*This article is an automatic translation of the original article, provided here for your convenience. Read the original article. * See also, supra, Frédéric Jenny, Emmanuel Combe, John M. Connor, Paolo Buccirossi, Giancarlo Spagnolo, L'efficacité des sanctions contre les ententes : Une perspective économique, Concurrences, n° 4-2006, Tendances, pp. 10-30 ; François Lévêque, L'efficacité des programmes de clémence, Concurrencesn° 4-2006, Droit et Économie, pp. 31-36 Hubert de Broca, The Commission's new Guidelines on Fines, Concurrences, No 4-2006, Doctrines, pp. 37-45.. 1. Over the last ten years, the European Commission has gradually but profoundly changed its methods of fighting the most serious anti-competitive cartels, commonly referred to as "cartels". The relative benevolence of the
DOCTRINE - FINES - SANCTIONS - LEGAL CERTAINTY - RIGHTS OF DEFENSE - LENIENCY - TRANSPARENCY - GUIDE LINES
The European Commission fining policy : A transparent lack of predictability
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