Emmanuel Macron (French Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs): Competition policy: A weapon to reconcile liberty, equality and economic efficiency

Interview conducted by Emmanuel Combe, French Competition Authority and Nicolas Charbit, Editor in chief Concurrences.

Several times, you’ve stated that competition can form part of a progressive vision of society, placing economic freedom and equal opportunities at the centre of debates. Can you tell us more about this approach, which seems to diverge from the ideas usually expressed on competition? Historically, competition has been closely linked to a vision of progress. It is synonymous with the fight against the windfall economy and the battle against the big corporations, who would reap the economic benefits and prevent newcomers from joining the market. It is the very essence of the well-known Le Chapelier law of 1791. Today, despite the ambitious goals it can help you reach, competition policy is not easy to steer. Because an effective competition policy is one that continually challenges the

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