Glossary of competition terms

This Glossary matches the list of keywords used by Concurrences search engine. Each keyword is automatically updated by the most recent EU and national case laws from the e-Competitions Bulletin and Concurrences Review. The definitions are excerpt from DG COMP’s Glossary of terms used in EU competition policy (© European Union, 2002) and the OECD’s Glossary of industrial organisation economics and competition law (© OECD, 1993).

State aid (unlawful aid)

Unlawful aid is aid granted without prior Commission authorisation. The Commission must examine all information it receives concerning alleged unlawful aid immediately. If indeed there is unlawful aid, as for cases of notified aid, the Commission first opens a preliminary investigation and, if doubts as to the compatibility of the measure persist, subsequently carries out an in-depth investigation. The Commission may use injunctions to obtain information from Member States, suspend the further granting of aid or impose provisional recovery obligation on the Member State. In case of a final negative decision, recovery of the aid already paid out, with interests, will take place (see "Recovery of aid" below). European Commission