*This article is an automatic translation of the original article, provided here for your convenience. Read the original article. Cass. com, May 3, 2012, stés DS et HFS et consorts Z... n° 11-14291 Know-how is an essential element of franchising, which has been characterised since its first recognitions by the availability of know-how and, in correlation, of well-known distinctive signs (cf. in particular TGI Bressuire, 19 June 1973, D. 1974, p. 105, note F. Bories). However, know-how itself has always been loosely defined as a "set of business methods which are likely to underpin the success of the franchisor" (CA Paris 24 January 1975, PIBD 1975, 3, 323), or a "secret, substantial and identified set of non-patented practical information resulting from the experience of the supplier
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