OECD

OECD - Competition Division

The OECD Competition Division actively encourages governments to tackle anti-competitive practices and fosters market-oriented reform throughout the world.‌ Well-designed competition law, effective enforcement and competition-based economic reform promote growth and employment while making economies more flexible and innovative.

Auteurs associés

DG COMP (Brussels)
French Competition Authority (Paris)
DGCCRF (Paris)

Articles

468782 Bulletin

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on market concentration

116

Executive Summary 1. In recent years, there has been growing concern that a trend has emerged in which markets around the world are becoming more concentrated and less competitive. This is sometimes attributed to the increasingly digital and globalised nature of many markets and the firms that (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on e-commerce

266

1. Introduction 1. E-commerce – broadly, buying and selling online – is a global phenomenon and an important expanding distribution mechanism across the OECD. During the last decade, e-commerce activities have been growing both in the demand and supply side, as seen by the increasing number of (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on leniency programmes

104

1. Introduction 1. Detection and punishment of hard core cartels has been a priority of antitrust enforcement since many years, as they represent one of the most serious violations of competition law, harming consumers and the economy as a whole alike. However, it is difficult to detect such (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on blockchain technology and competition policy

215

1. Introduction 1. Blockchain is a general-purpose technology that threatens to disrupt markets and institutions across the world. Where the internet enabled the publishing and digital transfer of information, blockchain authenticates the ownership of assets, makes them unique, traceable, and (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition issues in aftermarkets

42

Aftermarkets are widespread across the economy. From a competition perspective, the manufacturer of the primary good is often a major supplier in the aftermarket and may enjoy market power in the secondary market, which raises questions as to whether antitrust intervention is warranted to (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on radical innovation in the electricity sector

41

Innovation in the electricity sector is beginning to challenge traditional business models of providing households with electricity. In June 2017 the OECD held a discussion to explore possible implications for competition agencies from innovations such as : Peer-to-Peer (P2P) electricity (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on algorithms and collusion

51

The combination of data with technologically advanced tools such as pricing algorithms and machine learning is increasingly changing the competitive landscape in the digital markets. There is a growing number of firms using computer algorithms to improve their pricing models, customise services (...)

OECD The OECD holds a session on competition and sanctions in antitrust cases

82

Competition authorities have imposed substantial fines for competition law violations over the last few decades. Several common steps are observed in setting fines : (i) determination of basic fine ; (ii) adjustments (including aggravating and mitigating circumstances) ; (iii) comparisons to (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on price discrimination

218

In recent years the scope for near perfect price discrimination, particularly in the digital economy, appears to have grown. This raises a question over how those jurisdictions in which exploitative price discrimination is an offence will respond. In contrast, the risk of price discrimination (...)

OECD The OECD holds roundtable on Big Data

183

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * The 126th meeting of the Competition Committee held a Hearing on 29 November 2016 to discuss Big Data and the challenges of adapting competition policy to the digital economy. Considering the background note prepared by the OECD Secretariat with the (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and innovation in land transport

73

Executive Summary, by the Secretariat* Considering the discussion at the roundtable held by Working Party No.2 on 28 November 2016, the delegates’ submissions, the panellists’ presentations and the Secretariat’s background paper, several points are noted : 1. As a result of regulatory and (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on fidelity rebates and competition

129

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * From the discussion at the hearing, the delegates’ and experts’ written submissions, several key points emerged : 1. Fidelity rebates or loyalty discount schemes are widely used and are often beneficial for consumers. Rebates based on quantity, and in (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on commitment decisions in antitrust cases

59

Executive summary, by the Secretariat* Considering the discussion at the roundtable on commitment decisions in non-merger cases, held by the Competition Committee on 17 June 2016, the Secretariat’s background paper, the delegates’ written submissions and presentations by the speakers, several (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on disruptive innovations in legal services

60

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * 1. The Roundtable on Disruptive Innovations in Legal Services discussed the way that current legal professional regulations are being (i) challenged by new innovations and (ii) potentially standing in the way of further innovation. The Chairman, Alberto (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on cartels involving intermediate goods

40

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * Considering the discussion at the roundtable on “Cartels Involving Intermediate Goods”, held by Working Party No.3 on Co-operation and Enforcement on 27 October 2015, the Secretariat’s background paper and the delegates’ written submissions and (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition issues in liner shipping

42

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * Considering the discussion at the roundtable, delegates’ written submissions, and the Secretariat’s background paper, several key points emerge : (1) Since its inception, the ocean liner shipping industry has been governed by the so-called “conferences” – (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competitive neutrality in competition policy

40

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the roundtable discussion, the delegates’ written contributions and the Secretariat paper, the following key points emerge : 1. Competitive neutrality is important to effective competition policy and vice versa. As governments strengthening (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on oligopoly markets

40

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * Considering the discussion at the session, the delegations’ written submissions, the expert panellists’ presentations, as well as the Secretariat’s issues paper, several points emerge : 1. Explicit collusive agreements are considered unlawful under (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on generic pharmaceuticals and competition

74

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * Considering the roundtable discussion and the delegates’ written contributions, the following key points emerge : (1) The existence of originator drugs and innovation by originator companies is vital to develop new treatments against different illnesses (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on airline competition

31

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the roundtable discussion, the delegates’ written contributions and the Secretariat’s background note, the following key points emerge : (1) Air transportation is a vital sector for the global economy, customers and governments. Liberalisation (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on enhanced enforcement co-operation

53

International co-operation is a core part of the competition-related work at the OECD. The OECD Competition Committee is at the forefront in shaping of new and more effective forms of co-operation to the benefit of enforcers and business. In line with the OECD project on international (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on fighting corruption and promoting competition

44

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * The 13th edition of the Global Forum on Competition held a roundtable discussion on 27 February 2014 to discuss the fight against corruption and the promotion of competition so as to address five main questions : The relationship between competition and (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition issues in waste management

47

Technological and policy changes have altered the economics of waste collection and treatment. Landfills are further away from cities and larger. More waste is diverted towards treatments that allow to re-use it, recycle it, or to recover energy from it. Secondary raw materials derived from (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition issues in the food chain ndustry

27

Food processing and retail chains often give rise to competition issues especially due to recent trends of high and volatile commodity prices. The role of anti-trust authorities in addressing competition in the food sector is no different : dealing with anti-competitive mergers, abuse of (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on remedies in cross-border merger cases

49

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the Note by the Secretariat as well as the delegates’ written submissions, several key points emerge : (1) Cross-border mergers raise specific challenges for competition authorities reviewing the transaction (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and behavioural economics

31

Executive summary, by the Secretariat The summary of the Hearing is based mainly on the submissions, presentations and interventions of three expert panellists : Xavier Gabaix (New York University), Steffen Huck (University College London), and Maurice Stucke (the University of Tennessee). (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition in road fuel

31

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * Considering the discussion at the roundtable, delegates’ written submissions, and the Secretariat’s background paper, several key points emerge : (1) In a number of OECD countries, road fuel markets are considered competitive at the retail level, with (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable competition and poverty reduction

51

Executive summary, by the Secretariat * 1. Considering the discussion at the Forum, the delegates’ written submissions, and the Secretariat’s background paper, several key points emerge : 1. Poverty is multidimensional, not defined solely by incomes below an arbitrary level 2. Simple measures (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on vertical restraints for online sales

58

Executive summary, by the Secretariat In light of the written submissions and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) The developments of e-commerce have impacted the way competition works and the type of competition concerns that may arise. The literature on e-commerce has (...)

OECD The OECD holds roundtable on competition and payment systems

41

Executive summary, by the Secretariat In light of the written submissions and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) An aim of competition enforcement is to identify, stop and deter anti-competitive arrangements and behaviour by market participants, particularly when it has a (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on leniency for subsequent applicants

38

Executive summary, by the Secretariat From the background paper, the country contributions and the discussion at the roundtable on leniency for subsequent applicants, the following points emerge : (1) Competition authorities widely rely on leniency policies to detect, investigate and (...)

OECD The OECD holds roundtable on digital economy

44

The digital economy enables and executes the trade of goods and services through electronic commerce on the Internet. It is a very substantial driver of economic growth and an increasing source of work for competition authorities. Understanding competition in digital markets was the main (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and commodity price volatility

25

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the background papers, discussion by delegates and expert panellists at the Global Forum and countries’ written submissions, several key points emerge : (1) Primary commodity prices are inherently volatile and the current and recent episode is (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on market definition

25

Market definition is one of the most fundamental concepts underpinning essentially all competition policy issues, from mergers, through dominance/monopolisation to agreements. Market definition provides an analytical framework for the ultimate inquiry of whether a particular conduct or (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition in hospitals services

20

Concerns about increasing healthcare expenditures are a major motivation for introducing competition in hospital services. While competition on quality can lead to better outcomes, competition on prices has uncertain results. An active governmental role is key in ensuring quality provision and (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on excessive prices

96

One of the most controversial theories of harm in competition law in general and within the category of exploitative abuses in particular is excessive prices. Regulatory interventions with the aim of curbing excessive prices are prevalent not only in those jurisdictions that allow for excessive (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on impact evaluation of merger decisions

44

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable as well as the delegates’ and panellists’ written submissions, several key points emerge : (1) Ex post evaluations of merger decisions can help to assess whether the conclusions in a specific merger decision were (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on promoting compliance with competition law

28

Over the past 20 years, courts and competition authorities have imposed fines and, in some jurisdictions, imprisonment with sharply increasing severity, yet there does not seem to be solid evidence that anti-competitive conduct – particularly cartel conduct – is declining in response. Then again, (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on remedies in merger cases

29

Executive summary, by the Secretariat From the issues paper and the discussion at the roundtable on remedies in merger cases, the following points emerge : (1) Competition agencies use remedies in merger cases to eliminate any competitive harm that may result as a consequence of a merger. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition in ports and port services

24

Ports, whether maritime, inland or river ports, are important pieces of infrastructure that serve a wide range of customers including freight shippers, ferry operators and private boats. One of the main functions of ports is facilitating the domestic and international trade of goods, often on a (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable one economic evidence in merger analysis

27

Executive summary, by the Secretariat (1) Economic evidence should be based on clear economic theory, and should be transparent, replicable and intuitive to allow non-economists to fully understand the analysis. In order to help companies involved in competition cases to achieve this, a number (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on the regulated conduct defence

31

The regulated conduct defence allows antitrust immunity where conduct is required by federal or state regulation. The regulated conduct defence is important to ensure that the state can exercise its sovereign power to apply regulation that it deems justified for economic and/or social reasons (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on crisis cartels

31

Executive summary, by the Secretariat A discussion on Crisis Cartels from a competition perspective took place during the third session of the 2011 Global Forum on Competition. To prepare this discussion, a background paper, three additional papers prepared by experts and twenty-one (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on arbitration and competition

39

The use of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, including arbitration and mediation, to resolve commercial disputes with a competition component has increased exponentially in recent years. This interplay between arbitration and competition law has stimulated a lively debate amongst (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on emission permits and competition

45

Tradeable emission permits are considered an efficient instrument for achieving a given emission target at lowest possible economic cost. Tradeable permit schemes, also called cap and trade schemes, have become major pollution control instruments. They have been implemented at a national level (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on standard setting

50

Standard setting yields substantial benefits to consumers and often promotes competition to benefit consumers. Nonetheless, at times, standard setting can give rise to potential consumer harms. By bringing together different players in an industry, the standard setting process provides an (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and credit rating agencies

32

Credit ratings provide an opinion on the relative ability and willingness of parties with debt obligations to meet financial commitments. They have three functions ; to measure the credit risk of the issuer, to provide a means of comparison and to provide a common standard. The credit rating (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on exit strategies

31

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable and the delegates written submissions, and taking into account the hearing on Competition and Credit Rating Agencies, several key points emerge : (1) The financial crisis was a result of inadequate regulation (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and corporate governance

27

It is an open question whether competition and corporate governance policies are complements or substitutes, so the Committee held this hearing to gain a better understanding of the interface between the two policies. The delegates discussed conflicts of interest between shareholders and (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on electricity : renewables and smart grids

28

Increasingly, governments are adopting targets for the share of electricity that would be generated by renewable sources, such as wind or solar power. The increasing output of renewable energy poses challenges for the electricity supply network, such as how to upgrade and reinforce the main (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition, state aids and subsidies

28

Executive summary, by the Secretariat From the background paper, country contributions and the discussion at the roundtable held at the 2010 Global Forum on Competition, the following key points emerge on Competition policy, State Aids and Subsidies. (1) State aids and subsidies represent a (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on collusion and corruption in public procurement

28

Collusion and corruption are distinct problems within public procurement, yet they may frequently occur in tandem, and have mutually reinforcing effect. They are best viewed, therefore, as concomitant threats to the integrity of public procurement. The distinctiveness of public procurement and (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on generic pharmaceuticals

58

Executive summary, by the Secretariat (1) Competition from generic drugs is a desirable policy objective as it typically brings substantial savings to pharmaceutical buyers. However, it should be balanced against the incentives brand manufacturers need to invest in developing innovative new (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on margin squeeze

65

A margin squeeze occurs when there is such a narrow margin between an integrated provider’s price for selling essential inputs to a rival and its downstream price that the rival cannot survive or effectively compete. A first step in margin squeeze investigations is a detailed inquiry into the (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on the failing firm defence

25

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates‘ written submissions and the Secretariat‘s background paper, several key points emerge : (1) The failing firm defence (FFD) may arise more frequently during financial and economic crises. During (...)

OECD The OECD holds a second roundtable on competition, patents and innovation

68

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates‘ written submissions and the Secretariat‘s background paper, several key points emerge : (1) There has been a significant increase in the number and complexity of patent applications filed in the (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on two-sided markets

118

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates‘ submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge : (1) There is not yet a universally accepted definition of a two-sided market. However, a consensus about the fundamental aspects (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and financial markets

28

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Competition issues in the financial sector (1) The financial sector is at the heart of every well-functioning market economy but it is also vulnerable to systemic loss of trust. The financial sector is special. Banks perform intermediation functions that (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition policy and the informal economy

35

Different definitions have been employed in order to capture different aspects of the informal economy. It often comprises a substantial share of GDP in many developing countries. Many researchers are concerned that informal firms negatively impact an economy because they are typically less (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on monopsony and buyer power

38

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates‘ written submissions, and the background paper, the following key points emerge : (1) Buyer power is concerned with how downstream firms can affect the terms of trade with upstream suppliers. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on resale price maintenance

27

Key documents : Executive summary, by the Secretariat 1. From the country submissions, the background paper, and the discussion at the roundtable in October 2008, the following points emerge : (1). The term “resale price maintenance” (RPM) refers to a particular type of vertical agreement in (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on fidelity and bundled rebates and discounts

48

Executive summary, by the Secretariat From the issues paper, the country submissions, and the discussion at the roundtable on 10 June 2008, the following points emerge : (1) In a “bundled” discount, a combination of products is offered at a lower price than the sum of the prices of the (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on the construction industry

29

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the roundtable discussion, the delegates’ written submissions and the issues paper, several key points emerge : (1) The construction industry is a vital component of every OECD economy. The construction sector is responsible for building new (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on market studies

21

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable and the delegates’ submissions, several key points emerge. (1) Market studies are a wide-spread component of the work portfolios of competition agencies. Nearly every competition agency conducts market studies (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on presenting complex economic theories to judges

30

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable and the member submissions, a number of key points emerge : (1) Modern antitrust enforcement should be based on a clear and objective assessment of effects as identified or measured by sound economic analysis. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on land use restrictions as barriers to entry

30

Executive summary, by the Secretariat (1) Market impacts of land use restrictions Land use restrictions can serve legitimate purposes, but also prevent entry and raise costs. Land use restrictions govern how land can be used and how uses can be changed. Land use restrictions are widespread. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on refusals to deal

34

Executive summary, by the Secretariat 1. From the issues paper, the country submissions, and the discussion at the roundtable, the following points emerge : (1). The term “refusal to deal” (or “refusal to supply”) describes a situation in which one firm refuses to sell to another firm, is willing (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on managing complex mergers

20

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable and the member country submissions a number of key points emerge : (1) The assessment of mergers has become increasingly complex, as agencies confront challenging analytical issues, complex contractual (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on trade associations

29

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the member country submissions, and the background paper of the Secretariat, a number of key points (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on taxi services regulation and competition

25

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) Restricting the number of taxis (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on facilitating practices in oligopolies

21

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable and the written submissions, several key points emerge : 1) The concept of “facilitating practices” (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on dynamic efficiencies in merger analysis

27

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates‘ submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge : (1) The (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on public procurement

34

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the member country submissions, and the background paper of the Secretariat, a number of key points (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on energy security and competition policy

30

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegatesí submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge. (1) Nations differ in (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on vertical mergers

37

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates‘ written submissions, and the Secretariat‘s background paper, several key points emerge : (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on plea bargaining/settlement of cartel cases

41

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat (1) Plea agreements or negotiated settlements can be an efficient way to formally dispose of cartel cases. They can provide substantial benefits to (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition, patents and innovation

80

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the round table, the delegates’ written submissions and the Secretariat’s background paper, several key points emerge : (1) The pressure of competition can spur innovation, and so can the promise of exclusive intellectual (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and regulation in retail banking

107

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion, the delegates’ submissions, and the background paper, several broad results emerge : 1. Competition can improve the (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition in bidding markets

35

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates’ submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge : Merger analysis in bidding markets (1) The term "bidding market" does not contribute to understanding competition in a market. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on evidentiary issues in proving dominance

29

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat (1) Different jurisdictions use different definitions and tests to identify firms that are subject to single firm conduct provisions. Overall, (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on Private Remedies

40

Executive summary, by the Secretariat General Policies and Principles The first roundtable addressed a broad range of principles and policies concerning private competition law enforcement, including the desirability of private enforcement in general, policy goals it should pursue, and the (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on environmental regulation and competition

76

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion that took place at the roundtable, the delegatesí submissionsí and the background papers, several key points emerged. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on concessions

27

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegatesí written submissions and the Secretariatís background paper, several key points emerge : (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on access to key transport facilities

41

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegatesí submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge. (1) New entrants in transportation markets often require access to key infrastructure. Public policies about infrastructure access (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on prosecuting cartels without direct evidence

34

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegatesí written submissions and the Secretariatís background paper, several key points emerge : (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on barriers to entry

30

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates‘ submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge : (1) The concept of (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on resale below cost

22

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat 1. Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegatesí submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge. (1) (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition on the merits

32

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegatesí written submissions and the Secretariatís background paper, several key points emerge : (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on structural reform in the rail industry

60

Over the last 25 years the rail sector in virtually all OECD countries has undergone significant reform. These reforms were usually driven by inefficiency and poor performance within the rail sector and long-term loss of market share to other transport modes. The appropriate role for (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on predatory foreclosure

33

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegates’ submissions and the background paper, several key points emerge : 1. Competition law (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on intellectual property rights

29

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegate submissions and the background paper, a number of key points emerge : (1) Competition (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and regulation in the water sector

33

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : Inefficiency (1) Inefficiencies in (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on cartel sanctions against individuals

29

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the member country submissions, and the background paper, a number of key points emerge : (1) As (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on universal service obligations

25

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) Non-commercial service (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on media mergers

34

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegate submissions and the background paper, a number of key points emerge : (1) Market (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on communication by competition authorities

48

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Competition authorities devote substantial resources to communication using a variety of means to reach different target audiences (i.e. the business community, lawyers, public policy (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on loyalty and fidelity discounts and rebates

36

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegate submissions and the background paper, a number of key points emerge : (1) Fidelity (...)

OECD The OECD holds roundtable on price transparency

30

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegate submissions, and the background paper, a number of key points emerge. (1) As a general (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition policy in subsidies and state aid

26

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In the light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) Governments of all levels (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition issues in road transport

56

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In the light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) Road transport is (...)

OECD The OECD holds roundtable on competition issues in electronic commerce

47

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Electronic commerce ("e-commerce") can be defined as business occurring over networks using non-proprietary protocols established through an open standard setting process. Internet mediated e- commerce is the fastest growing part of the phenomenon and was (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition issues in joint ventures

39

Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegate submissions, and the issues paper, a number of key points emerge. (1) The incidence of joint ventures is increasing especially in sectors where innovation costs and, or competition are increasing. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on mergers in financial services

35

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegate submissions, and the background paper, the following key points emerge : (1) In many (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on airline mergers and alliances

44

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In the light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) Travellers differ widely, (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition in professional services

33

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In the light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) Although the details vary (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on oligopoly

32

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the delegate submissions, and the background paper, the following key points emerge : Mutually aware (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on promoting competition in postal services

29

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In the light of the written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge : (1) Postal services are one (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on buying power of multiproduct retailers

26

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Considering the discussion at the roundtable, the background paper, and delegate submissions, the following key points emerge : (1) The last twenty (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition policy and procurement markets

35

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In the light of the background paper, the country submissions and the oral discussion the following points emerge : (1) Procurement - the purchase (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on resale price maintenance

35

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Resale price maintenance (RPM) specifies the final price that retailers charge consumers. This roundtable focused on the use of RPM for books, newspapers and similar cultural products. (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on judicial enforcement of competition law

29

Key documents : Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat Introduction An effective competition policy is a necessary element in the efficient operation of market economies, and the significance of (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition issues related to sports

51

Satellite television with dedicated sports channels considerably increased the market for sports broadcasts. Sports bodies and event organisers perceive that they have market power to influence competition among TV channels and the market for sports equipment. Sports federations and leagues (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on abuse of dominance and monopolisation

40

Key documents : Background note The competition laws of many OECD countries contain a concept of single firm exploitation of market power or use of improper means of attaining or retaining market power. Some laws also contain the concept of “joint dominance”, distinct from multiple firms acting (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on the essential facilities concept

67

An essential facilities doctrine specifies when the owner(s) of an “essential” or “bottleneck” facility must provide access to that facility, at a reasonable price. For example, it might specify when a railroad must be made available on reasonable terms to a rival rail company or an electricity (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition in telecommunications

41

Key documents : Background note In 1996, at the time of the roundtable, an unprecedented wave of deregulation and liberalisation had started in the telecommunications sector. Participants discussed institutional aspects of antitrust and regulation in the sector. One issue was whether (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition policy and film distribution

28

Key documents : Background note Competition in film distribution, which has long been a concern, is now affected by the development of alternative methods of film distribution through television and video. Competition analysis of film distribution must examine : i) the relevant market (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on failing firm defence

55

Key documents : Background note The perilous financial condition of a merging firm may change the analysis by a competition authority of an otherwise anticompetitive merger. The authority should assess not only what will happen if the merger is permitted, but also what will happen if it is (...)

OECD The OECD holds a roundtable on competition policy and environment

44

Key documents : Background note The analytical note reviews modes of environmental regulation and identifies some anticompetitive effects that can accompany them. Such regulations might be used to gain a competitive advantage. A common principle of the different modes of intervention, whether (...)

OECD Glossaire : Aide d’État (notion)

1118

Les principes de base concernant le contrôle des aides d’État et autres afin qu’elles ne faussent pas la concurrence, se trouvent dans les articles 107 à 109 du Traité sur le fonctionnement de l’Union européenne. La Commission détermine si une aide est contraire à la norme du Traité. Elle peut (...)

OECD Glossaire : Service universel

167

Les obligations de services non commerciaux sont des obligations de fournir un service d’une qualité donnée à un prix « raisonnable » pour les consommateurs. Ces obligations font dans une large mesure double emploi avec ce que l’on qualifie parfois d’obligations de service universel, d’obligations de (...)

OECD Glossaire : Revente à perte

1255

Il est interdit de revendre ou d’annoncer la revente d’un produit en l’état au-dessous du prix d’achat effectif, notion qui détermine le seuil de revente à perte. Le prix d’achat effectif est le prix unitaire net figurant sur la facture d’achat, minoré du montant de l’ensemble des autres avantages (...)

OECD Glossaire: Anticompetitive practices

2943

Refers to a wide range of business practices in which a firm or group of firms may engage in order to restrict inter-firm competition to maintain or increase their relative market position and profits without necessarily providing goods and services at a lower cost or of higher quality. The (...)

OECD Glossaire : Action et recours privés

3574

L’action publique en droit de la concurrence désigne l’action menée par la puissance publique, par exemple l’autorité de la concurrence ou le ministère public, pour découvrir et sanctionner les auteurs de violations des règles relatives à la concurrence. L’action privée recouvre au contraire les (...)

OECD Glossaire : Échanges d’informations

2743

Les échanges d’informations sont des contacts entre concurrents qui, du point de vue du droit de la concurrence, se situent entre les ententes injustifiables pures, qui sont interdites partout, et les collusions tacites qui résultent d’une interdépendance oligopolistique, lesquelles sont en général (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Vente liée

14451

Pratique commerciale consistant à lier la vente d’un produit à l’achat d’un autre produit. Cette pratique peut restreindre la concurrence si elle n’est pas objectivement justifiée par la nature des produits ou leur usage commercial. La théorie économique tend à montrer qu’une entreprise qui dispose (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Prix de vente imposé

38111

Accords ou pratiques concertées entre un fournisseur et un distributeur ayant directement ou indirectement pour objet l’établissement d’un prix de vente fixe ou minimum ou d’un niveau de prix de vente fixe ou minimum que le distributeur doit appliquer lorsqu’il revend un produit/service à ses (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Pouvoir de marché

26613

Pouvoir d’une entreprise sur un marché donné. En économie, le pouvoir de marché désigne à la base la capacité des entreprises à fixer des prix supérieurs au coût marginal d’une manière que ceci soit rentable. En matière de concurrence, le pouvoir de marché est déterminé à l’aide d’une analyse structurelle (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Concentration (notion)

13783

Transfert du patrimoine d’une ou de plusieurs sociétés à une autre société, au moyen de l’absorption par une société préexistante ou de la création d’une société nouvelle. La fusion est une opération par laquelle les sociétés peuvent accroître leur taille, développer des activités existantes ou nouvelles et (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Oligopole

12881

Structure du marché caractérisée par un nombre très limité de vendeurs qui ont conscience de leur interdépendance lorsqu’ils adoptent des décisions stratégiques concernant, par exemple le prix, la production et la qualité. Au sein d’un oligopole, chaque entreprise sait que son comportement sur le marché (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Marché pertinent

55036

La définition du marché en cause permet d’identifier et de définir le périmètre à l’intérieur duquel s’exerce la concurrence entre entreprises. Elle permet d’établir le cadre dans lequel la Commission applique la politique de la concurrence. Son objet principal est d’identifier de manière systématique (...)

OECD Glossaire : Compression des marges

4608

On entend par « compression de marge » ou « étranglement de marge » un abus de position dominante visant à évincer un concurrent du marché lorsqu’une entreprise monopolistique verticalement intégrée vend un intrant d’amont indispensable à des sociétés qui vendent un produit sur un marché d’aval où elles (...)

OECD Glossaire : Prix de transfert

154

Les prix de transfert sont le prix auxquels une enterprise transfert des biens corporels, actifs incorporels, ou rend des servies à des entreprises associées. (...) Si les prix de transfert sont importants aussi bien pour les contribuables que pour les administrations fiscales, c’est parce (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Gun jumping

5736

Dès lors que deux entreprises envisagent un rapprochement, elles sont dans l’obligation d’attendre l’autorisation de l’Autorité pour le mettre en œuvre. Le contrôle des concentrations a un effet suspensif sur la réalisation des opérations. L’interdiction de la réalisation anticipée de l’opération a (...)

OECD Glossaire : Organisation / Association professionnelle

1601

Les organisations professionnelles rassemblent les acteurs d’un même secteur d’activité. Elles peuvent prendre la forme d’association, de syndicat, d’ordre professionnel, de fédération ou de comité. Elles ont pour fonction de promouvoir, de réglementer et de protéger les intérêts d’une ou plusieurs (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Barrière à l’entrée

25263

Facteurs qui empêchent ou entravent l’entrée d’entreprises sur un marché donné. Elles peuvent résulter par exemple d’une structure de marché particulière (segment coûts fixes irrécupérables, fidélité des consommateurs aux marques des produits existants) ou du comportement des entreprises déjà en place. Il (...)

OECD Glossaire : Efficience économique

3796

Dans le contexte de l’économie industrielle, et du droit et de Ia politique de la concurrence, on entend par « efficience » le mode d’utilisation optimale de ressources rares. On distingue généralement deux types d’efficience : l’efficience technologique (ou technique) et l’efficience économique (...)

OECD Glossaire : Contrôle (notion)

1161

On considère généralement qu’il y a contrôle d’une société lorsqu’une personne physique ou un groupe d’investisseurs détient plus de 50 pour cent des actions ordinaires portant droit de vote de la société en question. Mais il peut y avoir contrôle de fait lorsque le ou les investisseurs détiennent un gros (...)

OECD Glossaire : Prix abusifs

1799

Prix nettement supérieurs au niveau de concurrence, du fait de l’existence d’un monopole ou de l’exercice d’une puissance sur le marché. Toutefois, à défaut d’association frauduleuse ou d’entente sur les prix, ou de preuve d’une puissance sur le marché provenant d’une forte concentration, il est (...)

OECD Glossaire : Octroi de licence

1038

Autorisation légale de faire, par exemple de fabriquer un produit. Le licencié se voit transférer un droit qu’il n’avait pas auparavant. Certaines licences sont octroyées gratuitement mais la plupart d’entre elles sont accordées à titre onéreux. Les licences sont des contrats juridiques qui peuvent (...)

OECD Glossaire : Discrimination par les prix

4948

Il y a discrimination par les prix lorsque, sur différents segments du marché, la clientèle ne se voit pas appliquer un même prix pour un même bien ou service, alors même que cette différence de prix n’est pas liée à des différences de coûts. La discrimination par les prix n’est efficace que si les (...)

OECD Glossaire : Entente sur les prix

2941

Accord conclu entre plusieurs vendeurs pour fixer ou augmenter les prix de manière à restreindre la concurrence entre les entreprises participantes et à accroître leurs profits. En concluant un tel accord, les entreprises s’efforcent de se comporter collectivement comme un monopole. © OCDE Voir (...)

OECD Glossaire : Refus de vente

3511

Refus de vendre un bien ou de fournir la prestation d’un service, oppose généralement à un détaillant ou à un grossiste. Cette pratique peut avoir plusieurs buts : contraindre un détaillant à respecter des prix imposés, c’est-à-dire l’empêcher de vendre au rabais, conforter un accord de distribution (...)

OECD Glossaire : Privatisation

400

Transfert au secteur privé de la propriété et du contrôle de biens, d’entreprises et d’activités relevant précédemment du secteur public. Ce transfert se fait sous la forme de l’émission et de la vente ou de la distribution directe d’actions au profit du grand public. Au sens large, la privatisation (...)

OECD Glossaire : Règle de raison

4431

Démarche consistant, pour les autorités ou les juridictions compétentes en matière de droit de la concurrence, à mettre en balance les aspects proconcurrentiels et anticoncurrentiels d’une pratique commerciale restrictive lorsqu’elles ont à statuer sur sa possible interdiction. Certaines pratiques à (...)

OECD Glossaire : Restrictions verticales

3399

Pratiques mises en oeuvre par les fabricants ou les fournisseurs et concernant la revente de leurs produits. Les pratiques fréquentes dans ce domaine sont les prix imposés, la distribution exclusive et l’exclusivité territoriale ou les autres restrictions géographiques sur le marché. Dans un (...)

OECD Glossaire : Accord (notion)

840

Se caractérisent ainsi les accords exprès ou tacites conclus dans leur intérêt mutuel par des entreprises normalement concurrentes. Les accords en vue de restreindre la concurrence peuvent porter sur les prix, la production, les marchés et la clientèle. Ils sont souvent assimilés à des ententes (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Extraterritorialité

8152

Terme généralement employé pour désigner le fait, pour un État souverain, d’avoir juridiction sur des étrangers à l’égard d’actes commis en dehors des frontières de cet État. On pourrait dire qu’au sens très large, l’UE applique ses règles de concurrence d’une manière extraterritoriale lorsqu’elle invoque la (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Franchise

8111

Type particulier d’accord par lequel une entreprise (le franchiseur) concède à une autre (le franchisé), moyennant une compensation financière directe ou indirecte, le droit d’exploiter un ensemble de droits de propriété industrielle ou intellectuelle (franchise) aux fins de la production et/ou de la (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Concurrence intra-marque et inter-marques

48753

Concurrence intra-marque : Concurrence que se livrent, en termes de prix ou autres, distributeurs ou détaillants sur un produit de même marque. Par exemple, un jean Levi’s peut être vendu moins cher dans un magasin de rabais par rapport à un grand magasin, mais souvent sans les facilités de (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Droit de propriété intellectuelle

5639

Terme générique désignant l’attribution de droits de propriété au moyen de brevets, de droits d’auteur ou de marques de commerce, par exemple. Ces droits de propriété confèrent à leur titulaire le droit exclusif d’exploiter l’innovation. Celui-ci jouit ainsi du monopole d’utilisation du produit, (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Entreprise commune

14111

Association d’entreprises ou de personnes physiques constituée en vue de mener à bien un projet précis. Selon les règles de concurrence de l’UE, les entreprises communes sont des entreprises contrôlées en commun par au moins deux autres entreprises. Dans la pratique, la notion recouvre un large (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Entreprise défaillante

8041

Une entreprise est défaillante lorsqu’elle accuse durablement des pertes et voit sa part de marché se contracter de telle sorte qu’on peut s’attendre à ce qu’elle disparaisse. La notion d’entreprise défaillante présente un intérêt tout particulier pour le contrôle des concentrations. En effet, la société (...)

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