E.CA Economics (Berlin)

Linda Gratz

E.CA Economics (Berlin)

Dr Linda Gratz is a Director in the Munich office of E.CA Economics. She has extensive experience providing economic advice across the competition-law field before the EU Commission and various national competition authorities. Linda has carried out damage assessments in multiple high-profile cartel proceedings, including industries such as GIS, card payments, FMCG (roasted coffee, confectionaries and flour), lottery and pumpers. She has worked on abuse of dominance investigations involving predatory pricing, bundled rebates, excessive charges and refusal to supply (e.g. in the railway and insurance industry as well as in IP-related industries), and has contributed to the OECD Roundtable on the role of efficiency claims in these investigations. Linda also holds particular expertise in the assessment of mergers in industries such as telecommunications, construction materials, copper, FMCG, petrol stations, press logistics and touristic flights. Further, she has advised a German ministry on the organisational and methodological aspects of ex-post evaluations of State aid and contributed to research studies on state aid for DG Competition. Linda has published in journals including the International Journal of Industrial Organization, the Journal of Antitrust Enforcement and the Journal of Competition Law & Economics.


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E.CA Economics (Berlin)
E.CA Economics (Berlin)
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E.CA Economics (Berlin)
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2980 Bulletin

Linda Gratz, Theon van Dijk Margin squeeze : Recent developments in EU and national case law


Dominant undertakings, which are active in upstream and downstream markets, can squeeze margins of their downstream competitors by setting a relatively high price upstream (the input costs of their downstream competitors) and a relatively low price downstream. As margin squeeze can lead to foreclosure of downstream competitors, it constitutes a potential price-based exclusionary conduct by dominant undertakings, which is dealt with under Article 102 TFEU.



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