On 16 November 2021, the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) imposed a fine of € 68.7 million on Amazon and € 134.5 million on Apple for infringing Article 101 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (“TFEU”) with regard to the distribution of Apple products over Amazon Marketplace (“Decision”; the fines were later reduced by the ICA to € 58.6 million and € 114.7 million respectively in view of a clerical error). As explained further below, this Decision provides an important national perspective on the application of Article 101 TFEU to partial platform restrictions within both open and selective distribution systems. Background According to the Decision, Apple operates a dual distribution system in Italy, selling its products directly to consumers as well as through resellers. For
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