DG COMP (Brussels)

European Commission

DG COMP (Brussels)

The European Commission, together with the national competition authorities, directly enforces EU competition rules, Articles 101-109 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), to make EU markets work better, by ensuring that all companies compete equally and fairly on their merits. Within the Commission, the Directorate-General (DG) for Competition is primarily responsible for these direct enforcement powers.

Auteurs associés

DG CNECT (Brussels)
European Commission (Brussels)
DG COMP (Brussels)
European Commission - DG HR (Brussels)
European Commission (Brussels)

Articles

1948491 Bulletin

European Commission The EU Commission adopts a Communication on a competition policy fit for new challenges, including for the Single Market’s COVID-19 recovery, and for the green and digital transitions

347

Competition : Commission outlines contribution of competition policy and its review to green and digital transition, and to a resilient Single Market* The European Commission has adopted a Communication on a competition policy fit for new challenges, which frames the important role of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts interim measures to prevent harm to competition following a merger between biological and pharmaceutical companies (Grail / Illumina)

302

Mergers : Commission adopts interim measures to prevent harm to competition following Illumina’s early acquisition of GRAIL* The European Commission has adopted interim measures to restore and maintain the conditions of effective competition following Illumina’s early acquisition of GRAIL, which (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation into the proposed acquisition of a semiconductor and software design firm by a technology company (Nvidia / Arm)

287

Mergers : Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Arm by NVIDIA* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Arm by NVIDIA under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned that the merged entity (...)

European Commission The EU Commission carries out unannounced inspections at the premises of a pharmaceutical company active in animal health in Belgium due to suspected abuse of dominance

537

Antitrust : Commission carries out unannounced inspections in the animal health sector in Belgium* The European Commission is conducting unannounced inspections at the premises of a pharmaceutical company active in animal health in Belgium. The Commission has concerns that the inspected (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites comments on draft amendments to the General Block Exemption Regulation to further facilitate implementation of aid measures promoting the green and digital transition

630

State aid : Commission invites comments on draft proposal to further facilitate implementation of aid measures promoting the green and digital transition* The European Commission is inviting Member States and all other interested parties to comment on certain proposed amendments to the General (...)

European Commission The EU Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by telecommunication companies concerning their network sharing agreements (T-Mobile CZ / CETIN / O2 CZ)

593

Antitrust : Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by T-Mobile CZ, CETIN, and O2 CZ concerning the Czech telecommunications market* The European Commission invites comments on commitments offered by T-Mobile CZ, CETIN, O2 CZ, and their respective parent companies, Deutsche Telekom (...)

European Commission The EU Commission in two separate decisions clears Italian public support for a ferry service and closes the investigation on another ferry service that has since been put into liquidation (Laziomar) (Saremar)

320

State aid : Commission clears Italian public support for Laziomar ferry service ; closes investigation concerning support to Saremar* The European Commission has concluded that the public service compensation granted since 2011 to Laziomar S.p.A. (‘Laziomar’) for the operation of ferry services (...)

European Commission The EU General Court maintains the fines imposed by the Commission on several undertakings for their participation in a cartel on the market for aluminum and tantalum electrolytic capacitors (NEC / Nichicon / Tokin / Rubycon / Nippon Chemi-Con)

332

The General Court maintains the fines imposed by the Commission on several undertakings by reason of their participation in a cartel on the market for aluminium electrolytic capacitors and tantalum electrolytic capacitors * By decision of 21 March 2018 [1], the Commission imposed a total fine (...)

European Commission The EU Commission announces interim measures following a breach of the standstill obligation between two healthcare companies specialized in genomic sequencing (Grail / Illumina)

588

Mergers : The Commission adopts a Statement of Objections in view of adopting interim measures following Illumina’s early acquisition of GRAIL* The European Commission has sent a Statement of Objections to Illumina and GRAIL informing them of the interim measures it intends to adopt following (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves an award of slots at the Paris-Orly airport to a low-cost airline company in the context of its competitor’s recapitalisation due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Vueling / Air France)

574

State aid : Commission approves award of slots at Paris-Orly airport to Vueling in context of Air France’s recapitalisation* The European Commission has ranked Vueling first among the air carriers that have applied for the portfolio of up to 18 daily slots at Paris-Orly airport. These will be (...)

European Commission The EU Court of Justice sets aside the General Court’s judgment and rules that the Commission correctly found an aid scheme within the tax exemptions granted by Belgium to multinational companies (Magnetrol International)

273

Tax exemptions granted by Belgium to multinational companies by way of rulings : the Commission correctly found that there was an aid scheme* The Court of Justice sets aside the judgment delivered on 14 February 2019 by the General Court and refers the case back to the latter for it to rule on (...)

European Commission The EU Commission concludes after an in-depth investigation that Italian loans worth €900 million granted to a national airline are illegal aid (Alitalia)

473

State aid : Commission concludes Italian loans worth €900 million to Alitalia are illegal aid* The European Commission has concluded that two State loans for an amount of €900 million, granted by Italy to Alitalia in 2017, are illegal under EU State aid rules. Italy must therefore recover the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Greek commitments to remove the distortion created by the state-owned electricity provider’s exclusive access to lignite-fired generation (PPC)

571

Antitrust : Commission approves Greek measures to increase access to electricity for PPC’s competitors* The European Commission has made legally binding, under EU antitrust rules, measures proposed by Greece to allow the competitors of Public Power Corporation (PPC), the Greek state-owned (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds that a new Italian airline company is not an economic successor and therefore is not liable to repay an illegal State aid received by another national air carrier (ITA / Alitalia)

764

State aid : Commission finds new air carrier ITA is not Alitalia’s economic successor and Italy’s capital injections into ITA are market conform* The European Commission has found that Italia Trasporto Aereo S.p.A. (“ITA”) is not the economic successor of Alitalia and, hence, it is not liable to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds that Denmark and Sweden need to recover €66 million of incompatible aid resulting from two capital injections granted to a postal company (PostNord / Post Danmark)

598

State aid : €314.6 million capital injection from PostNord to Post Danmark does not constitute State aid ; Denmark and Sweden need to recover €66 million of incompatible aid from PostNord* The European Commission has found that an internal capital injection of DKK 2.34 billion (approximately (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €520 million Italian scheme to compensate the trade fairs and congress sector for damages suffered due to the Covid-19 pandemic

330

State aid : Commission approves €520 million Italian scheme to compensate the trade fairs and congress sector for damages suffered due to the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €520 million Italian scheme to compensate companies active in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission Commission approves a €108 million Danish aid measure to support Covid-19-related research and development activities of a healthcare company (Bavarian Nordic)

269

State aid : Commission approves €108 million Danish aid measure to support coronavirus-related research and development activities of Bavarian Nordic* The European Commission has approved a €108 million Danish aid measure to support coronavirus-related research and development (R&D) (...)

European Commission The EU Commission starts an investigation for possible breach of a standstill obligation in a merger between two biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies (Grail / Illumina)

458

Mergers : Commission starts investigation for possible breach of the standstill obligation in Illumina / GRAIL transaction* The European Commission has decided to open an investigation to assess whether Illumina’s decision to complete its acquisition of GRAIL, while the Commission’s in-depth (...)

European Commission The EU Commission gives the green light to a new synthetic securitization product under the European Guarantee Fund to further support SMEs affected by the Covid-19 pandemic in 22 Member States

347

State aid : Commission gives green light to new synthetic securitisation product under the European Guarantee Fund to further support SMEs affected by the coronavirus outbreak in 22 Member States* The European Commission approved, under EU State aid rules, the introduction of a new product in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €550 million German support measure to compensate a national railway company for damages suffered by its subsidiary due to the Covid-19 pandemic (Deutsche Bahn / DB Fernverkehr)

304

State aid : Commission approves €550 million German support to compensate Deutsche Bahn for damages suffered by its subsidiary DB Fernverkehr due to the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found a €550 million German support measure in favor of Deutsche Bahn AG (“Deutsche Bahn”) to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation following referral from Austria to assess the proposed acquisition of a company specialized in the supply of customer relationship management software by a Big Tech company (Kustomer / Facebook)

474

Mergers : Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Kustomer by Facebook* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Kustomer by Facebook under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned that the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €800 million Italian scheme to compensate airports and ground-handling operators for the damage suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic

239

State aid : Commission approves €800 million Italian scheme to compensate airports and ground-handling operators for the damage suffered due to the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €800 million Italian scheme to compensate airports and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission simplifies rules for aid combined with EU support and introduces new possibilities to implement aid measures supporting the twin transition and the recovery from Covid-19 pandemic

232

State aid : Commission simplifies rules for aid combined with EU support and introduces new possibilities to implement aid measures supporting the twin transition and the recovery from coronavirus pandemic* The European Commission adopted today an extension of the scope of the General Block (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €1 billion Spanish recapitalisation scheme to provide debt and capital support to companies affected by the COVID-19 pandemic

122

State aid : Commission approves €1 billion Spanish recapitalisation scheme to provide debt and capital support to companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, Spanish plans to set up a €1 billion recapitalisation fund that will (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €1.2 billion rescue loan and opens an investigation into a €3.2 billion Portuguese further restructuring aid in favour of a national airline company (TAP)

133

State aid : Commission approves €1.2 billion rescue loan ; opens investigation into €3.2 billion Portuguese further restructuring aid in favour of TAP* By two separate decisions adopted today, the European Commission has (i) re-approved €1.2 billion rescue aid to Transportes Aéreos Portugueses (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €39.7 million of Italian aid measures to compensate a national airline company for further damages suffered due to COVID-19 outbreak (Alitalia)

667

State aid : Commission approves €39.7 million of Italian aid measure to compensate Alitalia for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found that an Italian aid measure of €39.7 million to support Alitalia is in line with EU State aid rules. This (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears public support for several ferry services in Italy but finds other measures to be incompatible aid (Siremar / Società Navigazione Siciliana)

277

State aid : Commission clears public support for several ferry services in Italy ; finds other measures to Siremar and SNS to be incompatible aid* The European Commission has concluded that the public service compensation granted since 2009 to Sicilia Regionale Marittima S.p.A. (‘Siremar’) and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €800 million Italian scheme to support companies in context of the coronavirus outbreak, as well as development and production of COVID-19-relevant products

350

State aid : Commission approves €800 million Italian scheme to support companies in context of coronavirus outbreak, as well as development and production of coronavirus-relevant products* The European Commission has approved a €800 million Italian scheme to support companies affected by the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves the modification of the existing German State aid scheme to support rail freight operators and mitigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the sector

215

State aid : Commission approves modification of existing German scheme to support rail freight operators and mitigate effects of coronavirus outbreak on the sector* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, the modification of an existing German aid scheme to support rail (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines several investment banks €371 million for participating in a European government bond trading cartel (Bank of America / Natixis / RBS / UBS / UniCredit / WestLB)

294

Antitrust : Commission fines investment banks € 371 million for participating in a European Governments Bonds trading cartel* The European Commission has found that Bank of America, Natixis, Nomura, RBS (now NatWest), UBS, UniCredit and WestLB (now Portigon) have breached EU antitrust rules (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines a chemical company €7.5 million for providing misleading information during an investigation regarding its merger with a competitor (Sigma-Aldrich / Merck)

249

Mergers : Commission fines Sigma-Aldrich €7.5 million for providing misleading information during Merck takeover investigation* The European Commission has fined Sigma-Aldrich €7.5 million for providing incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s investigation under the EU Merger (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €12 million COVID-19 damage compensation as well as a €255.5 million of liquidity support to two airline companies in Portugal and extends an ongoing in-depth investigation to planned restructuring aid (SATA / Azores)

210

State aid : Commission approves €12 million coronavirus damage compensation and €255.5 million of liquidity support to SATA Air Açores and Azores Airlines in Portugal ; extends ongoing in-depth investigation to planned restructuring aid* The European Commission has approved €12 million in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a restructuring aid for Polish regional railways as the country commits to an accelerated opening to competition of regional passenger rail transport

158

State aid : Commission approves restructuring aid for Polish Regional Railways, as Poland commits to an accelerated opening to competition of regional passenger rail transport* The European Commission has concluded that Polish measures to support the restructuring of Polish Regional Railways, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts revised regional aid guidelines

593

State aid : Commission adopts revised Regional Aid Guidelines* The European Commission has adopted revised EU guidelines on regional State aid (the “Regional Aid Guidelines”), setting out the rules under which Member States can grant State aid to companies to support the economic development of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €400 million Dutch loan scheme to support companies providing package travel and linked travel arrangements in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

454

State aid : Commission approves €400 million Dutch loan scheme to support companies providing package travel and linked travel arrangements in context of coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €400 million Dutch loan scheme to support companies providing package travel and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €24.7 million Italian aid to compensate a national airline company for further damages suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Alitalia)

331

State aid : Commission approves €24.7 million of Italian support to compensate Alitalia for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found €24.7 million of Italian support in favour of Alitalia to be in line with EU State aid rules. This measure aims at (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €146.5 million Austrian State aid scheme to support companies joining a research and innovation project in microelectronics

230

State aid : Commission approves €146.5 million Austrian support in favour of companies joining research and innovation project in microelectronics* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €146.5 million in Austrian support in favour of three companies joining the existing (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €511 million Italian State aid scheme to compensate commercial rail passenger operators for damages suffered due to the COVID-19 outbreak

178

State aid : Commission approves €511 million Italian scheme to compensate commercial rail passenger operators for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €511 million in Italian support to compensate providers of commercial, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission publishes a public consultation to gather views and evidence from a panel to ensure that competition rules do not stand in the way of collective bargaining

355

Competition : Commission invites stakeholders to provide comments on the application of EU competition law to collective bargaining agreements for self-employed* The European Commission has launched today a public consultation to gather views and evidence from citizens, businesses, social (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation into possible anticompetitive conduct of a global pharmaceutical company in relation to a blockbuster multiple sclerosis medicine (Teva)

265

Antitrust : Commission opens formal investigation into possible anticompetitive conduct of Teva in relation to a blockbuster multiple sclerosis medicine* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether the pharmaceutical company Teva has illegally delayed (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether German plans to compensate lignite-fired power plants for phasing out earlier than foreseen are in line with EU State aid rules

168

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigation into compensation for early closure of lignite-fired power plants in Germany* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether German plans to compensate lignite-fired power plants for phasing out earlier than (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears the acquisition of American medical devices provider by leading medical imaging solutions company subject to conditions (Varian / Siemens Healthineers)

273

Mergers : Commission clears acquisition of Varian by Siemens Healthineers, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Varian Medical Systems by Siemens AG, through its subsidiary Siemens Healthineers. The approval is (...)

European Commission The EU Commission accepts commitments made by a pharmaceutical company to reduce prices for six off-patent cancer medicines by 73% addressing excessive pricing concerns (Aspen)

486

Antitrust : Commission accepts commitments by Aspen to reduce prices for six off-patent cancer medicines by 73% addressing excessive pricing concerns* The European Commission has made commitments offered by Aspen legally binding under EU antitrust rules. Aspen has to reduce its prices in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €300 million Austrian scheme for package travel organisers and facilitators of linked travel services in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

276

State aid : Commission approves €300 million Austrian scheme for package travel organisers and facilitators of linked travel services in the context of the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €300 million Austrian scheme for package travel (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens investigation into possible trade restrictions by one of the largest producers of chocolate, biscuits, and coffee in the European Union (Mondelēz)

242

Antitrust : Commission opens formal investigation into possible trade restrictions by Mondelēz* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether Mondelēz has restricted competition in a range of national markets for chocolate, biscuits and coffee by hindering (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines the owner of an online PC gaming platform and five publishers for entering into “geo-blocking” practices (Valve / Bandai Namco / Capcom / Focus Home / Koch Media / ZeniMax)

73

Antitrust : Commission fines Valve and five publishers of PC video games € 7.8 million for “geo-blocking” practices* The European Commission has fined Valve, owner of the online PC gaming platform “Steam”, and the five publishers Bandai Namco, Capcom, Focus Home, Koch Media and ZeniMax € 7.8 (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears acquisition of American financial markets data and infrastructure provider by a financial infrastructure company subject to conditions (Refinitiv / London Stock Exchange)

223

Mergers : Commission clears acquisition of Refinitiv by London Stock Exchange Group, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the acquisition of Refinitiv by the London Stock Exchange Group (‘LSEG’). The approval is conditional on full (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves investment aid for Czech orchards and irrigations and opens investigations into national measures in favour of large agricultural companies

40

State aid : Commission approves investment aid for Czech orchards and irrigations ; opens in-depth investigations into Czech measures in favour of large agricultural companies* The European Commission has approved two Czech investment aid support schemes for the restructuring of orchards and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €202 million Croatian scheme to support companies in the tourism and sports sectors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

214

State aid : Commission approves €202 million Croatian scheme to support companies in the tourism and sports sectors in the context of coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved an approximately €202 million (HRK 1.525 billion) Croatian State aid scheme to support companies of all (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €73 million of Italian support to compensate national airline for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak (Alitalia)

45

State aid : Commission approves €73 million of Italian support to compensate Alitalia for further damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found €73.02 million of Italian support in favour of Alitalia to be in line with EU State aid rules. This measure aims at (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €120 million Greek support to compensate national airline company for damages suffered due to the Covid-19 pandemic (Aegean Airlines)

167

State aid : Commission approves €120 million Greek support to compensate Aegean Airlines for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found a Greek grant of €120 million to Aegean Airlines to be in line with EU State aid rules. The measure aims at compensating (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an investigation into the proposed acquisition of an insurance brokerage company by a global risk management firm (Aon / Willis Towers Watson)

233

Mergers : Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Willis Towers Watson by Aon* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Willis Towers Watson by Aon, under the EU Merger Regulation. Aon and Willis Tower (...)

European Commission The EU Commission publishes guiding templates to assist Member States in the design of their national recovery and resilience plans, consults on a possible extension of the general block exemption regulation, and conducts a survey on the implementation of the State aid temporary framework

362

State aid : Commission puts forward initiatives to further facilitate implementation of recovery and coronavirus support measures * The European Commission has today published guiding templates to assist Member States in the design of their national recovery and resilience plans in line with (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €55 million German scheme to support the roll-out of infrastructure for mobile communication services in German land of Brandenburg

194

State aid : Commission approves €55 million German scheme to support roll-out of infrastructure for mobile communication services in German Land of Brandenburg* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a €55 million German aid scheme to support the deployment of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission gives green light to the pan-European guarantee fund to enable up to €200 billion of additional financing for companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak in 21 Member States

113

State aid : Commission gives green light to the Pan-European Guarantee Fund to enable up to €200 billion financing for companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak in 21 Member States* The European Commission found the creation of a €25 billion Pan-European Guarantee Fund managed by the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €106.7 million restructuring aid and €30.2 compensation for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak in favour of French airline (Corsair)

106

State aid : Commission approves €106.7 million restructuring aid and €30.2 compensation for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak in favour of French airline Corsair* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, two French measures in favour of Corsair, an airline (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Japanese ink manufacturer’s acquisition of colorants and effect pigments company, subject to conditions (DIC / BASF Colors & Effects)

175

Mergers : Commission approves DIC’s acquisition of BASF Colors & Effects, subject to conditions The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of BASF Colors & Effects by the DIC Corporation (‘DIC’). The approval is conditional on full (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €20 million voucher scheme to support access to broadband services by students in Greece essential in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

93

State aid : Commission approves €20 million voucher scheme to support access to broadband services by students in Greece* The European Commission has approved under EU State aid rules a €20 million voucher scheme to help students in Greece access broadband services and benefit from remote online (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears several telecommunication undertakings’ acquisition of fibre network operator, subject to conditions (Altice / Allianz / Omer / Covage)

114

Mergers : Commission clears Altice, Allianz and Omers’ joint acquisition of Covage, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Covage by SFR FTTH, a company jointly controlled by Altice, Allianz and Omers. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines two pharmaceutical companies €60.5 million for delaying the entry of cheaper generic medicine for sleep disorders (Teva / Cephalon)

113

Antitrust : Commission fines Teva and Cephalon €60.5 million for delaying entry of cheaper generic medicine* The European Commission has fined the pharmaceutical companies Teva and Cephalon €60.5 million for agreeing to delay for several years the market entry of a cheaper generic version of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Austrian ”Fixkostenzuschuss Phase II” scheme to support uncovered fixed costs of companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

131

State aid : Commission approves Austrian ”Fixkostenzuschuss Phase II” scheme to support uncovered fixed costs of companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved the Austrian “Fixkostenzuschuss Phase II” scheme to support the uncovered fixed costs of companies (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a global e-commerce company for the use of non-public independent seller data and opens a second investigation into its e-commerce business practices (Amazon)

331

Antitrust : Commission sends Statement of Objections to Amazon for the use of non-public independent seller data and opens second investigation into its e-commerce business practices* The European Commission has informed Amazon of its preliminary view that it has breached EU antitrust rules by (...)

European Commission The EU Commission takes note of the General Court’s judgment confirming its decision to prohibit an acquisition in the construction sector in Hungary and Croatia (HeidelbergCement / Schwenk Zement / Cemex)

235

Mergers : Commission takes note of General Court judgment in HeidelbergCement/Schwenk/Cemex Hungary/Cemex Croatia merger case* The European Commission takes note of the judgment of the General Court, which confirms the Commission’s decision prohibiting the acquisition by HeidelbergCement and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation to assess whether a Belgian capacity mechanism to safeguard the security of electricity supply is in line with EU State aid rules

157

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigation into Belgian capacity mechanism* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether a Belgian capacity mechanism to safeguard security of electricity supply is in line with EU State aid rules. Executive (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €199.45 million Italian support to compensate a national airline for damages suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Alitalia)

211

State aid : Commission approves €199.45 million Italian support to compensate Alitalia for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found Italian €199.45 million support in favour of Alitalia to be in line with EU State aid rules. The measure aims at compensating (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €62 million Romanian loan guarantee to compensate a national airline for damage suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic and provide the airline with urgent liquidity support (Blue Air)

183

State aid : Commission approves €62 million Romanian loan guarantee to compensate Blue Air for damage suffered due to coronavirus outbreak and provide the airline with urgent liquidity support* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a Romanian loan guarantee of up to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves German plans for a Bavarian fund to enable up to €46 billion of liquidity and capital support to enterprises in Bavaria in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

149

State aid : Commission approves Bavarian fund to enable up to €46 billion of liquidity and capital support to enterprises in Bavaria in the context of the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved German plans to set up a €46 billion fund at the level of the German State (Land) (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €133 million Portuguese liquidity support to national airline and opens investigation into the airline’s other public support measures (SATA Air)

189

State aid : Commission approves €133 million Portuguese liquidity support to SATA airline ; opens investigation into other public support measures* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €133 million in liquidity support to SATA Air Açores (SATA). The aid will allow the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves an acquisition of a payment solution provider’s account-to-account payment business by a global payment card company, subject to conditions (Nets / Mastercard)

199

Mergers : Commission approves acquisition of Nets’ account-to-account payment business by Mastercard, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Nets’ account-to-account payment business by Mastercard. The decision is (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation into public support for expansion of a chemical company’s electric vehicles battery plant in Poland (LG Chem)

236

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigation into public support for expansion of LG Chem’s electric vehicles battery plant in Poland* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether €95 million of public support granted by Poland to chemical company LG Chem (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €840 million German guarantee scheme to protect consumers and support the travel industry in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

148

State aid : Commission approves €840 million German guarantee scheme to protect consumers and support the travel industry in the context of the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a German State guarantee scheme worth €840 million to cover (...)

European Commission The EU Commission recommends that Members States not grant financial support, including State aid, to companies with links to tax havens, especially in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

212

State Aid : Commission recommends not granting financial support to companies with links to tax havens* The European Commission has today recommended that Member States do not grant financial support to companies with links to countries that are on the EU’s list of non-cooperative tax (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites comments on pharmaceutical company’s proposed commitment to reduce the price by 73% for six off-patent cancer medicines to remove the Commission’s excessive pricing concerns (Aspen)

228

Antitrust : Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by Aspen to reduce prices for six off-patent cancer medicines by 73% to address Commission’s concerns over excessive pricing* The European Commission invites comments from all interested parties on commitments offered by Aspen to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger subject to conditions of Polish integrated oil & gas companies active in many Central & Eastern European and Baltic countries, subject to conditions (Lotos / PKN Orlen)

213

Mergers : Commission clears Lotos’ acquisition by PKN Orlen, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the acquisition of Grupa Lotos by PKN Orlen. The approval is conditional on full compliance with a commitments package offered by PKN Orlen. (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines ethylene purchasers €260 million in cartel settlement for colluding to buy at the lowest possible price (Orbia / Clariant / Celanese / Westlake)

497

Antitrust : Commission fines ethylene purchasers € 260 million in cartel settlement* The European Commission has fined Orbia, Clariant and Celanese a total of € 260 million for breaching EU antitrust rules. Westlake was not fined as it revealed the cartel to the Commission. The companies took (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €150 million Austrian subordinated loan to compensate a national airline company for damages suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Austrian Airlines)

240

State aid : Commission approves €150 million Austrian subordinated loan to compensate Austrian Airlines for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found an Austrian €150 million subordinated loan (convertible into a grant) in favour of Austrian Airlines AG to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Latvian fund to enable €100 million of liquidity and capital support to large enterprises affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

184

State aid : Commission approves Latvian fund to enable €100 million of liquidity and capital support to large enterprises affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved Latvian plans to set up a fund with a current target size of €100 million that will invest through (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €46.5 million Hungarian investment aid for a chemical company’s new lithium-ion battery separator film plant (Toray)

188

State aid : Commission approves €46.5 million Hungarian investment aid to Toray’s lithium-ion battery separator film plant* The European Commission has found Hungary’s €46.5 million investment aid to the chemical company Toray for a new battery separator film plant in the Közép-Dunántúl (Central (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts a third amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework to support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments during the COVID-19 outbreak

151

State aid : Commission expands Temporary Framework to further support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments* The European Commission has adopted a third amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework adopted on 19 March 2020 to support the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €6 billion German measure to recapitalise a major national airline and weather the economic effects of COVID-19 outbreak (Lufthansa)

173

State aid : Commission approves €6 billion German measure to recapitalise Lufthansa* The European Commission has approved German plans to contribute €6 billion to the recapitalisation of Deutsche Lufthansa AG (DLH), the parent company of Lufthansa Group. The measure was approved under the State (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of a major financial data provider by one of the world’s largest stock exchange groups (Refinitiv / London Stock Exchange Group)

140

Mergers : Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Refinitiv by London Stock Exchange Group* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Refinitiv by the London Stock Exchange Group (“LSEG”) under the EU Merger (...)

European Commission The EU Commission consults the Member States on the proposal to expand State aid Temporary Framework to further support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak

287

Coronavirus : Commission Statement on consulting Member States on proposal to expand State aid Temporary Framework to further support micro, small and start-up companies and incentivise private investments* Today, the European Commission has sent to Member States for consultation a draft (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Polish recapitalization scheme to enable up to €1.65 billion of capital support to SMEs and large enterprises affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

219

State aid : Commission approves Polish recapitalisation scheme to enable up to €1.65 billion of capital support to SMEs and large enterprises affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Polish recapitalisation scheme of up to €1.65 billion (PLN 7.5 billion) to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €1.2 billion Portuguese urgent liquidity support to its major national airline company, whose already existing liquidity needs to be increased with COVID-19 (Transportes Aéreos Portugueses)

298

State aid : Commission approves €1.2 billion Portuguese urgent liquidity support to TAP* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, Portugal’s plans to grant a €1.2 billion rescue loan in favour of Transportes Aéreos Portugueses SGPS S.A. (“TAP”). The measure will provide TAP (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €286 million Finnish State aid measure to recapitalise a national airline which is considered essential to the recovery of the national economy after the COVID-19 outbreak (Finnair)

271

State aid : Commission approves €286 million Finnish measure to recapitalise Finnair* The European Commission has approved Finnish plans to contribute to the recapitalisation of Finnair through the subscription of new shares by the State in the rights issue launched by Finnair on 10 June 2020 (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves, subject to conditions, an acquisition of global pharma company’s animal health division by animal health company subject to divestments (Bayer / Elanco Animal Health)

288

Mergers : Commission approves acquisition of Bayer’s animal health division by Elanco, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Bayer AGs animal health division by Elanco Animal Health Inc. The decision is (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €5 billion French “umbrella” scheme to support research and development as well as testing infrastructures and production of COVID-19 relevant products

475

State aid : Commission approves €5 billion French “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, testing infrastructures and production of coronavirus relevant products* The European Commission has approved a €5 billion French “umbrella” scheme to support research and development, testing and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission consults stakeholders on a possible competition tool that would allow addressing structural competition problems, such as tipping markets, in a timely and effective manner

640

Antitrust : Commission consults stakeholders on a possible new competition tool* The European Commission has published today an inception impact assessment as well as an open public consultation inviting comments on exploring the need for a possible new competition tool that would allow (...)

European Commission The EU Commission waives all structural remedies committed to by merging pharmaceutical parties due to new significant permanent changes in market conditions during the divestiture process (Takeda / Shire)

206

Mergers : Commission waives the commitments made by Takeda to obtain clearance of its acquisition of Shire* The European Commission has waived, under the EU Merger Regulation, the commitments made by Takeda to obtain clearance of its acquisition of Shire. The Commission approved the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Lithuanian fund to enable up to €1 billion of liquidity and capital support to medium-sized and large enterprises affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

238

State aid : Commission approves Lithuanian fund to enable up to €1 billion of liquidity and capital support to medium-sized and large enterprises affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved Lithuanian plans to set up a fund with a target size of up to €1 billion (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation into a proposed merger between 2 leading airlines operating routes between Canada and Europe while recognizing the target markets are significantly impacted by the COVID-19 outbreak (Transat / Air Canada)

339

Mergers : Commission opens in-depth investigation into proposed acquisition of Transat by Air Canada* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of Transat by Air Canada, under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned that the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €322 million Croatian loan guarantees and subsidised loans scheme for micro, small and medium-sized companies affected by COVID-19 outbreak

219

State aid : Commission approves €322 million Croatian loan guarantees and subsidised loans scheme for micro, small and medium-sized companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved an approximately €322 million (HRK 2.450 million) Croatian scheme for loan (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites comments on an updated proposal on simplified rules for State aid combined with EU support, inspired by temporary rules for aid to tackle the COVID-19 outbreak

286

State aid : Commission invites comments on updated proposal on simplified rules for State aid combined with EU support* The European Commission is inviting Member States and other stakeholders to comment on its updated proposal to exempt from prior Commission scrutiny under EU State aid rules (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €650 million Dutch scheme to compensate companies in the floriculture, specialty horticulture, and potato sectors for damage caused by COVID-19 outbreak

201

State aid : Commission approves €650 million Dutch scheme to compensate companies in the floriculture, specialty horticulture and potato sectors for damage caused by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found a €650 million Dutch scheme that compensates companies in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission expands Temporary Framework to a recapitalization and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak

312

State aid : Commission expands Temporary Framework to recapitalisation and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has adopted a second amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €40 million Finnish direct grant schemes to support companies in the agriculture and fishery sectors affected by COVID-19 outbreak

193

State aid : Commission approves €40 million Finnish direct grant schemes to support companies in the agriculture and fishery sectors affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved two Finnish schemes, with a total budget of €40 million, to support the agricultural and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves four Danish schemes granting tax deferrals and comparable measures to ease liquidity constraints in SME’s facing difficulties due to the COVID-19 pandemic

243

STATE AID : COMMISSION APPROVES €130 MILLION DANISH SCHEMES TO SUPPORT SMES AFFECTED BY CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK* The European Commission has approved four Danish schemes with a budget of DKK 970 million (approximately €130 million) granting tax deferrals and comparable measures to ease liquidity (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a German “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, and testing as well as production of COVID-19 relevant products

304

State aid : Commission approves German “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, testing and production of coronavirus relevant products* The European Commission has approved a German “umbrella” scheme to support research, development, testing and production of coronavirus relevant (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €5 million Lithuanian scheme in the form of loan interest payments for SMEs active in road freight transport affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

226

State aid : Commission approves €5 million Lithuanian scheme for SMEs active in road freight transport affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €5 million direct grant scheme to support the Lithuanian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €2 billion Slovenian State aid scheme including a dozen of measures to support companies affected by the COVID-19 crisis

168

State aid : Commission approves €2 billion Slovenian “umbrella” scheme to support the economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €2 billion Slovenian State aid scheme to support the Slovenian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Belgian €200,000 direct grant scheme to support agricultural and aquaculture sectors in Brussels-Capital region following COVID-19 outbreak

172

State aid : Commission approves €200,000 direct grant scheme to support agricultural and aquaculture sectors in Brussels-Capital region following coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €200,000 Belgian regional scheme to support agricultural and aquaculture sectors in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €3 billion Finnish scheme that includes both direct grants and loan guarantees to support companies affected by COVID-19 outbreak

157

State aid : Commission approves €3 billion Finnish scheme to support companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Finnish scheme to support the Finnish economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €700 million Polish State aid scheme to support companies including the agricultural and fishery sectors that are affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

134

State aid : Commission approves €700 million Polish aid scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €700 million scheme to support the Polish economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The support measures available under the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €7.8 billion Polish schemes to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak including direct grants, tax deferrals, and wage subsidies

149

State aid : Commission approves €7.8 billion Polish schemes to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved 11 Polish State aid schemes, with a total budget of PLN 35.1 billion (approximately €7.8 billion), to support the Polish economy in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears merger of generic Big Pharma company with a competitor’s generic division, subject to the divestment of business for certain generic medicines (Mylan / Upjohn)

160

Mergers : Commission approves the merger of Mylan and Pfizer’s Upjohn division, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed merger between the global pharmaceutical company Mylan and Upjohn, a business division of Pfizer, which (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €100 million Italian guarantee scheme to support SMEs in the agriculture, forestry, fishery, and aquaculture sectors affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

197

State aid : Commission approves €100 million Italian guarantee scheme to support SMEs in the agriculture, forestry, fishery and aquaculture sectors affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €100 million Italian State aid scheme to support small and medium-sized (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €50 million Italian subsidized loans scheme to support agriculture, forestry, and fishery sectors affected by COVID-19 outbreak in Friuli Venezia Giulia region

175

State aid : Commission approves €50 million Italian subsidised loans scheme to support agriculture, forestry and fishery sectors affected by coronavirus outbreak in Friuli Venezia Giulia region* The European Commission has approved a €50 million Italian scheme to support the agricultural, (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €200 million Irish scheme in the form of direct grants, repayable advances, equity injections, and subsidised loans to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

142

State aid : Commission approves €200 million Irish scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €200 million Irish scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme, called “Sustaining Enterprise Scheme”, was (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €1 billion Hungary State aid scheme to support companies through direct grants, loans, and equity measures during the COVID-19 outbreak

140

State aid : Commission approves €1 billion Hungarian aid scheme to support companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a HUF 350 billion (approximately €1 billion) scheme to support the Hungarian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €35.5 million Latvian direct grant scheme to support agriculture, fishery, food, and school catering sectors in COVID-19 outbreak

172

State aid : Commission approves €35.5 million Latvian direct grant scheme to support agriculture, fishery, food and school catering sectors in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €35.5 million Latvian scheme to support the agricultural, fishery, food and school catering (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves prolongation and modification of the French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to COVID-19 outbreak

252

State aid : Commission approves prolongation and modification of the French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found France’s prolongation and modification of a previously approved scheme (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves Italian guarantee scheme for new working capital and investment loans granted by banks to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

239

State aid : Commission approves Italian guarantee scheme to support the economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved an Italian aid scheme to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary Framework (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €1 billion Croatian State aid scheme that will take the form of zero-interest loans to help companies affected by the COVID-19 crisis

141

State aid : Commission approves €1 billion Croatian schemes to support companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved two Croatian schemes to support the Croatian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The schemes were approved under the State aid (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €15 billion Austrian liquidity State aid scheme in the form of direct grants, state guarantees for loans, and subsidised public loans to support the economy in the context of the COVID-19 crisis

156

State aid : Commission approves €15 billion Austrian liquidity scheme to support the economy in the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €15 billion Austrian liquidity scheme to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under (...)

European Commission The EU Commission issues a Temporary Framework Communication on allowing limited cooperation among businesses, and a comfort letter especially for critical hospital medicines during the COVID-19 outbreak

797

Antitrust : Commission provides guidance on allowing limited cooperation among businesses, especially for critical hospital medicines during the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has published a Temporary Framework Communication to provide antitrust guidance to companies (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €140 million Hungarian State aid scheme managed by the Hungarian investment promotion agency to help the national economy during the COVID-19 crisis

173

The European Commission has approved a HUF 50 000 million (approximately €140 million) Hungarian aid scheme to support the Hungarian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary Framework adopted by the Commission on 19 March 2020, as (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €30 million Luxembourg State aid scheme related to research and development and investment in the production during the COVID-19 crisis

162

State aid : Commission approves €30 million Luxembourg scheme to support research and development and investments in the production of coronavirus relevant products* The European Commission has approved a €30 million Luxembourg aid scheme to support coronavirus related research and development (...)

European Commission The EU Commission extends Temporary Framework to enable Member States to accelerate research, testing and production of coronavirus relevant products, to protect jobs, and to further support the economy in the COVID-19 outbreak

315

State aid : Commission extends Temporary Framework to enable Member States to accelerate research, testing and production of coronavirus relevant products, to protect jobs and to further support the economy in the coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has adopted an amendment extending (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a €23 million Dutch scheme of direct grants to support providers of social support services and health care as well as youth care in offering services at home during the COVID-19 pandemic

201

State aid : Commission approves €23 million Dutch scheme to support the economy in the current coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a €23 million Dutch scheme to support certain providers of social support and health care in offering services at home during the coronavirus (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €350 million Maltese guarantee scheme for working capital loans granted by commercial banks to support companies affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

152

State aid : Commission approves €350 million Maltese guarantee scheme to support economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Maltese State aid scheme to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves a Spanish “umbrella” scheme with measures that include direct grants and tax advantages, and where recipients include the self-employed affected by the COVID-19 outbreak

187

State aid : Commission approves Spanish “umbrella” scheme to support economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved a Spanish aid scheme to support the Spanish economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The scheme was approved under the State aid Temporary (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €1.2 billion French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to COVID-19 outbreak

237

State aid : Commission approves €1.2 billion French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found France’s €1.2 billion scheme to support small and micro-enterprises as well as self-employed (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves €1.75 billion Estonian schemes to support companies with loan guarantees and direct loans under favorable terms during COVID-19 outbreak

132

State aid : Commission approves €1.75 billion Estonian schemes to support economy in coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has approved two Estonian State aid schemes to support the Estonian economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The schemes were approved under the State (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves under EU State aid rules €1.3 billion Danish scheme that partially compensates the self-employed for the losses of turnover suffered due to the COVID-19

144

The European Commission has approved under EU State aid rules a DKK 10 billion (approximately €1.3 billion) Danish scheme that partially compensates the self-employed for the losses of turnover suffered due to the coronavirus outbreak. Executive Vice-President Margrethe Vestager, in charge of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds Latvian loan guarantee scheme and subsidised loan scheme of €250 million for companies affected by coronavirus outbreak to be in line with EU State aid rules

129

State aid : Commission approves state support for €250 million Latvian subsidised loan scheme and loan guarantee scheme for companies affected by coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has found Latvian loan guarantee scheme and subsidised loan scheme for companies affected by (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation into public service delegation contracts for maritime services which potentially constitute State aid in Corsica (Corsica Linea)

147

State aid : Commission launches in-depth investigation into public service delegation contracts for maritime services to Corsica* The European Commission has launched an in-depth investigation to determine whether the public service delegation contracts for maritime services to Corsica awarded (...)

European Commission The EU Commission unconditionally approves proposed acquisition of joint control in the telecommunications market (Prosegur Alarmas / Telefónica / Prosegur)

276

Mergers : Commission approves acquisition of joint control over Prosegur Alarmas by Telefónica and Prosegur* The European Commission has approved unconditionally, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of joint control over Prosegur Alarmas by Telefónica and Prosegur. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves under State aid rules public support of over €22 million to upgrade the traffic management equipment on freight locomotives in the Netherlands

404

State aid : Commission approves over €22 million of public support to promote rail transport operability in the Netherlands* The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, €22.2 million of public support to upgradetraffic management equipment on freight locomotives in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an investigation into a possible collusion by two French retailers in a purchasing alliance (Casino Guichard-Perrachon / Les Mousquetaires)

544

Antitrust : Commission opens investigation into possible collusion by two French retailers in a purchasing alliance* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether two French groups of retailers, Casino Guichard-Perrachon (known as ‘Casino’) and Les (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether various financing measures granted by Hungarian State-owned entities to a company operating in the ground handling market comply with EU rules for aid to companies in difficulty (Malév)

417

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigation into Hungarian support measures to Malév Ground Handling* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether various financing measures totalling approximately €21 million granted by Hungarian State-owned entities to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether the plan by the Spanish region of Valencia to grant public support to a regional airline company is in line with EU State aid rules (Air Nostrum)

414

State aid : Commission opens investigation into public support for Air Nostrum’s fleet renewal in Spain* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether the plan by the Spanish region of Valencia to grant €9 million of public support to regional airline Air Nostrum (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether “excess profit” tax rulings granted by Belgium to multiple multinational companies are in line with EU State aids rules

351

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigations into individual “excess profit” tax rulings granted by Belgium to 39 multinational companies* The European Commission has opened separate in-depth investigations to assess whether “excess profit” tax rulings granted by Belgium to 39 (...)

European Commission The EU Commission finds that the marketing agreements concluded between a local Association for the promotion of touristic and economic flows and an airline company are illegal under EU State aid rules (Ryanair / Montpellier airport)

470

State aid : France to recover €8.5 million of illegal aid to Ryanair at Montpellier airport* The European Commission has found that the marketing agreements concluded between the local Association for the Promotion of Touristic and Economic Flows (APFTE) and Ryanair at the airport of (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an investigation against a designer of integrated circuits for wired communication devices and sends a Statement of Objections seeking to impose interim measures in TV and modem chipsets markets (Broadcom)

364

The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether Broadcom may be restricting competition through exclusivity practices, in breach of EU rules. The Commission intends to impose interim measures during the investigation with regard to TV and modem chipsets (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether some capital injections granted by Denmark and Sweden to postal companies are in line with EU State aid rules (PostNord / Post Danmark)

300

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigation into capital injections in favour of PostNord and Post Danmark* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether certain capital injections granted by Denmark and Sweden to PostNord and Post Danmark are in line (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to determine whether the public financing model of the Fehmarn Belt fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid rules

255

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigation into public financing of Fehmarn Belt fixed rail-road link* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to determine whether the public financing model of the Fehmarn Belt fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens investigation into an insurance association in Ireland to assess whether the conditions of access to its Insurance Link data pooling system may restrict competition (Insurance Ireland)

393

Antitrust : Commission opens investigation into Insurance Ireland data pooling system* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation into Insurance Ireland to assess whether the conditions of access to its Insurance Link data pooling system may restrict competition, in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines a multinational conglomerate company for providing incorrect information during the assessment of its merger (General Electric)

349

Mergers : Commission fines General Electric €52 million for providing incorrect information in LM Wind takeover* The European Commission has fined General Electric €52 million for providing incorrect information during the Commission’s investigation under the EU Merger Regulation of GE’s planned (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends statements of objections to an American video game developer and five videogame publishers for “geo-blocking” of PC video games (Valve / Focus Home / Koch Media / ZeniMax / Bandai Namco / Capcom)

209

Antitrust : Commission sends Statements of Objections to Valve and five videogame publishers on “geo-blocking” of PC video games* The European Commission has informed Valve, owner of the “Steam” video game distribution platform, and five videogame publishers, of its preliminary view that the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission imposes a fine totaling €12.5 million on a multinational company selling football apparel and footwear for restricting cross-border sales of its merchandise (Nike)

405

Antitrust : Commission fines Nike €12.5 million for restricting cross-border sales of merchandising products* The European Commission has fined Nike €12.5 million for banning traders from selling licensed merchandise to other countries within the EEA. This restriction concerned merchandising (...)

European Commission The EU Commission imposes a fine of € 1.49 billion on a search engine company for abusing its dominant position by imposing restrictive clauses in contracts with third-party websites (Google AdSense)

638

Antitrust : Commission fines Google €1.49 billion for abusive practices in online advertising* The European Commission has fined Google €1.49 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. Google has abused its market dominance by imposing a number of restrictive clauses in contracts with third-party (...)

European Commission The EU Commission accepts remedies proposed by entertainment companies ending competition concerns in the pay-TV services market (Disney / NBC Universal / Sony Pictures / Warner Bros / Sky)

625

Antitrust : Commission accepts commitments by Disney, NBCUniversal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Sky on cross-border pay-TV services* The European Commission has made commitments offered by Disney, NBCUniversal, Sony Pictures, Warner Bros. and Sky legally binding under EU antitrust rules. (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess whether Danish and Swedish public support for a fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid rules (Øresund)

323

State aid : Commission opens in-depth investigation into public financing of Øresund fixed rail-road link* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether Danish and Swedish public support for the Øresund fixed rail-road link is in line with EU State aid rules. (...)

European Commission The EU Commission authorizes Greece under EU State aid rules to extend by 20 years the concession for the operation of an national airport (Athens International Airport)

204

State aid : Commission finds no aid in €1.1 billion extension of Athens International Airport concession* The European Commission has authorised Greece, under EU State aid rules, to extend by 20 years the concession granted to AIA to operate Athens International Airport. The fee AIA will pay (...)

European Commission The EU Commission invites interested parties to comment on the commitments offered by two credit card companies to address competition concerns relating to inter-regional interchange fees for card payment transactions (Mastercard II / Visa)

206

Antitrust : Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by Visa and Mastercard on inter-regional interchange fees* The European Commission is inviting comments from interested parties on commitments offered separately by Visa and Mastercard to address competition concerns relating to (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation to assess whether agreements between booking system providers and airlines and travel agents restrict competition (Amadeus / Sabre)

399

Antitrust : Commission opens investigation into airline ticket distribution services* The European Commission has opened a formal investigation to assess whether agreements between booking system providers Amadeus and Sabre on the one hand, and airlines and travel agents on the other, may (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger, subject to remedies, in the markets of production and distribution of films for release in movie theaters and distribution of content for home entertainment and licensing of films and other TV content (Fox / Disney)

301

Mergers : Commission approves Disney’s acquisition of parts of Fox, subject to conditions* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of parts of Fox by Disney, both US based global media companies. The decision is conditional on full (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens an in-depth investigation to assess a merger in the market of the supply of rolled copper products and sanitary copper tubes (MKM /KME)

390

Mergers : Commission opens in-depth investigation into KME’s proposed acquisition of competing copper products supplier MKM* The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess the proposed acquisition of MKM by KME, under the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission is concerned (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines a multinational technology company for abuse of dominance by imposing illegal restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)

685

Antitrust : Commission fines Google €4.34 billion for illegal practices regarding Android mobile devices to strengthen dominance of Google’s search engine* The European Commission has fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. Since 2011, Google has imposed illegal restrictions (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation to assess whether supply agreements between Qatari petrol companies and EU importers restrain competition (Qatar Petroleum)

527

Antitrust : Commission opens investigation into restrictions to the free flow of gas sold by Qatar Petroleum in Europe* The European Commission has opened a formal investigation to assess whether supply agreements between Qatar Petroleum companies exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission welcomes provisional agreement reached by the EU Parliament and Council concerning new rules to make national competition authorities even more effective enforcers (ECN+ Directive)

365

Commission welcomes provisional political agreement reached by European Parliament and Council on new rules to make national competition authorities even more effective enforcers* The European Commission welcomes the provisional political agreement reached today by the European Parliament and (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears for the second time a merger subject to remedies on the market for the wholesale of premium Pay TV film channels (Liberty Global / Ziggo)

457

Mergers : Commission confirms approval of acquisition of Dutch cable TV operator Ziggo by Liberty Global, subject to conditions* The European Commission has reapproved with conditions, under the EU Merger Regulation, the acquisition of Ziggo by Liberty Global. The merger was first approved in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines eight producers of capacitors for cartel (Elna / Hitachi Chemical / Holy Stone / Matsuo / NEC Tokin / Nichicon / Nippon Chemi-Con / Rubycon)

813

Antitrust : Commission fines eight producers of capacitors €254 million for participating in cartel* The European Commission has fined Elna, Hitachi Chemical, Holy Stone, Matsuo, NEC Tokin, Nichicon, Nippon Chemi-Con, Rubycon € 253 935 000. Together with the immunity applicant, Sanyo, they (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines maritime car carriers and car parts suppliers in three separate cartel cases (MOL / NYK / K Line / Wwl-Eukor / Csav) (Denso / Bosch / NGK) (TRW / Continental)

918

Antitrust : Commission fines maritime car carriers and car parts suppliers a total of €546 million in three separate cartel settlements* In three separate decisions, the European Commission has fined four maritime car carriers €395 million, two suppliers of spark plugs €76 million, and two (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger subject to remedies in the global media market and rejects a referral request by the Polish Competition Authority (Discovery / Scripps)

488

Mergers : Commission approves Discovery’s acquisition of Scripps, subject to conditions ; rejects referral request by Polish competition authority* The European Commission has approved, under the EU Merger Regulation, the proposed acquisition of Scripps by Discovery, both US based global media (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines the incumbent Lithuanian railway company for abuse of dominance on the rail freight market by dismantling part of the track (Baltic Rail)

375

Antitrust : Commission fines Lithuanian Railways €28 million for hindering competition on rail freight market* The European Commission has fined Lithuanian Railways (Lietuvos geležinkeliai) an amount of €27 873 000 for hindering competition on the rail freight market, in breach of EU antitrust (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends statements of objection to three undertakings regarding possible breach of EU merger procedural rules (Merck / Sigma-Aldric ; GE / LM Wind ; Canon / Toshiba Medical Systems)

404

Mergers : Commission alleges Merck and Sigma-Aldrich, General Electric, and Canon breached EU merger procedural rules* The Commission has sent three separate Statements of Objections to Merck and Sigma-Aldrich, General Electric and Canon alleging they breached EU merger rules : General (...)

European Commission The EU Commission adopts a new anonymous whistleblower tool

221

Antitrust : Commission introduces new anonymous whistleblower tool* A new tool to make it easier for individuals to alert the Commission about secret cartels and other antitrust violations while maintaining their anonymity has been launched by the European Commission today. Individuals can (...)

European Commission The EU Commission fines six suppliers of car air conditioning and engine cooling €155 million in cartel settlement (Behr / Calsonic / Denso / Panasonic / Sanden / Valeo)

294

Antitrust : Commission fines six car air conditioning and engine cooling suppliers € 155 million in cartel settlement* The European Commission has fined Behr, Calsonic, Denso, Panasonic, Sanden and Valeo a total of € 155 million for taking part in one or more of four cartels concerning supplies (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a social network suspected of having transmitted misleading informations concerning a merger (Facebook / WhatsApp)

244

Mergers : Commission alleges Facebook provided misleading information about WhatsApp takeover* The European Commission has sent a Statement of Objections to Facebook alleging the company provided incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s 2014 investigation under the EU Merger (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections against two airlines concerning a potentially anticompetitive codeshare agreement (Brussels Airlines / TAP Portugal)

265

Antitrust : Commission sends Statement of Objections to Brussels Airlines and TAP Portugal on code-sharing on Brussels-Lisbon route* The European Commission has informed Brussels Airlines and TAP Portugal of its preliminary view that their codeshare cooperation on passenger services between (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to an international sports association suspected to have breached EU antitrust rules (International Skating Union)

164

Antitrust : Commission sends Statement of Objections to International Skating Union on its eligibility rules* The European Commission has informed the International Skating Union (ISU) of its preliminary view that the ISU rules under which athletes face severe penalties for participation in (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears a merger, subject to remedies, in the telecommunication market and rejects a referral request issued by the Dutch competition authority (Vodafone / Liberty Global)

200

MERGERS : COMMISSION CLEARS VODAFONE/LIBERTY GLOBAL TELECOMS JOINT VENTURE, SUBJECT TO CONDITION ; REJECTS REFERRAL REQUEST BY DUTCH COMPETITION AUTHORITY * The European Commission has cleared under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed creation of a joint venture in the Netherlands by mobile (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a technology company suspected of imposing restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)

250

Antitrust : Commission sends Statement of Objections to Google on Android operating system and applications* The European Commission has informed Google of its preliminary view that the company has, in breach of EU antitrust rules, abused its dominant position by imposing restrictions on (...)

European Commission The EU Commission allows the early termination of commitments made by a railway power supplier, following the entry of new competitors to the market (Deutsche Bahn)

229

Antitrust : successful market opening allows early termination of commitments in Deutsche Bahn case* The European Commission has relieved Deutsche Bahn ahead of schedule from commitments made binding in December 2013, as several competitors have now entered the German railway traction current (...)

European Commission The EU Commission pursues its in-depth investigation on a merger in the mobile telecommunications services market without referral to the UK NCA (Hutchison / Telefónica UK)

139

MERGERS : COMMISSION CONTINUES INVESTIGATION OF HUTCHISON 3G / TELEFÓNICA UK MERGER WITHOUT REFERRAL TO UK* Commission does not refer investigation of Hutchison/Telefónica UK merger to UK The European Commission has decided not to refer the planned acquisition of Telefónica UKby Hutchison to the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission opens a formal investigation concerning undue tax benefits potentially granted by Luxembourg to a fast food restaurant chain (McDonald’s)

97

State aid : Commission opens formal investigation into Luxembourg’s tax treatment of McDonald’s* The Commission has opened a formal probe into Luxembourg’s tax treatment of McDonald’s. Its preliminary view is that a tax ruling granted by Luxembourg may have granted McDonald’s an advantageous tax (...)

European Commission The EU Commission approves the acquisition by a rival of a data center operator subject to the divestment of several data centers in Amsterdam, London, and Frankfurt (Telecity / Equinix)

256

MERGERS : COMMISSION CLEARS ACQUISITION OF TELECITY BY EQUINIX, SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS* The European Commission has approved the proposed acquisition of data centre operator Telecity by rival Equinix subject to the divestment of a number of data centres in Amsterdam, London and Frankfurt. The (...)

European Commission The EU Commission clears an acquisition in the markets of oil and gas exploration, the liquefaction of gas and the wholesale supply of liquefied natural gas (BG Group / Royal Dutch Shell)

172

Commission clears acquisition of BG Group by Royal Dutch Shell* The transaction was cleared as it will not grant Shell market power in oil and gas exploration, LNG liquefaction or LNG wholesale supply. Shell will also not be able to prevent competitors from using its gas infrastructure in the (...)

European Commission The EU Commission open an in-depth investigation concerning a merger in the market of small package delivery, freight forwarding and cargo transportation services (TNT / FedEx)

229

MERGERS : COMMISSION OPENS IN-DEPTH INVESTIGATION INTO PROPOSED TNT BY FEDEX * The European Commission has opened an in-depth investigation to assess whether the proposed acquisition of TNT Express by FedEx Corporation is in line with the EU Merger Regulation. Both companies are major global (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to several film studios companies suspected to have concluded anticompetitive agreements (Paramount Pictures)

252

Commission sends Statement of Objections on cross-border provision of pay-TV services available in UK and Ireland* The European Commission has today sent a Statement of Objections to Sky UK and six major US film studios : Disney, NBCUniversal, Paramount Pictures, Sony, Twentieth Century Fox (...)

European Commission The EU Commission partially refers a proposed merger to the Danish Competition Authority in the market of pig meat and clears the merger outside Denmark (Danish Crown / Tican)

83

Commission partially refers Danish Crown / Tican merger to Denmark’s competition authority ; clears proposed merger outside Denmark* The European Commission has partially referred the proposed merger between Danish Crown and Tican to the Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (DCCA) at its (...)

European Commission The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a credit card company regarding its cross-border rules and inter-regional interchange fees (Mastercard II)

83

Antitrust : Commission sends Statement of Objections to MasterCard on cross-border rules and inter-regional interchange fees* The European Commission today has sent a Statement of Objections to MasterCard. The Statement of Objections outlines the Commission’s preliminary view that MasterCard’s (...)

European Commission The EU Commission launches a market test concerning the commitments proposed by an electricity provider operating on the Bulgarian wholesale electricity market (Bulgarian Energy Holding)

210

Commission market tests commitments by Bulgarian Energy Holding (BEH) concerning Bulgarian wholesale electricity market* The European Commission is inviting comments from interested parties on commitments offered by the State-owned Bulgarian Energy Holding EAD (BEH) to address competition (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Formulaire CO

4958

Formulaire que les entreprises sont tenues d’utiliser lorsque l’opération de concentration qu’elles envisagent de former est de dimension communautaire au sens du règlement sur les concentrations et que l’opération doit donc être notifiée à la Commission. Le formulaire CO explique en détail la manière (...)

European Commission, French Competition Authority Glossaire : Conseiller-auditeur

4052

Haut fonctionnaire indépendant chargé d’organiser les auditions et d’assurer leur bon déroulement. Il contribue au caractère objectif tant de l’audition elle-même que de toute décision ultérieure ainsi qu’au respect des formes régulières et des droits de la défense des parties. Le conseiller-auditeur a (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Parasitisme

4413

Le fait pour une entreprise (ou une personne) de tirer profit des actions et des efforts réalisés par une autre sans en supporter ou en partager les coûts. Par exemple, un détaillant peut prendre la décision de former des démonstrateurs (et d’en supporter les coûts) afin de mieux informer les clients (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Lettre de rejet de plainte

2843

Lettre administrative par laquelle la Commission informe un plaignant de son intention de rejeter sa plainte. Cette lettre adressée au titre de l’article 7 expose la position provisoire de la Commission à l’égard d’une plainte et donne au plaignant la possibilité de présenter d’autres observations et (...)

European Commission Glossaire: Potential competition

9081

Pressure exercised upon incumbent firms by the possibility that new or existing firms will enter a specific market (potential competitor). New entrants may be attracted by above normal profits made in this market by incumbent firms, possibly as a result of weak competition. Additional firms (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Lettre au titre de l’article 11

3362

Demande de renseignements que la Commission adresse par écrit aux entreprises et aux associations d’entreprises, ainsi qu’aux gouvernements et aux autorités compétentes des États membres, pour recueillir les renseignements nécessaires aux fins de ses enquêtes. Ces demandes peuvent être envoyées à des (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Substituabilité

10343

Mesure dans laquelle les produits peuvent être considérés comme interchangeables du point de vue des producteurs ou des consommateurs. Si ces derniers peuvent acheter un autre produit qu’ils jugent équivalent par sa nature, son utilisation et/ou son prix (substitution du côté de la demande), cette (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Marché amont

14471

Marché se trouvant au stade précédent de la chaîne de production ou de distribution, par exemple, le marché de la production, de la distribution et du marketing de véhicules automobiles est situé en amont de la vente de ces véhicules aux consommateurs finals. © Commission (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Economies d’échelle

8637

Une entreprise réalise des économies d’échelle lorsqu’elle réduit ses coûts unitaires en produisant plus (c’est-à-dire lorsque les coûts moyens diminuent à mesure que la production augmente). Il faut pour cela qu’elle puisse répartir ses coûts fixes sur une production plus importante. On peut citer (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Courtoisie

4571

Principe appliqué dans le domaine de la coopération internationale en matière de politique de concurrence. Par courtoisie négative, tout pays partie à un accord de coopération garantit qu’il tiendra compte des intérêts importants des autres parties à cet accord dans l’application de ses propres règles (...)

European Commission Glossaire: Horizontal agreement

8136

Arrangement between actual or see definition forpotential competitors, i.e. undertakings operating at the same level of the production or distribution chain, covering for example research and development, production, purchasing or commercialisation. Horizontal agreements may restrict (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Annulation

4428

Le recours en annulation : Le recours en annulation fait partie des recours pouvant être exercés devant la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne. Par ce recours, le requérant demande l’annulation d’un acte adopté par une institution, un organe ou un organisme de l’Union européenne. Le recours en (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Conflit de juridictions

6634

La structure des autorités nationales de concurrence varie d’un État membre à l’autre. Dans certains États membres, un seul organisme instruit les affaires et adopte tous les types de décisions. Dans d’autres, les rôles sont répartis entre deux organismes, l’un chargé d’instruire l’affaire, l’autre — (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Analyse économique

2611

L’analyse économique joue un rôle croissant en droit de la concurrence. Aux États-Unis, invoquée par l’école de Chicago pour contester, à partir des années 1970, une pratique judiciaire jugée trop défavorable aux grandes entreprises, avant d’évoluer dans un sens plus nuancé, elle a transformé (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Effet sur le commerce entre Etats membres

8009

La notion d’« effet sur le commerce » est le critère de compétence qui détermine l’applicabilité des règles de concurrence de l’Union européenne (UE). Il est particulièrement important dans le nouveau régime d’application de ces règles, qui fait obligation aux juridictions et autorités de concurrence (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Licence obligatoire

6523

D’une façon générale, le titulaire d’un brevet est libre d’exploiter personnellement l’invention protégée ou bien d’autoriser une autre personne à l’exploiter. Pourtant, lorsque des raisons d’intérêt général le justifient, les autorités publiques nationales peuvent autoriser l’exploitation d’un brevet par une (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Protection des consommateurs

3106

La politique de concurrence vise à faire appliquer des règles garantissant que les entreprises se livrent une concurrence loyale. La politique de concurrence contribue à stimuler l’esprit d’entreprise et la productivité, à élargir l’offre pour les consommateurs, à faire baisser les prix et à améliorer (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Mesure publique

3931

Loi, arrêté ministériel, décision ou autre acte administratif adoptés par un État membre. Lorsqu’un État membre omet d’agir, ce comportement peut également constituer une mesure. Le Commission peut engager une procédure d’infraction si les mesures publiques prises concernant les entreprises publiques et (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Renvoi (concentration)

3533

La compétence communautaire dans le domaine du contrôle des concentrations est définie par l’application des critères de chiffres d’affaires fixés à l’article 1er, paragraphes 2 et 3, du Règlement (CE) No 1/2003 sur les concentrations. Lorsqu’ils ont à connaître de concentrations, la Commission et les (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Ne bis in idem

8538

La règle du non-cumul des sanctions (principe ne bis in idem ou non bis in idem) est consacrée à l’article 50 de la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne : « Nul ne peut être poursuivi ou puni pénalement en raison d’une infraction pour laquelle il a déjà été acquitté ou condamné dans (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Seuil de chiffre d’affaires (concentration)

11766

Le chiffre d’affaires total des parties constitue un critère de répartition des compétences entre les États membres et la Commission en matière de contrôle des concentrations. On considère que les opérations de concentration pour lesquelles le chiffre d’affaires total des parties dépasse les seuils (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Accès à une facilité essentielle

3208

« Une entreprise en situation de position dominante pour la mise à disposition d’une installation essentielle, qui utilise elle-même cette installation (c’est à dire des installations ou des équipements sans l’utilisation desquels les concurrents ne peuvent servir leur clientèle), et qui refuse à (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Demande de renseignements

2310

Selon les articles 18 du Règlement (CE) No 1/2003 et 11 du Règlement (CE) 139/2004, pour l’accomplissement des tâches qui lui sont assignées par ces règlements, la Commission peut, par simple demande ou par voie de décision, demander aux entreprises et associations d’entreprises de fournir tous les (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Concentration (abandon)

2183

« Une concentration cesse d’exister et le règlement sur les concentrations cesse d’être applicable lorsque les entreprises concernées abandonnent la concentration. À cet égard, le nouveau règlement no 139/2004 sur les concentrations a introduit une nouvelle disposition concernant la clôture, sans (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Contrôle exclusif

3652

Selon la Communication juridictionnelle codifiée de la Commission concernant le règlement (CE) no 139/2004 du Conseil relatif au contrôle des opérations de concentration entre entreprises : « Il y a prise de contrôle exclusif lorsqu’une entreprise peut exercer à elle seule une influence (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Vente liée

25923

Pratique commerciale consistant à lier la vente d’un produit à l’achat d’un autre produit. Cette pratique peut restreindre la concurrence si elle n’est pas objectivement justifiée par la nature des produits ou leur usage commercial. La théorie économique tend à montrer qu’une entreprise qui dispose (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Prix de vente imposé

58327

Accords ou pratiques concertées entre un fournisseur et un distributeur ayant directement ou indirectement pour objet l’établissement d’un prix de vente fixe ou minimum ou d’un niveau de prix de vente fixe ou minimum que le distributeur doit appliquer lorsqu’il revend un produit/service à ses (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Pouvoir de marché

43900

Pouvoir d’une entreprise sur un marché donné. En économie, le pouvoir de marché désigne à la base la capacité des entreprises à fixer des prix supérieurs au coût marginal d’une manière que ceci soit rentable. En matière de concurrence, le pouvoir de marché est déterminé à l’aide d’une analyse structurelle (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Concentration (notion)

24182

Transfert du patrimoine d’une ou de plusieurs sociétés à une autre société, au moyen de l’absorption par une société préexistante ou de la création d’une société nouvelle. La fusion est une opération par laquelle les sociétés peuvent accroître leur taille, développer des activités existantes ou nouvelles et (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Oligopole

33484

Structure du marché caractérisée par un nombre très limité de vendeurs qui ont conscience de leur interdépendance lorsqu’ils adoptent des décisions stratégiques concernant, par exemple le prix, la production et la qualité. Au sein d’un oligopole, chaque entreprise sait que son comportement sur le marché (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Marché pertinent

101550

La définition du marché en cause permet d’identifier et de définir le périmètre à l’intérieur duquel s’exerce la concurrence entre entreprises. Elle permet d’établir le cadre dans lequel la Commission applique la politique de la concurrence. Son objet principal est d’identifier de manière systématique (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Part de marché

20903

Mesure de l’importance relative d’une entreprise au sein d’une branche d’activité ou d’un marché donné, par rapport à la production, aux ventes ou à la capacité de l’ensemble des entreprises de cette branche ou de ce marché. Parmi les objectifs commerciaux des entreprises fréquemment cités figure, outre (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Recours collectif

3296

Le recours collectif est un mécanisme procédural qui permet, pour des raisons d’économie de procédure et/ou d’efficacité du contrôle du respect du droit, le regroupement, dans une action en justice unique, de nombreuses prétentions individuelles (relatives à une seule et même infraction). La notion de (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Objet ou effet anticoncurrentiel

19993

Selon les Lignes directrices concernant l’application de l’article 81, paragraphe 3, du traité de la Commission : « Cette distinction entre les accords ayant pour objet et ceux ayant pour effet de restreindre la concurrence, est importante. Dès lors qu’il a été établi qu’un accord a pour objet de (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Gun jumping

19488

Dès lors que deux entreprises envisagent un rapprochement, elles sont dans l’obligation d’attendre l’autorisation de l’Autorité pour le mettre en œuvre. Le contrôle des concentrations a un effet suspensif sur la réalisation des opérations. L’interdiction de la réalisation anticipée de l’opération a (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Marché géographique

9919

Le marché géographique en cause comprend le territoire sur lequel les entreprises concernées sont engagées dans l’offre des biens et des services en cause, sur lequel les conditions de concurrence sont suffisamment homogènes et qui peut être distingué de zones géographiques voisines parce que, en (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Exemption individuelle

12321

Décision de la Commission, en application de l’article 81, paragraphe 3, du traité CE, d’exempter des accords notifiés de l’interdiction prévue à l’article 81, paragraphe 1, du traité CE, sur la base d’une appréciation individuelle. D’une manière générale, les accords restrictifs peuvent bénéficier d’une (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Barrière à l’entrée

71595

Facteurs qui empêchent ou entravent l’entrée d’entreprises sur un marché donné. Elles peuvent résulter par exemple d’une structure de marché particulière (segment coûts fixes irrécupérables, fidélité des consommateurs aux marques des produits existants) ou du comportement des entreprises déjà en place. Il (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Approvisionnement exclusif

16761

« Dans les accords d’achat exclusif, le revendeur s’engage à ne pas acheter les produits faisant l’objet du contrat à d’autres fournisseurs que son cocontractant. Le fournisseur peut cependant approvisionner d’autres revendeurs dans la même zone de vente au même niveau de distribution. Contrairement (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Réseau européen de la concurrence (REC)

4989

Tous les pays de l’UE disposent d’autorités nationales de la concurrence habilitées à faire respecter la législation européenne dans ce domaine. Ils peuvent suspendre des accords ou des pratiques nuisant à la concurrence et infliger des amendes aux sociétés qui enfreignent la législation européenne. (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Protection de l’environnement

1507

Dans une Communication de la Commission - Lignes directrices concernant les aides d’État à la protection de l’environnement et à l’énergie pour la période 2014-2020 - la protection de l’environnement a été défini comme : "Toute action visant à réparer ou à prévenir une atteinte au milieu physique ou aux (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Accord de distribution

11850

Il s’agit d’accords qui concernent les conditions d’achat, de vente ou de revente des biens ou des services fournis par le fournisseur ou qui concernent les conditions de vente par l’acheteur de biens ou de services dans lesquels sont incorporés ces biens ou services. Distribution exclusive : Dans (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Effet direct

17153

Le principe d’effet direct permet aux particuliers d’invoquer directement une norme européenne devant une juridiction nationale ou européenne. Ce principe ne concerne que certains actes européens, il est par ailleurs soumis à plusieurs conditions. L’effet direct du droit européen est, avec le (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Subventions croisées

11568

Par subventions croisées, on entend la technique par laquelle une entreprise fait supporter ou impute tout ou partie des coûts de son activité sur un marché géographique ou un marché de produits donné à son activité sur un autre marché géographique ou marché de produits. Dans certains cas, les (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Compétence

5483

Le règlement CE n° 1/2003 du Conseil, du 16 décembre 2002 , instaure un mécanisme de compétences parallèles entre la Commission, les autorités de concurrence et les juridictions des Etats membres pour l’application des articles 101 et 102 du Traité CE. Cette architecture institutionnelle repose sur la (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Phase II (concentration)

4820

En pratique, les « phases 2 » sont engagées dans des cas plus restreints. Comme en phase 1, l’Autorité peut recevoir des engagements proposés par les parties. L’examen approfondi donne lieu à un rapport adressé aux parties notifiantes et au commissaire du Gouvernement qui peuvent produire leurs (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Phase I (concentration)

4703

Une fois notifiée (ou renvoyée par la Commission), l’opération est examinée par l’Autorité dans le cadre d’un premier examen dit de « phase 1 ». Au terme de cet examen, qui peut impliquer la consultation de tiers, clients, concurrents ou fournisseurs dans le cadre d’un test de marché, l’Autorité se (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Boycott

4755

Un boycott anticoncurrentiel est une action collective qui vise à refuser de commercialiser ou d’acheter ou d’exercer des pressions en ce sens à l’égard d’une ou plusieurs entités économiques. Le boycott anticoncurrentiel est assimilé à une action délibérée en vue d’évincer un opérateur du marché. Le (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Amicus curiae

1822

Selon l’article 15(3) du Règlement 1/2003, les autorités de concurrence des États membres, agissant d’office, peuvent soumettre des observations écrites aux juridictions de leur État membre respectif au sujet de l’application de l’article 101 ou 102 du traité sur le fonctionnement de l’Union européenne. (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Contrat d’agence

12029

Un agent est une personne physique ou morale investie du pouvoir de négocier et/ou de conclure des contrats pour le compte d’une autre personne (le commettant), soit en son nom propre soit au nom du commettant en vue de : (i) l’achat de biens ou de services par le commettant, ou de (ii) la vente (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Extraterritorialité

11965

Terme généralement employé pour désigner le fait, pour un État souverain, d’avoir juridiction sur des étrangers à l’égard d’actes commis en dehors des frontières de cet État. On pourrait dire qu’au sens très large, l’UE applique ses règles de concurrence d’une manière extraterritoriale lorsqu’elle invoque la (...)

European Commission, French Competition Authority Glossaire : Plainte

8792

Demande introduite par une personne physique ou morale faisant valoir un intérêt légitime, afin que la Commission examine une prétendue infraction au droit européen de la concurrence et y mettre fin. Dans le cas du dépôt d’une plainte formelle, la Commission est appelée à statuer (c’est-à-dire soit à (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Société de gestion collective

7222

Association qui perçoit les redevances versées par les utilisateurs de droits de propriété intellectuelle pour le compte des détenteurs de ces droits. Par exemple, une station de radio qui passe un disque protégé par le droit d’auteur doit verser une redevance à une société de gestion collective, qui (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Services d’intérêt économique général

14906

Services à caractère économique, dont la fourniture peut être considérée comme relevant de l’intérêt général, par exemple, la fourniture de base, accessible à tous, d’énergie, de télécommunications, de services postaux, de transport, d’eau et de services d’élimination des déchets. Il incombe principalement (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Restrictions caractérisées

41270

Restrictions de concurrence, par des accords ou pratiques commerciales, considérées par la plupart des juridictions comme très graves et ne produisant généralement aucun effet positif. C’est pourquoi elles enfreignent presque toujours le droit de la concurrence. En droit européen, les exemples les (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Restrictions accessoires

33027

Restrictions imposées aux parties à un accord (y compris les accords relatifs à une opération de concentration) ne faisant pas l’objet premier de cet accord, mais étant directement liées et nécessaires à la réalisation des objectifs qu’il prévoit. Dans le cas d’accords de coopération, un exemple serait (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Protection territoriale absolue

14546

Pratique exercée par des producteurs ou des fournisseurs concernant la revente de leurs produits et entraînant un cloisonnement des marchés ou des territoires. Dans le cas d’une protection territoriale absolue, le producteur n’autorise qu’un seul distributeur à commercialiser son produit dans un (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Pratiques concertées

44075

Coordination entre entreprises qui, sans être allées jusqu’à conclure un accord formel, ont sciemment adopté une coopération pratique plutôt que de s’exposer aux risques d’un marché concurrentiel. Une pratique concertée peut consister dans une prise de contact directe ou indirecte entre entreprises dont (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Pouvoir d’achat

21961

Capacité d’un ou de plusieurs acheteurs, fondée sur leur poids économique sur le marché concerné, d’obtenir de leurs fournisseurs des conditions d’achat avantageuses. Le pouvoir d’achat constitue un aspect important de l’analyse en matière de concurrence, car de puissants acheteurs peuvent influencer la (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Nullité

6423

L’article 101, paragraphe 1, du Traité sur le fonctionnement de l’UE interdit les accords entre entreprises qui restreignent la concurrence et sont susceptibles d’affecter le commerce entre États membres. Conformément à l’article 101, paragraphe 2, du Traité sur le fonctionnement de l’UE, ces accords (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Notification

9866

Renseignements formels que les entreprises communiquent, dans certaines situations, à la Commission en application du droit européen en matière de concentrations. Le règlement sur les concentrations oblige les entreprises à notifier toute concentration de dimension communautaire à la Commission sur (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Monomarquisme

19902

Ce terme englobe tant des obligations de non-concurrence que des quotas d’achat. Une obligation de non-concurrence est un mécanisme obligatoire ou incitatif contenu dans un contrat d’approvisionnement ou de distribution, qui amène l’acheteur à ne pas produire, acheter, vendre ou revendre des (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Mesures provisoires

12754

Mesures conservatoires imposées aux entreprises par la Commission dans une affaire de concurrence où celle-ci n’a pas encore statué sur le fond, afin d’empêcher qu’un comportement anticoncurrentiel n’entraîne de dommages irréversibles avant d’être sanctionné. Des mesures provisoires peuvent être prises (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Mandataire (concentrations)

5401

Personne morale ou physique nommée dans les affaires de concentration pour contrôler la mise en oeuvre des engagements et contribuer, si nécessaire, à leur mise en oeuvre. Le mandataire est désigné, sous réserve de l’approbation de la Commission, par les parties qui ont présenté des engagements à la (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Franchise

10379

Type particulier d’accord par lequel une entreprise (le franchiseur) concède à une autre (le franchisé), moyennant une compensation financière directe ou indirecte, le droit d’exploiter un ensemble de droits de propriété industrielle ou intellectuelle (franchise) aux fins de la production et/ou de la (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Facilité essentielle

24432

Installation ou infrastructure nécessaire pour atteindre les clients et/ou pour permettre aux concurrents d’exercer leurs activités. Une facilité est essentielle lorsque sa reproduction est impossible ou extrêmement difficile en raison de contraintes physiques, géographiques, juridiques ou (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Clause de non-concurrence

24243

Clause contractuelle entraînant pour les parties à un contrat d’achat, ou au moins pour une d’entre elles, une obligation directe ou indirecte de ne pas fabriquer, acheter, vendre ou revendre de manière indépendante des biens ou des services en concurrence avec les biens ou les services faisant (...)

European Commission, French Competition Authority Glossaire : Clémence

16383

Terme générique désignant la réduction totale ou partielle du montant des amendes infligées aux entreprises qui coopèrent avec les autorités de concurrence dans le cadre d’enquêtes sur des ententes. Actuellement, le programme de clémence de la Commission est constitué par sa communication de 2006 sur (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Importations parallèles (commerce parallèle)

28780

Commerce de produits qui s’effectue en dehors du système de distribution officiel établi par une entreprise donnée. Du fait de leur propre système de distribution, les entreprises peuvent être à l’origine d’écarts de prix entre les différents pays, en exploitant les différences de comportement des (...)

European Commission Glossaire : De minimis

20707

Communication de la Commission précisant les conditions dans lesquelles l’incidence d’un accord ou d’une pratique sur la concurrence à l’intérieur du marché commun peut être considérée comme négligeable, à savoir lorsque la part de marché cumulée des entreprises concernées ne dépasse pas certains seuils. (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Concurrence intermarques

31968

Concurrence entre les entreprises qui ont mis au point des marques ou des labels pour leurs produits afin de les distinguer des autres marques vendues sur le même segment de marché. Bien qu’ils ne soient pas considérés comme totalement équivalents par les consommateurs, les produits de marque se font (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Concurrence intra-marque et inter-marques

69156

Concurrence intra-marque : Concurrence que se livrent, en termes de prix ou autres, distributeurs ou détaillants sur un produit de même marque. Par exemple, un jean Levi’s peut être vendu moins cher dans un magasin de rabais par rapport à un grand magasin, mais souvent sans les facilités de (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Contrôle commun

14840

Il y a contrôle commun lorsqu’au minimum deux entreprises ou deux personnes ont la possibilité d’exercer une influence déterminante sur une autre entreprise. Par influence déterminante, on entend habituellement le pouvoir de bloquer des décisions qui déterminent la stratégie commerciale d’une (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Coopération internationale

2524

Coopération dans le domaine de la politique de concurrence et du contrôle de la législation en la matière entre autorités de la concurrence dans deux pays (coopération bilatérale) ou plus (coopération trilatérale, multilatérale), qui s’exerce le plus souvent d’une manière informelle, mais prend parfois la (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Distribution exclusive

36455

Système de distribution dans lequel une entreprise accorde un droit exclusif sur ses produits ou services à une autre entreprise. Les formes les plus courantes sont le monomarquisme et/ou le droit exclusif sur un territoire, par lequel un seul distributeur est autorisé à commercialiser le produit (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Distribution sélective

54489

Système de distribution où un fournisseur conclut des accords (verticaux) avec un nombre limité de distributeurs choisis dans la même zone géographique. D’une part, les accords de distribution sélective restreignent le nombre des distributeurs agréés et, d’autre part, interdisent les ventes aux (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Droit de propriété intellectuelle

7528

Terme générique désignant l’attribution de droits de propriété au moyen de brevets, de droits d’auteur ou de marques de commerce, par exemple. Ces droits de propriété confèrent à leur titulaire le droit exclusif d’exploiter l’innovation. Celui-ci jouit ainsi du monopole d’utilisation du produit, (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Effet de réseau

7516

Des effets de réseau apparaissent si la valeur d’un produit augmente pour un utilisateur avec le nombre d’utilisateurs de ce même produit ou de produits compatibles. Les économistes parlent alors d’externalité de réseau, car lorsque des consommateurs supplémentaires rejoignent le réseau de (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Effets induits

15162

Effets secondaires d’un accord ou d’une concentration entre deux entreprises au moins, qui affectent la concurrence entre elles sur un autre marché en cause que celui visé par l’accord ou la concentration en question. Les effets induits sont mentionnés à l’article 2, paragraphe 4, du règlement sur (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Entreprise commune

20823

Association d’entreprises ou de personnes physiques constituée en vue de mener à bien un projet précis. Selon les règles de concurrence de l’UE, les entreprises communes sont des entreprises contrôlées en commun par au moins deux autres entreprises. Dans la pratique, la notion recouvre un large (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Entreprise publique

14162

Entreprise sur laquelle les pouvoirs publics exercent directement ou indirectement une influence dominante du fait de la propriété, de la participation financière ou des règles qui la régissent. L’influence dominante des pouvoirs publics est en particulier supposée lorsqu’elles a) détiennent la (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Entreprise (notion)

25635

Aux fins de la législation antitrust de l’UE, on entend par entreprise toute entité exerçant une activité économique, c’est-à-dire une activité consistant à offrir des biens ou des services sur un marché donné, indépendamment de son statut juridique et de son mode de financement. Pour que ces conditions (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Epuisement des droits

6922

Les droits de propriété intellectuelle (DPI), tels que les brevets et les marques déposées, confèrent à l’inventeur ou au concepteur certains droits exclusifs sur l’exploitation de son travail, en matière notamment de production et de commercialisation. Toutefois, au sein de l’UE, ces droits exclusifs (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Exemption par catégorie (Règlement d’)

41984

Règlement, arrêté par la Commission ou par le Conseil en application de l’article 101, paragraphe 3, du Traité sur le fonctionnement de l’UE, énonçant les conditions dans lesquelles certains types d’accords peuvent bénéficier d’une exemption à l’interdiction générale prévue par l’article 101, paragraphe 1, (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Astreinte

8229

La Commission peut, par voie de décision, infliger des astreintes afin de contraindre une entreprise à mettre fin à une infraction aux règles de concurrence conformément à une décision antérieure. Dans ce cas, un montant journalier est déterminé, qui est dû pour chaque jour pendant lequel l’infraction (...)

European Commission, OECD Glossaire : Entreprise défaillante

13842

Une entreprise est défaillante lorsqu’elle accuse durablement des pertes et voit sa part de marché se contracter de telle sorte qu’on peut s’attendre à ce qu’elle disparaisse. La notion d’entreprise défaillante présente un intérêt tout particulier pour le contrôle des concentrations. En effet, la société (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Antitrust (Règles en matière d’ententes)

3761

Domaine du droit et de la politique de concurrence. Dans le contexte de l’UE, ce terme désigne généralement les règles régissant les accords et pratiques anticoncurrentiels (ententes et autres formes de collusion) qui sont fondées sur l’article 101 du Traité du fonctionnement de l’UE ainsi que les (...)

European Commission, French Competition Authority Glossaire : Amende

20010

(...) La sanction n’est pas une fin en soi. Elle constitue l’un des outils dont dispose l’Autorité pour faire respecter le droit de la concurrence et est par conséquent utilisée pour les infractions graves. Effectives et dissuasives, les sanctions doivent être proportionnées. Les critères qui (...)

European Commission Glossaire : Accès au dossier

5002

Le droit des personnes physiques ou morales, parties soumises à une enquête de la Commission, de consulter le dossier de la Commission, chaque fois qu’elle envisage d’arrêter une décision leur étant défavorable. Cet accès est accordé au cours de la procédure administrative et concerne tous les documents (...)

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