LAW & ECONOMICS: REGULATIONS - ENFORCEMENT - COMPETITION AUTHORITIES - DECISION-MAKING PROCESS - ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

The role of economists in competition law enforcement – Review of an existential disorder

Since the emergence of market regulations and the creation of administrative and judicial institutions implementing those regulations, the role of economic science has been called into question in its application. The model built in the United States which closely involves economists in the decision-making process, has produced institutions responsible for the implementation of competition policy armed with legal departments of importance and influence. The same model has been adopted much later in Europe by the European Commission and the competition authorities of certain member states. This evolution has only been partly followed in France, where the economics department is more modest and less integrated in the decision making process and where it is only recently that the training of judges in economics laws has been reinforced and that experts in economic science have been integrated into specialist courts. This institutional resistance to the influence of economists into the decision making structure has had consequences on the penetration of economic reasoning in the application of competition law.

Introduction 1. Partant de l’évidence que, visant à corriger les imperfections de l’économie de marché, le droit de la concurrence “fait intervenir des notions d’économie”, une étude de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED), publiée en 2009, sur le recours à l’analyse économique dans les affaires de concurrence [1] retrace l’évolution du débat sur le rôle de la science économique dans l’application des diverses composantes de ce droit. Elle montre que depuis le début du xxe siècle, le poids donné aux considérations économiques est un sujet de discussion récurrent qui, à partir des années 1960, a accompagné la création et le renforcement des autorités et juridictions chargées de l'application du droit de la concurrence [2]. 2. L’étude [3] porte en particulier sur les facteurs

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  • French Constitutional Council (Paris)

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Guy Canivet, The role of economists in competition law enforcement – Review of an existential disorder, May 2019, Concurrences Review N° 2-2019, Art. N° 90117, www.concurrences.com

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