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Fairness is everywhere in the DMA Fairness has emerged as a central theme in the European Commission’s Digital Markets Act (DMA) and is increasingly visible in policy discussions regarding digital markets. The DMA claims that “market processes are often incapable of ensuring fair economic outcomes with regard to core platform services,” (recital 5) and sets forward a definition for gatekeepers in the digital markets. The Commission describes its concerns this way: “[gatekeeper features are] likely to lead, in many cases, to serious imbalances in bargaining power and, consequently, to unfair practices and conditions for business users, as well as for end users of core platform services provided by gatekeepers, to the detriment of prices, quality, fair competition, choice and innovation

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