The EU Commission orders recovery of State aid and examines the definition of research in the context of aids granted for R&D purposes (ValDeal / CEATF)

State aid for R&D: What is research?* Introduction The purpose of research is to discover something new. But what is often difficult to define for public authorities that wish to stimulate more research activities is how new must be the outcome of research. It is rare that research reveals something that is completely unknown. For example, some medicines or the medicinal use of some chemical compounds have been found by chance [e.g. penicillin or Viagra]. No one had suspected their existence or effects. But research is not some form of roulette whose outcome is left to chance. Research is an organised activity. Chance is in fact unwelcome as it messes up the replicability of any findings. In the cases which are reviewed below the main issue was whether there was real research

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Phedon Nicolaides, The EU Commission orders recovery of State aid and examines the definition of research in the context of aids granted for R&D purposes (ValDeal / CEATF), 25 July 2016, e-Competitions Bulletin Transport (rail), Art. N° 83581

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