INTRODUCTION Ioannis LIANOS Director, Center for Law, Economics and Society, UCL I. Introduction 1. Standards for the intersection between competition law and IP (Intellectual property) rights in Europe and the US have initially taken a formalist perspective . They did not rely on a case-by-case analysis of the economic effects of the interaction between competition law and IP rights on incentives to innovate or on the dissemination of the invention but on a formalistic analysis of the scope of the IP right, its value, its essential function or the intent of the patent holder. Most recently, competition authorities in Europe and in the United States have opted for a balancing approach that examines the effects of a practice on (static) allocative efficiency and dynamic efficiency
The emphasis put on innovation as the common objective of intellectual property law and competition law, and consequently the shift of focus towards the dynamics of economic change, may well be a leitmotiv in recent policy documents and scholarly comment. By focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of the different enforcement institutions of IP and competition law (courts, patent and trademark offices and competition authorities) in performing the necessary balancing of dynamic and allocative efficiency this special issue takes an original perspective on the interaction between these two areas of law.
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