Understanding competition between ecosystems is increasingly important in competition cases concerning digital markets. This article contributes to the debate on reforming the traditional approach to market definition in digital markets, calling for an increased focus on indirect ecosystem constraints. The recent abandoned NVIDIA/Arm merger is explored to illustrate the practical pilaffs of the tradition approach to market definition.

I. Introduction 1. Competition in the digital economy is increasingly a competition between ecosystems. [1] The difficulty for market definition is to account for the various layers of inter- and intra- ecosystem competition to capture the essentials of competition in each specific case. In this paper, we argue that traditional approaches to market definition needs to be adapted for digital ecosystems and discuss a practical application: the recent NVIDIA/Arm merger. II. Digital ecosystem competition 2. A digital ecosystem is the collection of digital products and services that are in some way related or connected to each other, either through technical interoperability on the supply side or through demand side complementarities. 3. Digital ecosystems tend to form around a core

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