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Competition is often blamed for all the ills. It is said to be the cause of company relocations. It is also said to be the cause of the end of French-style public service. These ideas cast doubt on the possible benefits of competition. However, the reality is much more complex and nuanced, because the market economy calls for free competition. In the absence of another economic model, it is important to recognize its shortcomings as well as its advantages. These ambivalent effects of competition even make legal rules capable of guiding or regulating it indispensable. The author takes a broad view of competition law: it is the set of rules that tend to preserve the freedom and balance of competition of the various economic actors for the benefit of consumers. After a general presentation of competition law (characteristics, history and sources), the author approaches the rules of competition from two angles: that of the protection of competition (liberalization, state aid, anti-competitive practices, mergers) and that of the protection of economic actors (tariff transparency, restrictive practices, unfair competition, etc.). This book is intended for professionals and students. It covers all aspects of competition law as it traditionally appears in university exams (Masters 1 and 21), professional exams (CRFPA, etc.), Grandes Ecoles (HEC, Ecole des Mines, etc.) or administrative exams (ENA, etc.).