After giving an overview of the most recent and relevant EU and national cases in which questions concerning access to facilities have arose, this foreword will outline what are the key competition challenges, in terms of access to facilities, which are lying ahead for the European transport sector. More specifically on this point, some categories of road and maritime transport are currently going through significant changes. In its seminal judgement in Oscar Bronner, the Court of Justice of the European Union (“the CJEU”) dealt with a question as to when refusal of access to a specific facility (i.e. home delivery scheme in that case) may constitute an abuse of dominance. The CJEU made clear that in order for an incumbent’s competitor to claim an abusive refusal to supply under Article 102 TFEU, an incumbent’s competitor needs to show that the facility it wants to get access to is indispensable. Access to facilities issues have come up, in the most recent years, across all competition law instruments, i.e. antitrust, merger and state aid cases and across various transport sectors, e.g. air, rail and road transportation.