INTERNATIONAL: ANTITRUST LAW - EXTRATERRITORIAL REACH – CAUSATION STANDARD - THE SCISSOR-LIKE EFFECTS - BURDEN OF PROOF

US: Towards a lenient exterritorial enforcement of antitrust law

The Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvements (FTAIA) requirements which delineates the antitrust law’s exterritorial reach, have been strictly interpreted under the Supreme Court Landmark decision Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. v. Empagran SA rendered in 2004. The plaintiffs have to satisfy a proximate causation standard establishing a concrete link between their damages into US market and a foreign anticompetitive conduct (cf. Empagran SA v. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd.). At the same time, the Supreme Court decision in Atlantic corp. v. Twombly of 2007, heightened standard of pleading requirement to sustain an antitrust claim. The “scissor-like effects” arising from these restrictions had considerably restricted the possibilities to claim against global cartel’s conspiracies. During the first months of 2011 this strict position has been softened after the federal appellate decision of the Third Circuit in Animal Science Products, Inc. v. China Minmetals Corp, which has concurrently relaxed the FTAIA requirements and the burden of the proof under le Federal Rule of Civil Procedure for the plaintiffs injured in transaction occurring outside the United states.

INTRODUCTION Cheville ouvrière du démantèlement des monopoles domestiques aux Etats-Unis, le fameux Sherman Antitrust Act du 2 juillet 1890 est également connu pour ses possibilités d’application extraterritoriales, longtemps perçues comme une manifestation de l’unilatéralisme de la politique commerciale américaine. Tel qu’amendé par l’Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act son article 15 USC §1 dispose que “ Tout contrat, toute association sous forme de trust ou autre, ou toute entente en vue de restreindre les échanges ou le commerce entre les différents Etats de l’Union ou avec les nations étrangères est illégal. ” Depuis l’arrêt Alcoa de 1945 [1] cette application extraterritoriale est mise en œuvre au travers du test dit “ de l’effet ” qui consiste à apprécier si la pratique prend effet

Access to this article is restricted to subscribers

Already Subscribed? Sign-in

Access to this article is restricted to subscribers.

Read one article for free

Sign-up to read this article for free and discover our services.

 

PDF Version

Author

  • Autorité polynésienne de la Concurrence (Papeete)

Quotation

Antonino Troianiello, US: Towards a lenient exterritorial enforcement of antitrust law, February 2012, Concurrences Review N° 1-2012, Art. N° 41509, www.concurrences.com

Visites 556

All reviews