Competition law violations give rise to various types of sanction: administrative, civil, penal or even professional. Frédéric Jenny analyzes the interest of each type of sanction, puts into context the expected deterrent effect of administrative sanctions and focuses on the need to determine the best combination of instruments. Louis Vogel highlights one of the paradoxes of the implementation of administrative sanctions today: the administrative framework of sanctions through guidelines, intended to improve legal certainty for businesses, has mostly resulted in harsher penalties. To ensure a better equilibrium in the legal system, it would undoubtedly be desirable to improve the detection of infringements and to avoid the risk of companies paying twice for the same infringement. Joseph Vogel points out that for all protagonists it is crucial to find out about, and if possible to anticipate, civil liability actions, in terms of preparation for defense, procedure and trial. Jean-Bernard Blaise analyzes the criminal sanctions under competition law from the dual angles of substantive and prospective law.
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