The EU General Court declares that the Commission must open a formal procedure not only when it has doubts about the existence of aid and/or the compatibility of aid, but also about whether the aid is existing or new (Petra Flašker)

The Standard of Proof in State Aid Complaints and the “Informational Disadvantage” of Complainants* The Commission must use its investigative powers to seek clarification from Member States in order for it to establish whether a measure constitutes State aid, or is compatible aid, or is existing aid. Introduction Complaints are an important source of information to the Commission. The possibility afforded to undertakings to lodge such complaints with the Commission is intended to dissuade Member States from granting illegal aid. However, complaints alleging that illegal aid has been granted can also be frivolous or unfounded. Their ulterior motive may be to harass competitors or intimidate public authorities. They may also be based on a misunderstanding of the actual terms of the

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