1. Introduction Every year many remedies are imposed worldwide across a wide range of sectors. The question of how to craft efficient, adequate, and proportionate remedies is however unsettled. Recent high profile unilateral conduct cases have raised issues related to how to identify the problematic conducts and what remedies to impose. While exclusionary abuses are easier to remedy, they do require strict(er) standards to ensure that competitive buying markets can be (re-)established. In contrast, structural remedies aimed at restructuring the buyer side of the market are harder to impose and/or implement and raise issues around the definition of relevant market and of the abusive conduct. Some sectors have recently been the focus of investigations of unilateral conduct. In
Remedies for Unilateral Conduct: An overview of EU and national case law
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