Standard of proof for economic evidence

Law & Economics Workshop organized by Concurrences in partnership with MAPP and Allen & Overy.

> Program


Dirk Arts, Jürgen Schindler (Allen & Overy, Brussels )

The first point covered in the discussion was that the use of direct evidence, as the only element available to reach a decision, has given way to the inclusion of indirect evidence, including in particular economic evidence. Reference was made to the fact that there are different types of economic analysis, both empirical and theoretical, and that they have received different treatment by the eu Commission and the eu courts. The panellists agreed that both direct and indirect evidence are subject to the same reliability and interpretation issues.

The main discussion regarding the use of economic evidence in the eu started off with a discussion of its use in merger review cases and an example of the TV sector was used to show that the focus of economic evidence can effect the modelling and assumptions. Moreover, in abuse cases or collusive practices different elements (theory of harm and transparency respectively) can be crucial in the outcome of economic analysis.

Photos © Emilie Gomez

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  • University of East Anglia (Norwich)
  • ESSEC Business School (Cergy)
  • Allen & Overy (Brussels)
  • French General Inspectorate of Finance (Paris)
  • Allen & Overy (Brussels)