*This article is an automatic translation of the original article, provided here for your convenience. Read the original article. I. Introduction 1. In the face of air transport, the development of high-speed rail - and incidentally maritime - services is giving rise to new competition. European trans-European transport network  (TEN-T) policy and the strengthening of rail transport in several Member States have enabled trains to gain significant market shares on certain routes such as Paris-Marseille, Paris-London, Frankfurt-Cologne, Rome-Milan, Madrid-Seville and Madrid-Barcelona. Since the early 2000s, air transport itself has been shifting to low-cost models on European routes, sometimes at lower fares than trains. All these changes are not without consequences from the
Since the early 2000s, the development of high speed trains and ferries and the emergence of low cost airlines have created a new competitive context within the EU passenger transportation markets. Recent decisions issued by the Commission and the Italian competition Authority illustrate particularly well the special emphasis of EU competition policy on internal market integration. In its decision to refuse the proposed Aegean/Olympic Airlines merger or in the decision to impose a new entrant on the strategic Rome/Milan route dominated by Alitalia, the preliminary stage of market definition played a key role. The assessment of intermodal competition is highlighted by the creation of innovative tools and methods that can be used with flexibility by the competition authorities.
Access to this article is restricted to subscribers
Already Subscribed? Sign-in
Access to this article is restricted to subscribers.
Read one article for free
Sign-up to read this article for free and discover our services.