but with limited success. Standard antitrust

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