Internet & Antitrust

Anticompetitive practices

The French Competition Authority publishes its contribution to the competition policy debate in light of the digital economy challenge
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The Autorité publishes its contribution to the debate on competition policy and the challenges raised by the digital economy* The Autorité de la concurrence publishes its contribution to the debate on competition policy in light of the challenges arising from the digital economy. It is thus (...)

The EU Commission imposes €14.3 million fine on companies for territorial, customer and online sales restrictions of merchandising products (NBCUniversal)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 30 January 2020, the European Commission (“Commission”) announced its decision to fine several companies belonging to Comcast Corporation, including NBCUniversal, € 14,327,000 for limiting the ability of licensees to sell licensed merchandising products to other EEA countries and non-allocated (...)

The UK Court of Appeal rejects an appeal against a judgment of the CAT which upheld the CMA’s decision finding a company online sales ban of its custom-fitted golf clubs to be an unjustified restriction (Ping)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 21 January 2020, the UK Court of Appeal rejected an appeal brought by the golf club manufacturer Ping Europe Limited (“Ping”) against the 2018 judgment of the Competition Appeal Tribunal (“CAT”), which upheld the Competition and Markets Authority’s (“CMA”) 2017 decision finding Ping’s online sales (...)

The Canadian Competition Bureau takes steps against misleading representations in online sales of airline tickets (FlightHub)
Commonwealth Secretariat (London)
The old adage appears to ring true yet again: If it sounds too good to be true it probably is. Canada’s Competition Bureau (Bureau), which assists the Commissioner of Competition (Commissioner) in the administration and enforcement of the Competition Act (Act), announced on 28 October 2019 that (...)

The Canadian Competition Authority issues a call for information from Canada’s business community about conduct in the digital economy that may be harmful to competition Free
Canadian Competition Bureau (Gatineau)
Competition Bureau calls for businesses to report potentially anti-competitive conduct in the digital economy* The Competition Bureau has published a call-out for information from Canada’s business community about conduct in the digital economy that may be harmful to competition. The Bureau is (...)

The Swiss Competition Commission fines a manufacturer of sport products for vertical price fixing with dealers (Stöckli)
Lenz & Staehelin (Zurich)
Introduction The Swiss Competition Commission (“ComCo”) fined Stöckli Swiss Sports (“Stöckli”), a Swiss manufacturer of Skis and other sport products, for vertical price fixing with its dealers with CHF 140’000. The fine was rather low, as Stöckli had filed a leniency application, albeit after ComCo (...)

The UK Competition Authority imposes a record-breaking £3.7 million fine for online resale price maintenance (Casio)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
According to a press release issued on 1 August 2019, the Competition and Markets Authority (“CMA”) imposed a fine of £ 3.7 million (approximately € 4.1 million) on piano supplier Casio Electronics (“Casio”) for online resale price maintenance (RPM). Between the years 2013 and 2018, Casio reportedly (...)

The EU Commission opens investigation into the allegedly anticompetitive conduct of a multinational online platform focused on e-commerce (Amazon)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission opens investigation into possible anti-competitive conduct of Amazon* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation to assess whether Amazon’s use of sensitive data from independent retailers who sell on its marketplace is in breach of EU competition (...)

The UK Competition Authority announces the start of a formal market study into online platforms and the UK market for digital advertising
Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
What is the Study about? The Study is broad in scope and aims to examine three potential sources of harm in connection with the digital advertising market: i) to what extent online platforms have market power in user-facing markets and what impact this has on consumers; ii) whether consumers (...)

The Portuguese Competition Authority warns that firms are responsible for the algorithms they use to coordinate market prices Free
Portuguese Competition Authority (Lisbon)
The AdC warns that using algorithms to coordinate market prices is incompatible with the Portuguese Competition Law* The Portuguese Competition Authority (Autoridade da Concorrência, AdC) warns that firms are responsible for the algorithms they use and that employing these tools with the aim of (...)

The French Competition Authority fines a bicycle manufacturer € 250,000 for online sales restrictions (Bikeurope)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 1 July 2019, the French Competition Authority (“FCA”) imposed a fine of € 250,000 on Trek Bicycle Corporation and its subsidiary Bikeurope B.V. (together “Bikeurope”) for having prohibited its authorised retailers from selling its bicycles online from 2007 to 2014, a restriction by object that (...)

The Shanghai IP Court holds that fictitiously increasing the number of views of videos is an act of false propaganda (Feiyi / IQiYi)
Beijing Foreign Studies University (Beijing)
From the perspective of anti-unfair competition law, Feiyi Company fictitiously increased the video visits of IQiYi’s website by technical means - the first case of inflating traffic on video websites in China. In recent years, the excessive pursuit of traffic in the Internet industry has (...)

The Hungarian Competition Authority fines several companies for price coordination through the use of online cash registers (IPSZOI / PayPal)
Hungarian Competition Authority (Budapest)
The competition supervision procedure initiated against PayPal has ended with the acceptance of commitments* The Gazdasági Versenyhivatal (the Hungarian Competition Authority, GVH) accepted the commitments of the online payment method provider, PayPal. On the basis of the commitments, the (...)

The Düsseldorf Court of Appeal overturns the Competition Authority’s prohibition of narrow best price clauses (Booking.com)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 4 June 2019, the Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf (the “Court”) ruled that narrow best price clauses are not anticompetitive and overturned the decision of the Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) prohibiting Booking.com from using such clauses in contracts with hotel operators. ‘Narrow’ best price (...)

The Düsseldorf Court of Appeal quashes the Competition Authority’s decision and finds a most favoured nation clause compatible with antitrust law for a hotel booking platform (Booking.com)
Heinz & Zagrosek (Köln)
Booking.com’s "narrow" MFN clauses now also permissible in Germany, Court of Appeals rules* On June 4, 2019, the Düsseldorf Court of Appeal quashed the decision of the Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) prohibiting Booking.com to operate so-called narrow most favored nation (MFN) clauses (or best price (...)

The Hungarian Competition Authority fines a retailer for fixing the online retail prices of its products (Husqvarna Magyarország)
Hungarian Competition Authority (Budapest)
The GVH imposes a fine of HUF 100 million on Husqvarna Magyarország Kft. for fixing the online retail prices of its products* The Gazdasági Versenyhivatal (the Hungarian Competition Authority, GVH) imposed a fine of HUF 111 million (approx. EUR 330 thousand) on Husqvarna Magyarország Kft. because (...)

The UK Competition Authority launches an investigation into online gaming companies’ roll-over contracts
Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
The UK Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) announced on 05 April 2019 that it is launching an investigation into online gaming companies’ use of auto-renewal, cancellation, and refund policies in relation to online services. The investigation is being conducted using the CMA’s consumer (...)

The German Competition Authority publishes a paper summarizing its sector inquiry into online price comparison websites
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 4 February 2019, the German Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) published a fifth paper in its series “Competition and Consumer Protection in the Digital Economy”. The paper summarizes the sector inquiry into online comparison websites in the travel, energy, insurance, telecommunications and financial (...)

The US District Court for the Southern District of Florida receives an antitrust claim against bitcoin companies concerning alleged coordination in order to restrain trade (United American Corp / Bitmain)
Constantine Cannon (New York)
The First Blockchain Antitrust Case. Or Is It?* Legal professionals paying close attention to the still nascent world of blockchains and cyptocurrencies are following what is considered to be the first antitrust case involving cryptocurrencies. For enthusiasts, United American Corp. v. (...)

The UK Competition Appeal Tribunal dismisses the appeal brought by a manufacturer of golf equipments on liability of anticompetitive practices but permits a small reduction of fine (Ping)
Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner (London)
UK LANDMARK COMPETITION CASE CONDEMNS ABSOLUTE INTERNET SALE BAN AS A SERIOUS BREACH OF COMPETITION LAW* Introduction The Competition Appeal Tribunal (“CAT”) handed down its judgment on 7 September 2018 in relation to an appeal by Ping Europe Limited (“Ping”) challenging the decision of the UK (...)

The EU Commission fines four electronics manufacturers for fixing minimum resale prices for online retailers (Asus / Denon & Marantz / Philips / Pioneer) Free
K&L Gates (Houston)
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K&L Gates (Sidney)
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K&L Gates (Boston)
This article has been nominated for the 2019 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On 24 July 2018, in four separate decisions, the European Commission (“Commission”) levied fines totalling EUR 111 million on four well-known manufacturers of (...)

The EU Commission fines manufacturers over €111 million for restricting the ability of online retailers to set their own retail prices for a variety of widely-used consumer electronics products (Asus / Denon & Marantz / Philips / Pioneer) Free
Bona Law (San Diego)
Antitrust News: The European Commission imposes fines for the first time in 15 years as a result of online retail price restrictions (RPM)* On July 24, 2018, the European Commission fined manufacturers Asus, Denon & Marantz, Philips and Pioneer for over €111 million for restricting the (...)

The EU Commission fines four leading consumer electronics manufacturers for fixing online resale prices (Asus / Denon & Marantz / Philips / Pioneer) Free
Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner (London)
EU COMMISSION FINES MAJOR CONSUMER ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURERS FOR FIXING ONLINE RESALE PRICES* On 24th July 2018 the EU Commission passed a decision to enforce the competition rules in yet another case involving the e-commerce sector. This time it fined a number of leading consumer electronics (...)

The EU Commission fines electronic goods manufacturers for resale price maintenance (Asus / Denon & Marantz / Philips / Pioneer) Free
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Paris)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
Vertical restrictions, including resale price maintenance (RPM), have not generally been an EC enforcement priority over the last 10 years, but a series of rulings in July 2018 signalled a potential change in that trend. Although the EC considers RPM to be a “hardcore restriction” of (...)

The Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt/Main, applying the preliminary ruling of the EU Court of Justice, finds that a luxury perfume provider can prohibit unauthorised distribution over third-party websites (Coty Germany)
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Paris)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
This judgment of the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt/Main of 12 July 2018 applying the preliminary ruling of the CJEU of 6 December 2017 in the case Coty Germany GmbH v Parfümerie Akzente GmbH will reassure manufacturers of luxury products that they can protect such products from unauthorised (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority publishes revised Guidelines on vertical agreements
ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
The Turkish Competition Authority (“Authority”) completed its work in progress on revising the Guidelines on Vertical Agreements (“Guidelines”) that was issued based on the Block Exemption Communiqué on Vertical Agreements (“Communiqué No. 2002/2”). It took approximately 2 years for the Authority to (...)

The Turkish Competition Board launches a formal investigation to determine if undertakings have engaged in a price fixing agreement based on evidences collected in an on-the-spot inspection (Ortosistem / Medifarm / Benlioğlu Dental / Eksen / Medikodental / Uysal / Dnt / MD / Modern Ortodonti)
Erdem & Erdem (Istanbul)
Introduction Decision numbered 18-09/157-77 and dated 29.03.2018 (“Decision”) of the Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) is critical with respect to evidence that has been obtained in on-the-spot investigations, because this is the first decision in which the Board had taken WhatsApp (...)

The Higher Regional Court of Hamburg, applying Coty, finds that a ban on selling products through online sales platforms can be justified if its objective is to preserve product image and ensure personal consultation with customers (Aloe2Go)
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Paris)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
The Higher Regional Court of Hamburg had the opportunity to establish a position regarding potential restrictions of competition in selective distribution arising out of bans on selling products through eBay and similar platforms. The Higher Regional Court referred to recent case law of the (...)

The Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf finds that sellers of high quality cosmetics cannot invoke "exhaustion of rights" under the EU Trademark Regulation if they have not presented the products in a way which avoids impairment of the brand’s reputation (Kanebo)
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Paris)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
The Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf decided that neither online nor offline sellers can invoke exhaustion of rights under Article 15(1) of the EU trademark regulation if they sell high-quality, prestigious cosmetic products without appropriate presentation to avoid impairment of reputation. (...)

The German Competition Authority allows a company to launch an online trading platform for steel products (Klöckner)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Klöckner allowed to launch digital platform for steel products* The Bundeskartellamt has no objections to plans by Klöckner & Co SE, Duisburg to set up the business to business online trading platform "XOM Metals" for the sale of steel products. After talks with the Bundeskartellamt, (...)

The German Competition Authority launches a sector inquiry into market conditions in the online advertising sector
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt launches sector inquiry into market conditions in online advertising sector* The Bundeskartellamt has launched a sector inquiry into the online advertising sector. Andreas Mundt, President of the Bundeskartellamt: "Online advertising has experienced an extraordinarily high (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice confirms that the general prohibition of the use of price comparison engines by retailers is illegal (Asics)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
ASICS dealers allowed to use price comparison engines - Federal Court of Justice confirms Bundeskartellamt’s decision* In its decision of 12 December, 2017, published on 19 January, 2018, the Federal Court of Justice decided that ASICS may not forbid its dealers from using price comparison (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules in favour of restrictions on the use of platforms in a selective distribution system (Coty)
Gibson Dunn (Brussels)
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Gibson Dunn (Brussels)
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Gibson Dunn (Brussels)
This article considers how much the Coty Ruling has shed light on the extent to which a manufacturer can restrict the sales of its products over online platforms, especially in the wake of the recent German Case involving ASICS and basic principles developed at EU level to assess obligations (...)

The EU Court of Justice hands down an anticipated judgment on the possibility to restrict the selling on third party online platforms outside of the selective distribution network in the luxury goods sector (Coty)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 6 December 2017, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the ECJ or the Court) handed down its eagerly anticipated judgment in Coty (C-230/16). In general, the ECJ closely follows the opinion of Advocate General Wahl (AG Wahl), published on 26 July 2016, in essentially holding that: the (...)

The EU Court of Justice holds that suppliers of luxury goods may under certain conditions restrict authorised retailers in a selective distribution system not to sell their goods via third-party online platforms to preserve their products’ ‘luxury image’ (Coty Germany)
Hogan Lovells (Munich)
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Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer (Berlin)
I. Introduction On 6 December 2017, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) handed down its long-awaited judgment on the permissibility of restrictions by suppliers of luxury goods to sell their products via third-party online platforms under Article 101 (1) TFEU. The question has been subject to (...)

The German Competition Authority launches a sector inquiry into online price comparison websites
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt launches sector inquiry into comparison websites* The Bundeskartellamt has launched a sector inquiry into "online price comparison websites". Andreas Mundt, President of the Bundeskartellamt: "Every day millions of consumers gather information by using price comparison (...)

The French Supreme Court refers a case on online platform sales ban back to the Paris Court of Appeal without waiting for an upcoming ruling of the EU Court of Justice on a similar case (Caudalie / eNova)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 13 September 2017, the French Supreme Court ordered the Paris Court of Appeal to rehear a case for failing to sufficiently substantiate its finding that an obligation in Caudalie’s selective distribution system constituted a probable restriction of competition by object. In the selective (...)

The US DOJ announces that an e-commerce company and its president have agreed to plead guilty to participating in a price-fixing conspiracy (Zaappaaz) Free
Jones Day (San Francisco)
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Jones Day (San Francisco)
Background Texas-based e-commerce company Zaappaaz, Inc.—doing business as WB Promotions, Inc., Wrist-Band.com, and Customlanyard.net—and its president both agreed to plead guilty to conspiring to fix prices for customized promotional products sold online in the United States, including (...)

The US District Court for the Southern District of Texas files an information due to conspiracy to fix the prices in the silicone wristbands and lanyards sector (Zaappaaz)
McDermott Will & Emery (Washington)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Düsseldorf)
Azim Makanojiya founded Zaappaaz Inc. as a nineteen-year-old university student and quickly turned it into a multi-million dollar business. WHAT HAPPENED: On Tuesday, August 7, online retailer Zaappaaz Inc. and its twenty-nine-year-old president and founder, Azim Makanojiya, agreed to plead (...)

The EU Advocate General Wahl holds that suppliers of luxury goods may prohibit their authorized retailers from selling their goods via third-party internet platforms (Coty)
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
Advocate General Wahl Delivers Opinion on Legality of Bans on Online Sales via Third-Party Platforms in Selective Distribution Systems* According to Advocate General Nils Wahl’s opinion, delivered on July 26, in the Court of Justice of the European Union’s (CJEU) case Coty Germany GmbH v (...)

The French Competition Authority launches a public consultation as part of its current sector-specific inquiry on online advertising
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Online advertising* As part of its current sector-specific inquiry on online advertising, the Autorité de la concurrence has launched a public consultation in order to collect stakeholder comments on several points. Stakeholders are asked to reply to the questionnaire sent out by the Autorité (...)

The EU Commission publishes its final report on the e-commerce sector inquiry
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
On 10 May 2017, two years after launching its e-commerce sector inquiry on 6 May 2015, the European Commission published its final report (Final Report) on the inquiry. The inquiry was opened in the framework of the Commission’s broader Digital Single Market strategy, which was aimed at (...)

The EU Commission issues a final report on its e-commerce sector inquiry and updates its digital single market plans
Norton Rose Fulbright (Brussels)
EU issues final report on its e-commerce sector inquiry and updates its digital single market plan* On May 10, 2017, the European Commission published the final report on its sector inquiry on competition in the e-commerce sector (the E-Commerce Report) and a mid-term review of its digital (...)

The EU Commission issues its final report on e-commerce sector
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission publishes final report on e-commerce sector inquiry* The European Commission’s final report on the e-commerce sector inquiry identifies business practices that may restrict competition. It allows the Commission to target its enforcement of EU antitrust rules in e-commerce (...)

The EU Commission publishes final e-commerce sector inquiry report
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 10 May 2017, the European Commission (“Commission”) published its final Report on the e-commerce sector inquiry (“the Report”), aimed at identifying business practices in the sector that might restrict competition and limit consumer choice. The Report consists of two documents: (i) a 16-page (...)

The EU Commission publishes its final report on the e-commerce sector inquiry
Shearman & Sterling (London)
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Shearman & Sterling (Rome)
The European Commission has published, on 10 May, its final report on the E- commerce Sector Inquiry (the “Final Report”). The Commission launched the E-commerce Sector Inquiry in May 2015 in the context of its Digital Single Market (“DSM”) strategy, aiming to ensure better access for consumers (...)

The EU Commission publishes its final report on the inquiry into the e-commerce sector
DLA Piper (Brussels)
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DLA Piper (London)
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DLA Piper (Amsterdam)
On 10 May 2017, DG Competition of the European Commission (the "Commission") published its final report on the inquiry into the e-commerce sector (launched in May 2015 as part of the Digital Single Market strategy). The findings in the report are based on information gathered from 1,900 (...)

The EU Commission accepts commitments to remove most favoured nation clauses from e-book distribution agreements (Amazon)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 4 May 2017, the European Commission (“Commission”) announced that it had accepted, pursuant to Article 9 of Regulation (EC) No.1/2003, to make binding commitments that Amazon offered ending the use of parity clauses in distribution agreements with electronic book (“e-book”) publishers. These (...)

The Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court confirms that the general prohibition of the use of price comparison engines by retailers violates competition law (Asics)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court confirms Bundeskartellamt’s decision on prohibition of use of price comparison engines* Yesterday the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court confirmed the Bundeskartellamt’s decision of principle against the running shoes manufacturer Asics. According to the decision the (...)

The UK Competition Authority publishes preliminary findings on price comparison websites
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Latham & Watkins (London)
In September 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority (“CMA”) launched a Market Study into digital comparison tools (“DCTs”). On March 28, 2017, the CMA published an update on the Market Study setting out its preliminary findings and areas of focus for the second part of the Market Study. The (...)

The Madrid Commercial Court dismisses a lawsuit for unfair competition stating that a platform that focuses exclusively on private transport is not subject to transportation regulations (Confebus / Blablacar)
Callol, Coca & Asociados (Madrid)
A First Instance Commercial Court dismisses the lawsuit filed against Blablacar for unfair competition stating that Blablacar is a platform that focuses exclusively on private transport and is therefore not subject to transportation regulations (Judgement of the Commercial Court of 2 February (...)

The Turkish Competition Board concludes its investigation against an online booking platform (Booking.com)
Erdem & Erdem (Istanbul)
Introduction The Competition Board (“Board”) concluded its investigation with regard to the booking services provided by Booking.com B.V. (“Booking.com”) and by Bookingdotcom Destek Hizmetleri Limited Liability Company. During its investigation, the Board has evaluated whether Articles 4 and 6 of (...)

The EFTA Surveillance Authority investigates members of the Norwegian banking sector for suspected breaches of competition rules (DNB / Nordea / Finance Norway / BankID)
European Commission (Brussels)
ESA investigates DNB, Nordea, Finance Norway and BankID* The EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) has opened proceedings against DNB, Nordea, Finance Norway and BankID for suspected breaches of the competition rules in the EEA Agreement. Bits, a related organisation to Finance Norway, will also (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit considers potential discrimination between taxis and transportation network providers (Illinois Transport Association / City of Chicago) Free
Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (Warsaw)
Sharing and traditional economy: matter of substitutability ... between cats and dogs?* Sharing economy firms are disrupting traditional industries across the globe. As Tom Goodwin once put it: “Uber, the world’s largest taxi company, owns no vehicles. Facebook, the world’s most popular media (...)

The Dutch Competition Authority launches a market inquiry into online platforms
Netherlands Authority for Consumers & Markets (The Hague)
Taking a closer look at online video platforms* The Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM) has launched a market study into online platforms that offer videos and movies. Think of YouTube and Facebook, but also Dutch platforms such as NL-ziet and Dumpert. "We will be taking a (...)

The EU Commission publishes the initial findings of its e-commerce sector inquiry
Latham & Watkins (Brussels)
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Hogan Lovells (Brussels)
European Commission’s e-commerce sector inquiry - increasing anti-trust heat* Online sales are not only attracting the attention of consumers and tech businesses, but also increased review by antitrust regulators. On 15 September 2016, the European Commission published a detailed 290 page (...)

The EU Commission publishes initial findings of e-commerce sector inquiry report
Bydgoszcz University of Technology and Life Sciences (UOKIK)
On 15 September 2016, the European Commission published a preliminary report on its initial findings in the e-commerce sector inquiry, aimed at identifying business practices in the sector that might restrict competition and limit consumer choice. This development follows the Commission’s report (...)

The UK Competition Authority fines a company specialized in online sales of posters and frames for cartel (Trod)
British Competition Authority - CMA (London)
CMA issues final decision in online cartel case* The CMA has today issued a formal decision that 2 online sellers of posters and frames broke competition law. This follows the announcement on 21 July 2016 that Trod Ltd had admitted agreeing with GB eye Ltd (trading as ‘GB Posters’) that they (...)

The UK Competition and Markets Authority fines online retailers for using automated repricing software to implement an illegal cartel (Trod / GB Posters)
British Competition Authority - CMA (London)
Online seller admits breaking competition law* An online seller has agreed to accept a fine after admitting using automated repricing software to implement an illegal cartel. Trod Limited has admitted agreeing with one of its competing online sellers, GB eye Limited (trading as ‘GB Posters’), (...)

The Frankfurt Court of Appeals submits preliminary reference on how to treat bans on sales via third-party internet platforms in selective distribution systems (Coty)
Reed Smith (Brussels)
European Court of Justice to Rule on Legality of Online Sales Bans*An appeal court in Frankfurt has asked the European Court of Justiceto clarify the application of the competition rules to online sales. The Frankfurt court made its request in the context of a dispute between a leader in beauty (...)

The German Competition Authority declares certain online banking rules violate European and German competition law (Deutsche Kreditwirtschaft)
European Commission (Brussels)
Restriction of online payment services by German banking industry in violation of competition law* The Bundeskartellamt has declared certain rules in the online banking conditions of the German Banking Industry Committee (Deutsche Kreditwirtschaft) as illegal. The authority holds the view that (...)

The UK’s Competition and Markets Authority fines a company for retail price maintenance on online sales (ITW)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 24 May 2016, the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority (“CMA”) fined ITW Limited, a supplier of refrigerators, £ 2,298,820 for retail price maintenance on online sales. From 2012 to 2014, ITW required dealers to adhere to its minimum advertised price policy for Foster commercial fridges and (...)

The French Competition Authority gathers informations to assess data processing in the on-line advertising sector
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The Autorité de la concurrence begins, at its own initiative, gathering information in order to assess data processing in the on-line advertising sector* The Autorité has decided, at its own initiative, to gather information with a view to assessing competition in the internet advertising sector (...)

The Lithuanian Supreme Administrative Court confirms that 29 travel agencies breached antitrust rules to limit discounts for travel packages (Eturas)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 4 May 2016, the Lithuanian Supreme Administrative Court (“Lithuanian Supreme Court”) confirmed that 29 travel agencies had breached antitrust rules when using an online booking system to limit discounts for travel packages. This judgment follows the ruling handed down by the Court of Justice (...)

The Frankfurt Court of Appeals refers the question of how to treat bans on sales via third-party internet platforms to the EU Court of Justice (Coty)
US Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
The question of how to treat bans on sales via third-party internet platforms in selective distribution systems and the impact of the Court of Justice’s Pierre Fabre ruling (see judgment of October 13, 2011, case C-439/09) have been on the agenda in Germany for some time. Recently, the Frankfurt (...)

The Frankfurt Court of Appeals submits preliminary reference on how to treat bans on sales via third-party internet platforms in selective distribution systems (Coty)
Heinz & Zagrosek (Köln)
Ban on sales via third-party internet platforms in Germany and Pierre Fabre – recent referral to the Court of Justice* The question of how to treat bans on sales via third-party internet platforms in selective distribution systems and the impact of the Court of Justice’s Pierre Fabre ruling (see (...)

The Swedish Competition Authority closes investigation into the online platform market for food delivery after the dominant firm voluntarily modifies its contractual terms (OnlinePizza)
European Commission (Brussels)
The Swedish Competition Authority closes investigation into the Online platform market for food delivery after OnlinePizza voluntary changed its contractual terms* OnlinePizza Norden AB (OnlinePizza) is the leading online platform for food delivery in Sweden with about 1,200 affiliated (...)

The EU Commission presents its initial findings on geo-blocking with respect to consumer goods in e-commerce sector inquiry
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 18 March 2016, the European Commission published its initial findings of its sector inquiry into the e-commerce sector in relation to geo-blocking practices. The Commission de nes geo-blocking as commercial practices whereby online providers prevent users from accessing and purchasing (...)

The German Competition Authority opens proceedings in the audiobooks market (Audible / Amazon / Apple)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt opens proceedings against Audible/Amazon and Apple* The Bundeskartellamt has initiated administrative proceedings against the Amazon subsidiary Audible.com and Apple Computer Inc. The companies have a long-term agreement on the purchase of audiobooks by Apple from Audible for (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on competition and cross platform parity agreements
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Executive summary, by the Secretariat * From the discussion at the hearing, the delegates’ and experts’ written submissions, several key points have emerged: 1. There is increasing concern at online platforms using across platform parity agreements (APPAs) that prevent producers from setting (...)

The Hellenic Competition Authority decides to not launch investigation in hotel market (Booking.com / Expedia)
Hellenic Competition Authority (Athens)
HCC decides not to proceed with a formal investigation into BOOKING & EXPEDIA’s cooperation agreements with hotel businesses in Greece * The Hellenic Competition Commission (HCC) reviewed the revised parity terms in the agreements between online travel agencies (OTAs) BOOKING.COM and (...)

The UK Competition Authority closes its hotel online booking investigation (Booking.com)
British Competition Authority - CMA (London)
CMA closes hotel online booking investigation* The CMA today announced that it has closed an investigation into suspected breaches of competition law in the hotel online booking sector. The investigation was launched by the Competition and Markets Authority’s (CMA) predecessor, the Office of (...)

The German Competition Authority condemns a manufacturer of running shoes for restricting the online sales activities of small and medium-sized authorised dealers (Asics)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Unlawful restriction of online sales of ASICS running shoes* The Bundeskartellamt has concluded its proceeding on anti-competitive clauses in the distribution system of ASICS Deutschland. The authority accuses ASICS of having restricted the online sales activities of small and medium-sized (...)

The EU Court of Justice Advocate General Szpunar issues opinion on circumstances where the use of an online booking system by travel agents may amount to a concerted practice (Eturas)
Ashurst (Milan)
EU Court of Justice’s Advocate General issues opinion on circumstances where the use of an online booking system by travel agents may amount to a concerted practice* On 16 July 2015 Advocate General Szupnar handed down his opinion following a request for a preliminary ruling by the Court of (...)

The Polish Competition Authority accepts commitments concerning online sales of prams and strollers (Emmaljunga)
Hansberry Tomkiel (Warsaw)
In its decision no RGD 2/2015 of 30th June 2015 (the “Decision”), the Polish Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (“Competition Authority”) accepted commitments proposed by the Poland-based company “Investment Trading Consulting” (“Company”), Polish exclusive distributor of prams and (...)

The EU Competition Authorities adopt decisions on Most Favoured Nation clauses and rebate schemes that are relevant and applicable in the context of ASEAN competition law (Booking.com / Post Danmark)
Rajah & Tann (Singapore)
,
Rajah & Tann (Singapore)
,
McCarter & English (Washington)
This article has been nominated for the 2016 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Introduction As we move into the second half of the year, we examine two recent competition enforcement cases in Europe, and consider their relevance and (...)

The Italian Competition Authority issues a commitment decision and closes an investigation regarding contracts concluded between online booking websites and their partner hotels (Online Hotel Reservation)
Desogus Law Office (Cagliari)
By a commitment decision made on 21 April 2015 in the Mercato dei Servizi Turistici-Prenotazione Alberghiere Online case (thereinfter Online Hotel Reservation) the Italian Competition Authority (ICA) has closed an Article 101 TFEU investigation against Booking. The ICA has launched the (...)

Internet and Antitrust: An overview of EU and national case law
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
,
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
This article has been nominated for the 2016 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. I. Introduction This e-Competitions Special Issue collects articles on competition law developments relating to the Internet at national and EU levels, as (...)

The Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court upholds the decision of the Bundeskartellamt prohibiting the application of the "best price clause" in the online hotel booking sector (HRS / Expedia / Booking.com)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
HRS’s ‘best price’ clauses violate German and European competition law - Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court confirms Bundeskartellamt’s prohibition decision* Today the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court rejected HRS’s appeal against the Bundeskartellamt’s decision of 20 December 2013. In its decision the (...)

The French, Swedish, and Italian Competition Authorities investigate on the "parity clauses" in the online hotel booking market (Booking.com)
European Commission (Brussels)
Launch of Simultaneous Market Tests in Investigations in Online Hotel Booking Sector* On 15 December 2014, the French, Swedish and Italian competition authorities launched market tests of commitments proposed by Booking.com in antitrust investigations in the online hotel booking sector. (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of Texas dismisses with prejudice a class action’s plaintiffs that have not overcome the pleading deficiencies following the first judicial review of their pleadings (OTC Hotel Booking)
Ashurst (Milan)
U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas dismissed Second Consolidated Amended Complaint against hotel chains and online travel agencies* On 28 October 2014 the U.S. District Court of the Northern District of Texas dismissed with prejudice a class action against hotel chains and (...)

The UK Competition Appeal Tribunal quashes an OFT decision to accept commitments for failing to inform itself about the possible impact on price transparency of an obvious and clear restriction on disclosure of price information in the online booking sector (Skyscanner)
Ashurst (Milan)
UK Court quashes decision accepting the commitments by OTAs and hotel chain in the online booking sector* Last 26 September, following an appeal by meta-search site Skyscanner, the UK Competition Appeal Tribunal (“CAT”) quashed the decision of the Office of Fair Trading (the “OFT”) to accept (...)

The US FTC settles charges of two Internet resellers of UPC barcodes used by retailers for violation of the FTC Act by inviting competitors to collude to raise prices for barcodes sold over the Internet (680 Digital)
Steve Szentesi Law Corporation (Vancouver)
Scanner Emergency in Aisle Five: US FTC Settles Bar Code Seller Invitation to Collude Case* In an interesting case that caught my eye yesterday and today, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has proposed a settlement in a case involving allegations that an online bar code re-seller engaged (...)

The German Competition Authority closes proceedings against a sports shoe company after it amends its conditions for online sales in such a way that they comply with competition law (Adidas)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Adidas abandons ban on sales via online market places* The Bundeskartellamt has closed its proceedings against adidas AG (adidas) after the company amended its conditions for online sales in such a way that they comply with competition law. Adidas operates a selective distribution system (...)

The Italian Competition Authority launches an investigation for alleged vertical agreements entered into with their partner hotels in violation of Article 101(1) TFEU (Booking.com / Expedia)
Chiomenti (Milano)
On 7 May 2014, the Italian Competition Authority (Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato, the “Authority”) launched an investigation against Booking.com BV (hereinafter, “Booking”), Booking.com (Italia) S.r.l., Expedia Inc. (hereinafter, “Expedia”), and Expedia Italy S.r.l. for alleged (...)

The Canadian Competition Tribunal suspends a settlement entered into the Competition Bureau with e-book publishers related to a price MFN clause (Kobo)
Cassels Brock (Toronto)
The Ebooks Saga: Kobo’s challenge explained* Ebook retailer Kobo is challenging a settlement entered into by the Competition Bureau with ebook publishers. The settlement has been stayed pending this challenge. Kobo’s challenge may have major implications for competition law enforcement in (...)

The German Competition Authority finds that a selective distribution system, which allows for the sale of running shoes to final customers only via authorised dealers poses a number of serious restraints to competition (Asics)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt takes a critical view of restriction of online distribution by ASICS* After a preliminary examination the Bundeskartellamt has found that the selective distribution system of ASICS Deutschland, which allows for the sale of running shoes to final customers only via authorised (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal reduces by almost 99 percent the penalty imposed by the French Competition Authority on a manufacturer for prohibiting the sale of its products online to the members of its selective distribution network (Bang & Olufsen)
Magenta (Paris)
,
Dechert (Paris)
In its judgment of March 13, 2014, the Paris Court of appeal (Court of Appeal) reduced by almost 99 per cent the penalty imposed by the French Competition Authority (FCA) on Bang & Olufsen (B&O) in its decision of December 12, 2012 (Decision) for having, since 2001, prohibited the (...)

The Danish Public Prosecutor for Serious Economic and International Crime enters into settlements with owners of driving schools in a cartel case (Driving schools)
Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (Copenhagen)
On 28 February 2014, the Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (“DCCA”) announced in a press release that the owners of five driving schools had entered into a settlement with the Public Prosecutor for Serious Economic and International Crime (“PSEIC”) for infringing section 6 of the Danish (...)

The U.S. District Court of Dallas dismisses antitrust claims because plaintiffs did not plausibly state an agreement on the market for direct online sale of hotel room reservations leaving the question of potential anticompetitive effect of the most favored nation (MFN) clause without an answer (OTC / Hotel Booking)
Bona Law (Detroit)
OTA Case Turns Out to Be Less about MFNs and More about Agreement* Back in September 2012, the potential anticompetitive aspects of most favored nation (MFN) clauses was the hot antitrust topic. While antitrust counselors (and courts) had found the clauses to be innocuous almost all the time, (...)

The U.S. District Court of Dallas dismisses a class action lawsuit filed by an online travel discount company against 12 dominant hotel chains and 9 online travel agencies alledging unfair exclusion from the market (OTC / Hotel Booking)
Ashurst (Milan)
U.S. District Judge in Texas dismisses class action lawsuit against conspiracy by online travel agencies and hotels to fix the price of hotel rooms* On 18 February 2014, U.S. District Judge Jane Boyle of the Northern District of Texas Dallas Division dismissed a class action lawsuit that (...)

The UK Competition Authority accepts commitments from online travel agents enabling them and hotels to offer discounts on rates for hotel rooms (Booking.com)
Ashurst (Milan)
UK Office of Fair Trading closes investigation into hotel online booking practices On 31 January 2014, the UK Office of Fair Trading (“OFT”) accepted the commitments from online travel agents, Booking.com B.V. (“Booking.com”, and its ultimate parent company priceline.com Incorporated) and Expedia (...)

The UK Competition Authority accepts commitments from online travel agents which permit them to offer hotel discounts (Booking.com / Expedia / IHG)
European Commission (Brussels)
United Kingdom: OFT clears Way for Discounts on Hotel Rooms* On 31 January 2014, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) accepted formal commitments from two of the UK’s largest online travel agents, Booking.com B.V. (Booking.com) and Expedia Inc (Expedia), together with InterContinental Hotels (...)

The German Competition Authority discontinues proceedings against an appliance manufacturer following the manufacturer’s decision to apply the same rebates for brick-and-mortar and online sales (Bosch Siemens Hausgeräte)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Household appliance manufacturer Bosch Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH abandons anti-competitive rebate system* Bonn, 23 December 2013: As of 2014, the manufacturer of household appliances Bosch Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH will discontinue its system of performance rebates introduced on 1 January 2013. The (...)

The German Competition Authority issues a press release concerning its decision to prohibit a hotel booking portal from continuing to apply its “best price” clause (HRS / Expedia / Booking.com)
Ashurst (Milan)
German Federal Cartel Office bans use of MFN clauses by HRS and opens new proceedings against Booking.com and Expedia* On 20 December 2013, Germany’s Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) issued a press release concerning its decision to prohibit the hotel booking portal HRS from continuing to apply its (...)

The UK Competition Authority opens a consultation on the revised commitments proposed by online travel agencies in relation to rebates (Booking.com / Expedia)
Ashurst (Milan)
UK OFT weighs revised commitments in the online hotel accommodation bookings* On 20 December 2013, the United Kingdom’s Office of Fair Trading (“OFT”) opened a consultation on the revised commitments proposed by Booking.com B.V. (“Booking.com”), Expedia Inc (“Expedia”) and InterContinental Hotels (...)

The German Competition Authority forbids the application of a most favoured nation clause and orders its removal from the contracts between hotels and booking portals (HRS / Expedia / Booking.com)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Online hotel portal HRS’s ’best price’ clause violates competition law – Proceedings also initiated against other hotel portals* Bonn, 20 December 2013: Today the Bundeskartellamt prohibited HRS from continuing to apply its ’best price’ clause (most favoured nation clause) and ordered the company to (...)

The German Federal Cartel Office closes its investigation against online book trader into the “price parity” clauses (Amazon)
Ashurst (Milan)
Amazon Marketplace ends price parity* On 26 November 2013, Germany’s Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) issued a press release stating that it has closed the investigation into Amazon’s “price parity” clauses applied in agreements with traders that operated on its Marketplace platform. In fact, on 27 and (...)

The German Competition Authority closes its proceedings against online book trader for enforcing price parity clauses on its marketplace platform (Amazon)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Amazon abandons price parity clauses for good* 26 November 2013: The Bundeskartellamt has today terminated its proceedings against Amazon for enforcing price parity clauses on its Marketplace platform after the company had met the requirements set by the authority. Andreas Mundt, President of (...)

The ECN Working Group on Competition Law gathers in Bonn to discuss matters related to vertical restraints in the internet economy sector
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Vertical Restraints in the Internet Economy - Meeting of the Working Group on Competition Law in Bonn* Bonn, 14 October 2013: On 10 October 2013 the Working Group on Competition Law met in Bonn at the invitation of the Bundeskartellamt. At this year’s meeting more than 100 competition law (...)

The Danish Competition and Consumer Authority publishes a report on parcel deliveries to consumers
European Commission (Brussels)
Denmark: Expensive to send small Consignments in Denmark* The Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (DCCA) published a report on parcel deliveries to consumers on 27 September 2013. Several providers offer competing services in the Danish market and competition has intensified in recent (...)

The UK Competition Authority issues draft commitments in an investigation into the sector for hotel online booking (IHG / Expedia / Booking.com)
Accenture (Dublin)
Hotel Online Booking: The OFT announces its intention to accept binding commitments* On 9 August 2013, the OFT issued draft commitments in the Hotel Online Booking investigation. The OFT has investigated the relevant markets for over 2 years and has provisionally found that certain hotels (...)

The UK OFT establishes vertical restrictions on the market for supply of mobility scooters, though no fines can be imposed (Roma Medical Aids)
Max Findlay (London)
Not playing nicely* Recently, there have been two striking cases of organisations behaving badly in a way that the outside world would think was well out of order. In the first example – the Roma Medical Aids case – it isn’t just about somebody breaking the rules. It’s about a company acting in a (...)

The Hungarian Competition Authority initiates a sector inquiry on the online room reservation market of the tourism sector
Hungarian Competition Authority (Budapest)
Sector inquiry on the market of online room reservations* Pursuant to Article 43/C of the Competition Act, the Hungarian Competition Authority (GVH) has initiated a sector inquiry on the online room reservation market of the tourism sector in order to familiarise itself with and evaluate the (...)

The German Competition Authority expresses concerns about best price clauses for operator of internet platform (HRS-Hotel Reservation Service)
European Commission (Brussels)
Germany: The Bundeskartellamt expresses Concerns about Best Price Clauses for Operator of Internet Platform* On 25 July 2013, the Bundeskartellamt (BKartA) addressed a second statement of objections to HRS-Hotel Reservation Service Robert Ragge GmbH, Cologne (HRS), a hotel booking platform. A (...)

The German Competition Authority continues to view the best price clause used by a hotel booking portal in a critical manner (HRS)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt continues to view HRS’s best price clause critically* The Bundeskartellamt has confirmed its competition concerns about the best price clause used by the hotel booking portal HRS. After examining the statements of HRS and all other relevant market participants, the (...)

The French Competition Authority carries out an inquiry in the area of prescription medicine distribution in private practices
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority. The Autorité de la concurrence is submitting to public consultation an initial assessment in which it has identified several potential sticking points* Medicinal products are the second-largest (...)

The EU Commission launches a market test of the commitments offered by an e-book publisher to reach a settlement in the EU investigation into e-book pricing (Penguin)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 19 April 2013, the European Commission launched a market test of the commitments offered by Penguin, aimed at reaching a settlement in the EU investigation into e-book pricing. In order to alleviate the Commission’s fears for collusion and higher prices in the e-book publishing sector, (...)

The US Court of Appeals for 9th Circuit finds an operator of several BitTorrent websites liable for contributory copyright infringement on an inducement theory (Columbia Pictures/Gary Fung)
Sideman & Bancroft (San Francisco)
U.S. Appeals Court for the 9th Circuit finds BitTorrent operator liable for contributory infringement on an inducement theory (Columbia Picture v. Fung)* On 21 March 2013, the U.S. 9th Circuit affirmed in part and vacated in part the California Central District Court decision that Gary Fung, (...)

The German Competition Authority launches a web survey targeting 2,400 sellers who offer their products on major internet platform (Amazon Marketplace)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt surveys Amazon Marketplace sellers* Today the Bundeskartellamt launched a web survey of 2,400 sellers who offer their products through Amazon Marketplace. Within the framework of administrative proceedings under competition law the Bundeskartellamt is examining the effects of (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal rules that dermo-cosmetic products do not have objective properties justifying the prohibition of their sale on the Internet (Pierre Fabre)
Vogel & Vogel (Paris)
In answer to the question of whether a general and absolute ban on selling cosmetics and personal care products online constitutes a hardcore restriction of competition by object, the European Court of Justice said that yes it did, if "having regard to the properties of the products at issue, (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal dismisses an action from a cosmetics manufacturer against a decision of the French Competition Authority that sanctioned it for prohibiting its authorised distributors from Internet sales (Pierre Fabre Dermo / Cosmétique)
Kalliopé Société d’Avocats (Paris)
On 31 January 2013, the Paris Court of Appeal ("the Court") dismissed an action by Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique SAS ("Pierre Fabre") against a decision of the French Competition Authority ("the FCA") dated 29 October 2008 ("the Decision") ordering Pierre Fabre to amend its selective (...)

The US FTC imposes limits on enforcing FRAND licensing of standards-essential patents through the threat of seeking of injunctions (Google / Motorola)
International Center for Law & Economics (Portland)
,
International Center for Law & Economics (Portland)
Introduction In January of 2013, the Federal Trade Commission and Google (acting through its subsidiary, Motorola Mobility) signed a Consent Order ending the agency’s investigation into a number of practices. Much of the Order is aimed at imposing antitrust-based limits on the allowable process (...)

The German Competition Authority fines two major TV broadcasting groups and two individuals for entering into anticompetitive agreements when they introduced the encryption of their digital free TV programmes (Pro7Sat1 and RTL)
European Commission (Brussels)
Germany: The Bundeskartellamt imposes Fines on Pro7Sat1 and RTL on account of Agreements on basic Encryption of TV Programmes and secures unencrypted SD TV* On 28 December 2012 the Bundeskartellamt (BKartA) imposed fines totalling approximately € 55 000 000 on the two major German TV (...)

The French Competition Authority fines a manufacturer which prohibited internet sales by its distributors (Bang & Olufsen)
Google (Paris)
Ten years! It took no less than ten years to decide whether it is lawful for a manufacturer to prevent online sales to its distributors. Compared to the speed at which businesses evolve on the internet, that is as if the conduct subject to scrutiny lasted half a century… In February 2002, the (...)

The EU Commission closes its case concerning the e-books sector after accepting a range of commitments, including the removal of MFN clauses (Simon & Schuster / Harper Collins / Hachette / Holtzbrinck / Apple)
European Commission (Brussels)
European Commission accepts Commitments in E-Books Case* On 12 December 2012, the European Commission (Commission) accepted formally binding commitments from four international publishers (Simon & Schusters (CBS Corp., USA), HarperCollins (News Corp., USA), Hachette Livre (Lagardère (...)

The EU Commission finds in a case concerning e-books that, given the nature of the relevant product, concerted practices covering a substantial part of the EEA may affect interstate trade (E-Books)
European University Institute (Florence)
Sad but true* I love commitments decisions because they are a quick read. But I also hate dislike them because they leave the reader angry hungry for more. Some evidence: in the E-Books case, the effect on trade condition was deemed fulfilled under the simplest possible sort of analysis: (...)

The UK OFT issues statement of objections against two online travel agents and one hotels group for alleged restrictive practices (Booking.com / Expedia / Intercontinental Hotels)
European Commission (Brussels)
United Kingdom: The Office of Fair Trading issues Statement of Objections against Booking.com, Expedia and Intercontinental Hotels Group* On 31 July 2012, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) issued a Statement of Objections alleging that Booking. com B.V. (Booking.com), Expedia Inc (Expedia) and (...)

The Lithuanian Competition Authority fines tour operators and travel agents for concerted practices relating to the online sale of package tours (Eturas)
European Commission (Brussels)
Lithuania: The Competition Council imposes Fine of more than € 1 500 000 for Anti-competitive Practice relating to Online Sale of Package Tours* On 7 June 2012, the Competition Council of the Republic of Lithuania (the CC) adopted a decision in which 30 tour operators/travel agents were fined (...)

Internet and Antitrust: An overview of EU and national case law
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
,
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
I. Introduction The last decade has seen Internet-based “disruptive innovation” in many sectors of the economy, not least communications, media, advertising and retail. This unprecedented development has brought about changes that would have been unimaginable until very recently: Websites, (...)

The French Supreme Court rules on selective distribution networks and outside-network sales made on online auction website (eBay)
Vogel & Vogel (Paris)
Four perfume brands have filed a legal action against the world’s number-one online auction site, eBay: they accuse eBay of allowing on its sites the sale by non-authorized third parties of products covered by a selective distribution channel. The judge found that eBay, a site bringing together (...)

The Danish Appeals Tribunal gives judgment on anti-competitive collective boycott in Danish real estate market (Boliga.dk)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 20 November 2012, the Danish Appeals Tribunal handed down a judgment on appeals brought by six Danish cooperative chains of independent real estate agents against a decision by the Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (“DCCA”) of 25 January 2012 finding that the companies had been (...)

The EU Commission opens formal proceedings to investigate sales of e-books (Hachette Livre, Harper Collins, Simon & Schuster...)
Sidley Austin (Brussels)
Is Apple forcing customers to pay more for e-books? - Global developments in the alleged e-book price-fixing case* European investigations On December 6, 2011 the European Commission announced that it opened formal proceedings to examine whether five major international publishers (Hachette (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules that absolute bans on Internet sales are prohibited (Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmetique)
Vogel & Vogel (Paris)
In 2006, the French Competition Council (Conseil de la concurrence) initiated proceedings regarding practices in the cosmetics and personal care products distribution sector after finding that the majority of manufacturers required that sales be carried out only in a physical space and always (...)

The New York Southern District Court holds that enforcement of a Minimum Advertised Price (MAP) policy against Internet retailers does not amount to minimum resale price maintenance (Worldhomecenter.com / Franke Consumer Products)
Pepper Hamilton (Philadelphia)
,
Pepper Hamilton (Philadelphia)
Courts May Try to Harmonize Federal and State Law on the Legality of Resale Price Maintenance* Ever since the United States Supreme Court ruled in Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., 551 U.S. 877 (2007), that resale price maintenance (i.e., agreements to set minimum resale (...)

The EU Court of Justice Advocate General Mazak recommends that prohibition on internet sales be per se infringement (Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique)
Jones Day (Brussels)
,
Jones Day (Brussels)
,
Jones Day (Dusseldorf)
On March 3, 2011, Advocate General (AG) Mazák delivered an opinion to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique SAS (PFDC). PFDC, a French manufacturer of cosmetics and personal care products, prohibited its retailers from selling via the Internet. AG Mazák advised the (...)

The Danish court of first instance fines a jewellery producer for resale price maintenance (Lise Aagaard Copenhagen)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 26 November 2010, the Court of First Instance of Copenhagen imposed a fine of approximately € 80,000 on Danish jewellery manufacturer Lise Aagaard Copenhagen A/S and a fine of approximately € 3,000 on one of its executives for preventing two Internet retailers from granting discounts. (...)

The U.S. House Judiciary Committee holds a hearing on competition in the evolving digital marketplace
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. hearing on competition in the digital marketplace* On 16 September 2010 the Subcommittee on the Courts and Competition Policy of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee held a hearing on Competition in the Evolving Digital Marketplace. A prepared statement of the U.S. Federal Trade (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal reduces damages awarded for sales of perfumes through a website by unauthorised distributors (eBay / Christian Dior / Kenzo / Givenchy / Guerlain)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 3 September 2010, the Paris Court of Appeal delivered its judgment in a case between eBay and SA Parfums Christian Dior, SA Kenzo Parfums, SA Parfums Givenchy, and SA Guerlain (which are perfume and cosmetics suppliers belonging to the LVMH group – hereinafter the “LVMH group”). On 30 June (...)

The German Competition Authority imposes fine of € 2.5 M for resale price maintenance concerning Internet sales of GPS systems (Garmin)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
According to a press release of 28 June 2010, the German Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) has imposed a total fine of € 2.5 million on Garmin Deutschland GmbH (“Garmin”), a manufacturer of mobile navigation devices (e.g., GPS systems), and one of its employees, for engaging in resale price maintenance (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts commitments in order to address competition concerns in the discount coupons sector (HighCo / Sogec / Perifem)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The Autorité de la concurrence accepts commitments enabling all market operators to use Webcoupon or to develop equivalent solutions* After a referral by the Institut de liaisons et d’études des industries de consommation (ILEC), and the company Ma Liste de Courses (MLDC), which complained of the (...)

The EU Commission publishes new rules for vertical agreements
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
,
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
,
Dentons (Brussels)
On April 20, 2010, the European Commission (the Commission) adopted its new, long-awaited Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (the VBER) and accompanying guidelines applicable to distribution agreements in the EU. The VBER, which will enter into force on June 1, 2010, replaces Regulation (...)

The US DoJ issues business review letter regarding a proposed Internet media subscription news aggregation service (Global News Service)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. Department of Justice does not challenge online subscription news service* On 24 February 2010 the Department of Justice issued a business review letter regarding a proposed Internet media subscription news aggregation service (Global News Service) that would be operated by MyWire, Inc. (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal rejects appeals by companies in the online travel sales sector found to have engaged in vertical practices and abuse of dominance under both EU and national provisions (SNCF / Expedia)
Novartis (Rueil-Malmaison)
BACKGROUND The Paris Court of Appeals (hereafter “the Court”) confirms a decision by the French Competition Council (hereafter “the Council”) which fined SNCF and Expedia, Inc. (hereafter “Expedia”) in a decision No. 09-D-06 of 5 February 2009. The appeal was brought by Karavel (a travel agency, (...)

The US DoJ closes investigation into the proposed Internet search and search advertising agreement (Microsoft / Yahoo!)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. Department of Justice closes investigation into Microsoft-Yahoo! agreement* On 18 February 2010 the U.S. Department of Justice announced the closing of its investigation into the proposed Internet search and search advertising agreement between Microsoft Corporation and Yahoo! Inc. (see (...)

The US DoJ files a statement of interest and raises concerns about cooperation and exclusivity regarding a proposed settlement in an e-books case (Google Books)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. Department of Justice remains concerned over antitrust issues raised by “Google Books” settlement* On 4 February 2010 the U.S. Department of Justice filed a statement of interest regarding the proposed amended settlement agreement in The Authors Guild Inc. et al. v. Google Inc. with the (...)

A German Court confirms judgment allowing a restriction on using auction websites in selective distribution
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In its judgment of 25 November 2009, the Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe (the “Court”) upheld a judgment of the Regional Court of Mannheim which allowed the manufacturer of high quality school bags which operated a qualitative selective distribution system to prohibit its distributors from (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal makes a reference for a preliminary ruling to the ECJ on whether a general and absolute ban on Internet sales by approved distributors does constitute a “hardcore restriction” on competition by object within the meaning of Art. 81.1 EC (Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique)
Norton Rose Fulbright (Paris)
In a judgment dated 29 October 2009, the French Court of Appeal made a reference for a preliminary ruling under article 234 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (the “EC Treaty”), whereby the ECJ was asked to answer “the question whether a general and absolute ban on Internet sales to (...)

The French Competition Authority issues an opinion on the review of EU Regulation 2790/99 and of the EU guidelines on vertical restraints
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority. The Autorité de la concurrence welcomes the modernization undertaken by the European Commission and recommends that the Commission better explains the balance it intends to guarantee between online trade and (...)

The German Federal Cartel Office imposes a fine on the market leader in the wholesale supply of contact lenses for having inter alia employed an internal price maintenance program, including the systematic monitoring of retail prices for contact lenses and the exertion of pressure, the granting of advantages as well as agreements and concerted practices with Internet dealers (CIBA Vision)
Linklaters (Düsseldorf)
Description of the impugned case The FCO found various measures under CIBA’s price maintenance program, that in the view of the FCO amounted to a fixing of minimum resale prices. In particular, the FCO considered an infringement of Article 81 EC (now Art. 101 TFEU) and the corresponding German (...)

The German Federal Cartel Office fines € 11.5 million a contact lens provider for fixing minimum resale prices and restricting Internet and wholesale sales of its products (CIBA)
Fried Frank Harris Shriver & Jacobson (London)
On September 25, 2009, the German Federal Cartel Office (FCO) levied a fine of €11.5 million against contact lens provider CIBA Vision Vertriebs GmbH (CIBA) for fixing minimum resale prices and restricting Internet and wholesale sales of its products. This is the third decision imposed by the (...)

The EU Commission publishes for consultation drafts of the vertical agreements block exemption regulation and vertical guidelines
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 28 July 2009, the European Commission published for consultation a draft of the proposed new Vertical Agreements Block Exemption Regulation (VABER) and its accompanying draft Vertical Guidelines. Interested parties are invited to submit comments on these documents by 28 September 2009. The (...)

The French Competition Authority issues opinion on exclusivity agreements between pay TV operators and Internet service providers
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 7 July 2009, following a request of the French Minister of Economy, the French Competition Authority issued an opinion concerning exclusivity agreements between pay TV operators and Internet service providers. Among the various issues raised, the Minister referred to the so-called «double (...)

A German Court accepts prohibition of selling through auction websites (Amer)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In a recently published judgment of 2 July 2009, the Higher Regional Court of Munich (the “Court”) found that a manufacturer of sports products (Amer) was allowed to prohibit its distributors to resell its products through auction websites, such as eBay. Amer had been sued by the German (...)

A German court rules on restrictions on sales through auction websites in the context of selective distribution (Sternjakob)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In a judgment of 21 April 2009, the Regional Court of Berlin (the Court) concluded that restrictions on sales through eBay imposed by a supplier of school bags on its selective distributors would be anti-competitive. According to this judgment, Sternjakob, a manufacturer of school bags, had (...)

A French Court rules that search engines are not liable for the way a company is presented in their search results (Publison System v. Google France & Yahoo France)
Google (Paris)
A French firm discovered that results returned by major search tools pointed to excerpts of a website criticizing it. It sued the search tools, claiming they were disparaging. A French court of appeals finds that this neither constitutes unfair competition nor gives rise to liability. Facts (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal suspends decision concerning prohibition of Internet sales in selective distribution (Pierre Fabre)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 18 February 2009, the President of the Paris Court of Appeal partially suspended the decision of the French Competition Council against a manufacturer of cosmetics, Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique (“Pierre Fabre”). In its decision of 29 October 2008, the Competition Council found that Pierre (...)

The French NCA fines a cosmetics manufacturer for prohibiting its selective distributors from selling its products on the Internet (Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique)
Simmons & Simmons (Paris)
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Hewlett Packard (Boulogne-Billancourt)
On 29 October 2008, the French French Competition Council (Conseil de la concurrence) (the “Council") fined Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, a cosmetics and personal hygiene products manufacturer, 17,000 Euros for having prohibited its selective distributors from selling products made by its (...)

The French NCA sanctions the prohibition of Internet sales imposed on the members of a selective distribution network, under Art. 81.1 EC (Pierre Fabre Dermo-cosmétique)
Juliette Goyer Avocat (Paris)
In a decision n° 08-D-25 dated 29 October 2008 (hereinafter the “Decision”), the French Competition Council sanctioned Pierre Fabre Dermo-cosmétique for prohibiting its selected distributors from selling personal care and cosmetic products under the Klorane, Avène, Ducray and Galénic brands on the (...)

The Paris Commercial Court orders a search engine and an online advertiser to pay damages to a company whose name and domain name have both been used in the Adwords program (Cobrason / Google, Home Ciné Solutions)
EDHEC (Lille)
Google France and Home Ciné Solutions (HCS) have been sued in France by Cobrason before the Commercial Court (Tribunal de commerce) of Paris. Cobrason claims that HCS is using both its company title (Cobrason) and its domain name (Cobrason.com) in the form of keywords it had purchased from (...)

The Haarlem District Court rules on a dispute between the Dutch collecting society and the UK collecting society regarding the licensing of portfolio (BUMA / PRS)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In a judgment dated 19 August 2008 (published only recently), the District Court of Haarlem in the Netherlands ruled on a dispute between the Dutch collecting society BUMA (“BUMA”) and the UK collecting society Performing Right Society Limited (“PRS”), regarding the licensing by BUMA of PRS‘ (...)

The Paris Commercial Court finds a leading brokerage platform for remote electronic bidding liable for the infringement of selective distribution networks and unlawful acts committed against perfumers on its sites (eBay)
Vogel & Vogel (Paris)
Four perfumers sue eBay, the world’s foremost brokerage platform for remote electronic bidding, for having permitted, in violation of their rights, the sale of products marketed through unauthorized channels and counterfeit sales on its sites. eBay disputed the competence of the French courts (...)

The Paris Commercial Court condemns a leading auction website to pay damages to perfume makers for a violation of their selective distribution networks (eBay)
Altana Law (Paris)
On 30 June 2008, the Commercial Court of Paris (Tribunal de Commerce de Paris) rendered three important decisions condemning the international auction website eBay mainly for its participation to an infringement of the IP rights of six manufacturers of luxury products belonging to the Louis (...)

A French Court of appeal rejects a request to forbid Internet resellers to sell a supplier’s products considering that the legality of its exclusive distribution network is not established (Brandalley / Over Stock / Puma)
Weil, Gotshal & Manges (Paris)
French courts are more and more solicited by suppliers claiming that online resellers or platforms violate their selective and/or exclusive distribution networks. We all remember the decisions recently rendered by the Paris commercial court in favour of LVMH against ebay . In a similar case, (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal upholds the legality of two restrictions on Internet sales by authorised retailers within a selective distribution network (PMC Distribution / Pacific Création)
Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer (Paris)
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Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer (Paris)
In its decision dated 18 April 2008, S.A.R.L. PMC Distribution vs. S.A.S. Pacific Création, the Paris Court of Appeal (the "Court") takes part in the debate on the legal regime of Internet sales within selective distribution systems. Pacific Création, an undertaking which manufactures and (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal confirms the possibility for a fragrance manufacturer to exclude pure players and to restrict internet sales within its selective distribution network (PMC Distribution / Pacific Création)
Kramer Levin Naftalis & Frankel (Paris)
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Eversheds Sutherland (Paris)
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Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (Paris)
Facts and Ruling In the present case, the dispute arose between Pacific Creation, a fragrance manufacturer and retailer and PMC Distribution (PMC), a pure player which offers branded products exclusively on the Internet. In France, Pacific Creation‘s fragrances are retailed through a selective (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts the commitments taken by 10 companies of the cosmetic industry to introduce more competition into online sale of their products (Bioderma & Rogé Cavaillès)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority. Conseil de la concurrence facilitates online sale of cosmetic products: 10 companies of the cosmetic industry committed to introduce more competition into online sale of their products.* The Conseil de la (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on improving competition in real estate transactions
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Key documents: Executive Summary with key findings, Detailled Summary of the discussion, Background note Executive summary, by the Secretariat In light of written submissions, the background note and the oral discussion, the following points emerge: 1. Direct consumer-to-consumer home sales (...)

The French Competition Council agrees to commitments from Hi-Fi and Home Cinema equipment suppliers in order to allow their selective distributors to carry out online selling (Hi-Fi / Home Cinema)
Simmons & Simmons (Paris)
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Hewlett Packard (Boulogne-Billancourt)
On 5 October 2006, the Conseil de la concurrence (French Competition Council) issued a decision in which it accepted to withdraw the litigation proceedings after three of the main companies active in the Hi-fi and home cinema equipment sector (Bose, Focal JM Lab and Triangle) agreed to (...)

The French Competition Council accepts commitments to modify selective distribution agreements as regards access to the network and advertising on the Internet (Festina)
Accor (Paris)
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SNCF Voyageurs (Saint-Denis)
The Bijourama Company is specialized in the sale of time pieces, jewellery and silversmith’s pieces exclusively on the internet. Bijourama submitted a referral to the French Competition Council on October 13th, 2005. The company complained about the refusal of Festina France (a subsidiary of the (...)

The Paris Court of First Instance rules on the anticompetitive effect of a patent infringement collective complaint lodged against a search engine’s adwords system (Gifam / Google)
DS Avocats (Paris)
AdWords is Google’s flagship advertising product, and its main source of revenue. It offers pay-per-click advertising, and site-targeted advertising for both text and banner ads. But many of the words sold by Google to its clients are registered trademarks and Google has been recently facing (...)

The Dutch District Court of Zutphen holds in an interim judgment that the Vertical Restraints Block Exemption Reg. n° 2790/99 covers the application of dissimilar terms and conditions of supply to internet retailers (Groen Trend & Schouten Keukens / AEP Home Products)
The AES Corporation (Amsterdam)
In December 2005 interim proceedings were brought before the District Court of Zutphen in a dispute between AEP Home Products (“AEP”), a supplier of kitchen appliances of the brands Atag, Etna and Pelgrim, and two of its buyers namely the internet retailer Groen Trend and the specialist shop (...)

The French Competition Authority rejects a request for interim measures submitted to address alleged competition concerns in the sector for on-line travel deals (Lastminute.com)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority. On-line travel deals - The Conseil de la concurrence rejects a request for interim measures submitted by the company Lastminute.com, but pursues the investigation of the case on the merits.* On 25th June (...)

The EU Commission exempts a standard agreement entered into by a number of copyright administration societies from Europe, South America, Asia and New Zealand (IFPI Simulcasting)
DLA Piper (Lisbon)
"From discothèques to websites, a new approach to music copyright licensing: the Simulcasting decision"* On 8 October 2002 the Commission adopted a decision in case COMP/C2/38.014 IFPI Simulcasting exempting a standard agreement entered into by a number of copyright administration societies (...)

The EU Commission investigates the amended agreements underlying the creation of an online travel agency on the basis of Articles 81 and 82 in order to uncover any possible restrictions of competition, in particular in the (online) travel agency services market and the ISP/portal markets (T-Online international, TUI, Thomas Cook)
European Court of Justice (Luxembourg)
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DG Economic and Financial Affairs (ECFIN) (Brussels)
"Internet Joint Ventures and the Quest for Exclusive Content: The T-Online Cases"* Introduction EC and national competition law issues arising from the marketing of ‘premium’ content, such as travel services and sports news, via the Internet were at the centre of several recent competition (...)

The OECD holds roundtable on competition issues in electronic commerce
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Executive summary, by the Secretariat Electronic commerce ("e-commerce") can be defined as business occurring over networks using non-proprietary protocols established through an open standard setting process. Internet mediated e- commerce is the fastest growing part of the phenomenon and was (...)

Dominance

The French Competition Authority fines a research engine company for abuse of dominance in the search advertising market (Google) Free
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The Autorité de la concurrence hands down a €150M fine for abuse of a dominant position* Google has abused its dominant position in the search advertising market by adopting operating rules of its Google Ads advertising platform which are opaque and difficult to understand and by applying them (...)

The French Competition Authority fines a company for abusing its dominant position in the online search advertising market (Google) Free
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 20 December 2019, the French Competition Authority (“FCA”) announced that it had imposed a € 150 million fine on Google for abusing its dominant position in the market for search advertising. This is the fourth antitrust fine imposed on Google by a competition authority of the EU in less than (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority imposes a daily fine on a big tech company for not complying with the previously imposed obligations (Google)
Bilkent University - Law School (Ankara)
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ACTECON (Istanbul)
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ACTECON (Istanbul)
Turkish Competition Authority (“TCA”) recently published its decision (“Review Decision”) reviewing the obligations that ought to be fulfilled by the economic integrity comprised of Google LLC, Google International LLC and Google Reklamcılık ve Pazarlama Ltd. Şti. (will be referred to as “Google” (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority experts impose administrative fines on undertakings in order to ensure the protection of competition (Google)
Erdem & Erdem (Istanbul)
Introduction The Law on Protection of Competition (“Law No. 4054”) outlines the Competition Board’s (“Board”) and the Competition Authority’s experts’ powers while implementing their duties to ensure the protection of competition. Accordingly, Law No. 4054 imposes several types of administrative (...)

The German Competition Authority ends an abuse probe after an online market place agrees to change business terms for dealers (Amazon)
Heinz & Zagrosek (Köln)
Bundeskartellamt ends abuse probe after Amazon agrees to changing business terms for dealers* On July 17, 2019, the German Bundeskartellamt (Federal Cartel Office, “FCO”) terminated its dominance probe into Amazon’s business terms towards sellers on its marketplace after Amazon agreed to various (...)

The German Competition Authority obtains amendments of seller rules active on a major online marketplace (Amazon)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt obtains far-reaching improvements in the terms of business for sellers on Amazon’s online marketplaces* In response to the competition concerns expressed by the Bundeskartellamt, Amazon is amending its terms of business for sellers on Amazon’s online marketplaces. Andreas (...)

The Brazilian Competition Authority decides to file charges against a multinational technology company due to one of its online shopping platform features (Google)
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
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University of São Paulo
GOOGLE SHOPPING IN BRAZIL: HIGHLIGHTS OF CADE’S DECISION AND TAKEAWAYS FOR DIGITAL ECONOMY ISSUES On 26 June 2019, the Brazilian Competition Authority (CADE) decided to file the competition charges raised against Google on its “Google Shopping” feature. It was not an easy decision, which is shown (...)

The Italian Competition Authority launches an investigation against a search engine company suspected to abuse of its dominant position (Google)
Italian Competition Authority (Rome)
ICA: investigation launched against Google for alleged abuse of a dominant position* In the meeting of 8 May 2019, the Italian Competition Authority decided to launch an investigation against Alphabet Inc., Google LLC and Google Italy S.r.l. (indicated together as Google) to ascertain an (...)

The Indian Competition Authority finds that a company abused its dominant position by requiring device manufacturers wishing to pre-install apps to adhere to a compatibility standard (Google Android)
Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
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Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
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Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
Following a complaint made by a number of users of smartphones using the Android operating system, the CCI prima facie found that Google was dominant in the market for licensable smart mobile device operating systems in India and had abused its dominant position by requiring device (...)

The Indian Competition Authority orders a probe against a multinational technology company for abusing of its dominant position (Google)
Gujarat National Law University (Gandhinagar)
COMPETITION COMMISSION OF INDIA STRIKES ANOTHER BLOW TO GOOGLE FOR ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION* On 16th April 2019, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) ordered a probe against the multinational technology company, Google, for abusing its dominant position in clear violation of Section 4 (...)

The Italian Competition Authority opens an antitrust investigation against a major e-commerce company for alleged abuse of dominance (Amazon)
Desogus Law Office (Cagliari)
The Italian Competition Authority (ICA) has opened an Article 102 TFEU investigation against several undertakings belonging to the Amazon group in the FBA case. The targets of the ICA investigation are Amazon Services Europe (ASE), Amazon Europe Core (AEC), Amazon EU (AEU), Amazon Italia (...)

The Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf upholds a decision of the German Competition Authority prohibiting exclusivity clauses in the event ticketing market (CTS Eventim)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 3 April 2019, the Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf (the “Court”) upheld a 2017 decision of the Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) prohibiting exclusivity clauses in the event ticketing market. In a large number of its contracts with event organisers, ticketing service provider CTS Eventim used (...)

The Philippine Competition Authority files suits against company against a mass housing developer for abuse of dominance (Condo developer)
Philippine Competition Commission (Quezon City)
The Enforcement Office of the Philippine Competition Commission (PCC) has filed a case against a mass housing developer for breaching the antitrust law by engaging in an exclusive internet service tie-up on its property in Tondo, Manila. In a Statement of Objections filed on March 27, the PCC (...)

The EU Commission imposes a fine of € 1.49 billion on a search engine company for abusing its dominant position by imposing restrictive clauses in contracts with third-party websites (Google AdSense)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission fines Google €1.49 billion for abusive practices in online advertising* The European Commission has fined Google €1.49 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. Google has abused its market dominance by imposing a number of restrictive clauses in contracts with third-party (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority launches an investigation into a search engine company for alleged abuse of dominance in the online search market (Google)
University of Sussex (Brighton)
Background Competition authorities all over the world, including the European Commission, German, French, Italian and Indian competition authorities, have launched many investigations against the well-known online search engine company Google, many of which ended with imposition of huge (...)

The Austrian Competition Authority initiates investigation proceedings concerning discrimination against retailers on the internet (Amazon)
Austrian Competition Authority (Vienna)
After a first analysis, discussions with the European Commission (DG Competition) and the German Bundeskartellamt, the BWB has decided to initiate investigation proceedings concerning suspected infringements of Austrian and European Competition Law. The BWB will examine, whether Amazon abused (...)

The German Competition Authority prohibits a social network company for abusing its dominant position by combining its user data from different sources (Facebook)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt / Digital Economy Bundeskartellamt prohibits Facebook from combining user data from different sources* Bonn, 7 February 2019: The Bundeskartellamt has imposed on Facebook far-reaching restrictions in the processing of user data. According to Facebook’s terms and conditions (...)

The German Competition Authority orders to a social network company to stop collecting and matching data of its users without explicit consent as it constitutes an abuse of dominance (Facebook)
Heinz & Zagrosek (Köln)
Bundeskartellamt hits „don’t like“-button on Facebook* On February 7, 2019, Germany’s Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) issued its long-awaited decision in the Facebook case, see press release and background paper in English here. It qualifies Facebook’s current practice of collecting and matching data (...)

The German Competition Authority holds that matching the data collected by a social network company constitutes an antitrust violation (Facebook)
International Center for Law & Economics (Portland)
Doing double damage: The German competition authority’s Facebook decision manages to undermine both antitrust and data protection law* The German Bundeskartellamt (Federal Cartel Office or FCO) this week reached a decision in its nearly 3-year-old Facebook investigation. The decision appears to (...)

The German Competition Authority finds the merging of user data from multiple sources to be both anti-competitive and in breach of the GDPR (Facebook)
Simmons & Simmons (London)
In one of the first decisions to consider data protection and competition issues side by side, the German competition regulator (the Bundeskartellamt) last week found that Facebook had both abused its market power in Germany and breached EU data protection laws in the way in which it collects (...)

The German Competition Authority finds that the data gathering practices of a social network are an abuse of its dominant position, and orders amendments in its data processing policy (Facebook)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 6 February 2019, the German Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) concluded administrative proceedings concerning the data gathering practices of Facebook Inc., Facebook Ireland and Facebook Germany (together “Facebook”). The FCO found that Facebook abused its dominant position by making the private use (...)

The French Competition Authority orders a search engine company to review and clarify the rules of its online advertising service (Amadeus / Google)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 31 January 2019, the French Competition Authority (the “FCA”) ordered Google to review the rules of its Google Ads service. The FCA’s Order follows a complaint by Amadeus, an operator of online enquiry services – such as “a directory that provides call or text numbers for business/ residential (...)

The German Competition Authority initiates an abuse of dominance proceeding against a major e-commerce company (Amazon)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt initiates abuse proceeding against Amazon* The Bundeskartellamt has today initiated an abuse proceeding against Amazon to examine its terms of business and practices towards sellers on its German marketplace amazon.de. Andreas Mundt, President of the Bundeskartellamt: “Amazon (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on personalised pricing in the digital era Free
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
As data analytics and pricing algorithms become common business practice in the digital era, there are growing concerns about the possibility that companies use such tools to engage in personalised pricing, a form of price discrimination that involves charging different prices to consumers (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority fines a consumer electronics company for resale price maintenance in online sales (Sony)
ACTECON (Istanbul)
On 22 November 2018 the Turkish Competition Authority (“TCA”) completed its investigation and decided to sanction Sony Eurasia Pazarlama A.Ş. (“Sony”) for its involvement in imposition of fixed or minimum resale prices maintenance (“RPM”) on online retailers. Sony should be faced with an (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority fines a consumer electronics company for resale price maintenance in online sales (Sony)
Bilkent University - Law School (Ankara)
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ACTECON (Istanbul)
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ACTECON (Istanbul)
Turkish Competition Authority (“TCA”) published its reasoned decision which concludes the investigation that was initiated on September 7, 2017 regarding the activities of Sony Eurasia Pazarlama A.Ş. (“Sony”). The main focus of the investigation was the allegations with respect to violation of Law (...)

The Turkish Competition Board fines a consumer electronics company for resale price maintenance on online sales channels (Sony)
ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
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ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
This case summary includes an analysis of the Turkish Competition Board’s (the “Board”) Sony decision (22.11.2018; 18-44/703-345) in which the Board evaluated the allegations concerning resale price maintenance (“RPM”) against Sony Eurasia Pazarlama A.Ş. (“Sony”) upon complaint of a former distributor (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority follows the EU Commission’s footsteps in the search engines’ battles (Google / Yandex)
ACTECON (Istanbul)
The tech giant Google has been under the Turkish Competition Authority’s (“TCA”) scrutiny due to its practices in the market for licensable mobile operating systems and under the judicial review since July 2015. In September 2018, the TCA has finally released its short decision and imposed a fine (...)

The EU Commission fines a tech company for illegal tying in the market for third-party mobile device manufacturing (Google Android)
Economists Incorporated (Washington)
European Commission Fines Google for Illegal Tying* The European Commission (“EC”) recently fined Google €4.34 billion, stating that “Google has imposed illegal restrictions on Android device manufacturers and mobile network operators to cement its dominant position in general internet search.” (...)

The EU Commission fines a multinational technology company for abuse of dominance by imposing illegal restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission fines Google €4.34 billion for illegal practices regarding Android mobile devices to strengthen dominance of Google’s search engine* The European Commission has fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. Since 2011, Google has imposed illegal restrictions (...)

The EU Commission fines a multinational technology company for abuse of dominant position in the smartphone operating system sector (Google Android)
Baker McKenzie (London)
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Baker McKenzie (Brussels)
This article has been nominated for the 2020 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On 18 July 2018 the European Commission imposed a record fine of €4.34 billion on Google. In such an innovative and competitive industry, a decision and fine on (...)

The French Competition Authority issues an opinion concluding its sector-specific investigation into online advertising
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Sector-specific investigation into online advertising* The Autorité de la concurrence has made public its opinion in which it analyses a very complex market characterised by a fragile competitive equilibrium. Given the concerns of stakeholders in the sector, the General Rapporteur announced (...)

The Indian Competition Authority fines a company for search bias and exclusive agreements (Google)
Gujarat National Law University (Gandhinagar)
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Gujarat National Law University (Gandhinagar)
On 8th February 2018, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) imposed a fine of INR 135.86 Crores (approximately $ 1.36 Billion) on Google, for abusing its dominant position striking the mandate of Section 4 of the (Indian) Competition Act, 2002 (‘Act’). The comment herein highlights the (...)

The Indian Competition Authority fines a company for search bias in the search engine market (Google)
Indian Competition Commission (New Delhi)
The Competition Commission of India (CCI) has found Google to have abused its dominant position in online general web search and web search advertising services in India. The order was passed in response to informations filed by Matrimony.com Limited and Consumer Unity & Trust Society (...)

The Indian Competition Authority fines a global tech company for abuse of dominance in the market for online search and related advertising services (Matrimony.com / Consumer Unity & Trust Society / Google)
Vaish (New Delhi)
CCI imposes penalty of INR 136 Crores on Google for abuse of dominant position* The Indian anti-trust regulator, the Competition Commission of India (“CCI/ Commission”) seems to have let Google off with just a rap on the knuckles. CCI vide order dated February 8, 2018 has imposed a penalty of (...)

The Romanian Competition Authority opens a procedure against a company suspected of abuse of dominance in the mediation services market through online platforms (Dante International)
Romanian Competition Council (Bucharest)
The Competition Council analyses a possible abuse of dominant position of Dante International SA* The Competition Council opened an investigation on a possible abuse of dominant position by Dante International SA on the mediation services market through online platforms in Romania. Dante (...)

The Malaysian Competition Appeal Tribunal upholds a decision of the Competition Authority in a case of abuse of dominance in the provision and management of online foreign workers permit renewals (My E.G)
Wong Partners (Baker McKenzie Kuala Lumpur)
On 28 December 2017, the Competition Appeal Tribunal (CAT) upheld the Malaysian Competition Commission’s (MyCC) decision on 24 June 2016 that My E.G. Services Berhad (MyEG) and its wholly-owned subsidiary, My E.G Commerce Sdn. Bhd. (MyEG Commerce) have abused their dominant position in the (...)

The German Competition Authority finds by a preliminary assessment that a social network company abused its dominant position by collecting and using data from third-party sources (Facebook)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Preliminary assessment in Facebook proceeding: Facebook’s collection and use of data from third-party sources is abusive* The Bundeskartellamt has informed the company Facebook in writing of its preliminary legal assessment in the abuse of dominance proceeding which the authority is conducting (...)

The German Competition Authority indicates in its preliminary assessment of possible abuse of dominance case that data collection and use from third-party sources is abusive (Facebook)
Heinz & Zagrosek (Köln)
Bundeskartellamt sends preliminary assessment to Facebook* On December 19, 2017, the Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) published a press release on its preliminary assessment in the ongoing Facebook dominance probe, accompanied by a background paper (available in English here). The FCO considers (...)

The Dutch Competition Authority, after its market study into online video platforms, finds no dominant market power among online video streaming platforms (Youtube)
Netherlands Authority for Consumers & Markets (The Hague)
No dominant market power among online video streaming platforms* The Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM) has conducted a market study into online video platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, Netflix, and Dumpert. ACM did not find any indications for anticompetitive risks on the (...)

The EU Commission imposes a record fine on a big tech undertaking for abuse of dominance in the search engine market (Google Shopping) Free
Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
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Simmons & Simmons (London)
Introduction On 27 June 2017, the European Commission (the Commission) imposed a record €2.42bn fine on Google after finding it had abused its dominant position in the search engine market by giving favourable treatment to its comparison shopping service in its search results. Background (...)

The Italian Competition Authority launches an inquiry into the big data sector Free
Ashurst (Milan)
Big Data: Italian authorities launch inquiries on competition, consumer protection and data privacy issues* On 30 May 2017, the Italian Competition Authority, the Italian Data Protection Authority and the Communications Authority opened a joint inquiry on “Big Data”. Sector Inquiry The joint (...)

The Russian Competition Authority announces the payment of a fine by a multinational technology undertaking following a settlement (Google)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
Google paid the fine* On 9 May 2017 Google Inc. Paid a 438,067,400 RUB administrative fine imposed by the Federal Antimonopoly Service. On 17 April 2017 the 2-year dispute between the Federal Antimonopoly Service and “Google” ended in an amicable settlement reached at the Arbitration Court of (...)

The EU Commission accepts remedies proposed by an electronic commerce company in the e-books case (Amazon)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission accepts commitments from Amazon on e-books* The European Commission has adopted a decision that renders legally binding the commitments offered by Amazon. The commitments address the Commission’s preliminary competition concerns relating to a number of clauses in Amazon’s (...)

The Russian Competition Authority concludes an amicable settlement with a multinational technology company (Google)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
FAS terminated administrative proceedings against Google* The decisions was due to an amicable settlement reached between the antimonopoly authority and the company On 25 April 2017, the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS Russia) terminated the proceedings against Google opened for failure to (...)

The Beijing Intellectual Property Court finds an ad-block app breaching unfair competition provisions ( Feihu Information Technology Tianjin Company and Sohu / Beijing Xiaoyi Interaction Network Technology)
University of Melbourne
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Hogan Lovells (Beijing)
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China Competition Bulletin (Beijing)
On 2 April 2017, the Beijing Intellectual Property Court upheld the first-instance judgement relating to an unfair competition claim brought by Feihu Information Technology Tianjin Company and Sohu against Beijing Xiaoyi Interaction Network Technology. Xiaoyi operated an app that could play 30 (...)

The French Competition Authority conducts an initial intermediary assessment of the commitments made by an online accommodation booking company (Booking.com)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The Autorité de la concurrence conducts an initial intermediary assessment of the commitments made by Booking.com.* The Autorité has not ruled out the possibility of issuing an opinion at its own initiative if the change in competition so requires, and is actively contributing to all of the (...)

The EU Commission seeks feedback on commitments proposed by an electronic commerce company in e-book investigation (Amazon)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission seeks feedback on commitments offered by Amazon in e-book investigation* The European Commission is inviting comments on commitments offered by Amazon to address competition concerns relating to parity clauses in contracts with publishers. The clauses may breach EU (...)

The German Competition Authority closes its proceeding against companies operating on the digital audio-books market suspected to abuse of their dominance (Apple and Amazon)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt closes proceedings against Audible/Amazon and Apple* The Bundeskartellamt has closed its administrative proceedings against Audible.com – a subsidiary of Amazon – and Apple Computer Inc. Following a complaint by the German Publishers and Booksellers Association (Börsenverein des (...)

The Paris Commercial Court declares void price and availability parity clauses formerly implemented by a hotel online booking company (Booking.com)
Epex Spot (Paris)
In a ruling issued on November 29th, 2016, the Paris commercial court (hereafter the “court”) declared void several provisions, including price and availability parity clauses previously in force, of Booking.com’s general terms of service governing its B2B relationships with hotels. Following an (...)

The Belgian Competition Authority closes its investigation regarding a real estate website due to remedies offered by the undertaking (Immoweb)
Belgian Competition Authority (Brussels)
The Investigation and Prosecution Service of the Belgian Competition Authority has closed its investigation against Immoweb due to commitments offered by Immoweb* On January 30 2015, the Investigation and Prosecution Service opened an ex officio investigation against Immoweb, the company (...)

The Canadian Competition Tribunal denies leave to commence a private application in a refusal to deal case (CarGurus)
Cassels Brock (Toronto)
Used car listing website operator CarGurus Inc.’s attempt to force rival Trader Corporation to supply it with vehicle listing data has encountered a dead end as the Competition Tribunal denied it leave to commence a private application under several provisions of the Competition Act. This (...)

The Italian Competition Authority, in collaboration with 9 National Competition Authorities and the EU Commission, monitors the impact of the measures undertaken in online hotel booking sector
Italian Competition Authority (Rome)
Monitoring launched in online hotel booking sector* Monitoring the impact of the new parity clauses in the contracts with online travel agencies by the Italian Competition Authority in partnership with 9 other National Competition Authorities The Italian Competition Authority (AGCM), in (...)

The Arbitration Court of Moscow confirms that a technology company has abused its dominance on the market of pre-installed app stores (Google)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
Appeal Court supported FAS in a dispute with “Google”* On 17 August 2016, the 9th Arbitration Appeal Court pronounced legitimacy and reasonableness of the decision of the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS Russia) on a case against “Google” abusing dominance on the market of preset application (...)

The Portuguese Competition Authority sends a statement of objections to a company specialized in standard mail services suspected to abuse of dominance (CTT)
Portuguese Competition Authority (Lisbon)
The Portuguese Competition Authority sends Statement of Objections to CTT – Correios de Portugal S.A.* The Portuguese Competition Authority (Autoridade da Concorrência – AdC) confirms having sent a Statement of Objections to CTT – Correios de Portugal S.A. (CTT) outlining its preliminary view that (...)

The EU Commission takes further steps concerning the case involving comparison shopping services and advertising-related practices (Google AdSense)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission takes further steps in investigations alleging Google’s comparison shopping and advertising-related practices breach EU rules* The Commission has sent two Statements of Objections to Google. The Commission has reinforced, in a supplementary Statement of Objections, its (...)

The EU Commission considers comparison shopping services and advertising related practices (Google AdSense)
International Center for Law & Economics (Portland)
Everything is amazing - and no-one at the European Commission is happy* Since the European Commission (EC) announced its first inquiry into Google’s business practices in 2010, the company has been the subject of lengthy investigations by courts and competition agencies around the globe. (...)

The French Competition Authority starts, in collaboration with 9 National Competition Authorities and the EU Commission, a survey among hoteliers to assess the remedies implemented in the hotel booking sector (Booking.com)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Hotel booking platforms* The Autorité de la concurrence launches, in collaboration with 9 national competition authorities and the European Commission, a survey among hoteliers in order to assess the effects of the remedies implemented in Europe in the hotel booking platforms sector. (...)

The German Competition Authority issues a working paper on the market power of platforms and networks
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt publishes working paper on "Market Power of Platforms and Networks"* The Bundeskartellamt has today published a working paper which deals with the "Market Power of Platforms and Networks" in the Internet. The report focuses on the factors relevant for assessing the market (...)

The Hungarian Competition Authority pursues the monitoring of the online booking market after closing its sector inquiry
Hungarian Competition Authority (Budapest)
The GVH continues to monitor the hotel booking market after closing its sectoral inquiry* The Hungarian Competition Authority (Gazdasági Versenyhivatal, GVH) prepared its report on its sectoral inquiry on the online accommodation booking market. Due to the positive changes that took place on (...)

The German Competition Authority terminates proceedings regarding possible abuse of dominance in the market for the distribution of passenger train tickets and accepts several commitments by the incumbent train company (Deutsche Bahn)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
By a decision of 24 May 2016, the German Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) announced that it had terminated proceedings against Deutsche Bahn AG after having accepted several commitments. In 2014, the FCO initiated an investigation against Deutsche Bahn AG and reached the preliminary conclusion that (...)

The German Competition Authority announces that, following its investigations, a railway company has decided to make far-reaching changes to the sale of passenger tickets (Deutsche Bahn)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Deutsche Bahn AG to make changes to ticket sales* Following investigations by the Bundeskartellamt, Deutsche Bahn AG has undertaken to make far-reaching changes to the sale of passenger tickets. The measures will improve the ticket sales possibilities of its competitors. In early 2014 the (...)

The French and German Competition Authority publish a joint study on competition law and data
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The French Autorité de la concurrence and the German Bundeskartellamt publish joint paper on data and its implications for Competition Law* The increasing collection, processing and commercial use of data in digital markets has prompted a broad debate about the role of data in corporate (...)

The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a technology company suspected of imposing restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)
Constantine Cannon (London)
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Constantine Cannon (London)
EU Commission Hits Google With Abuse Of Dominance Charges Over Android*Just as expected, following a one-year investigation and a number of information requests, the European Commission formally announced today that it is accusing Google’s parent company, Alphabet, of abusing its dominant (...)

The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a technology company suspected of imposing restrictions on device manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Antitrust: Commission sends Statement of Objections to Google on Android operating system and applications* The European Commission has informed Google of its preliminary view that the company has, in breach of EU antitrust rules, abused its dominant position by imposing restrictions on (...)

The EU Commission sends a statement of objections concerning the imposition of restrictions on smartphone manufacturers and mobile network operators (Google Android)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 20 April 2016, the European Commission confirmed it issued a Statement of Objections (“SO”) to Google concerning the imposition of restrictions on Android device manufacturers and mobile network operators. The investigation was formally opened in April 2015. Google now has until July 2016 to (...)

The Moscow Arbitration Court confirms the Competition Authority’s decision and prescription concerning the operating systems for smartphones (Yandex / Google)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
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FAS Russia
In March 2016, the Moscow Arbitration Court expressed its support of the position of the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS Russia) on the case of abuse of dominance by the Google group of companies involving its actions on the Android operation system. The decision of FAS Russia was taken as (...)

The German Competition Authority opens a proceeding against a social network company suspected to have abused its dominance by infringing data protection rules (Facebook)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt initiates proceeding against Facebook on suspicion of having abused its market power by infringing data protection rules* The Bundeskartellamt has initiated a proceeding against Facebook Inc., USA, the Irish subsidiary of the company and Facebook Germany GmbH, Hamburg. The (...)

The German Competition Authority initiates proceedings against a social network company regarding potential abuse of dominance (Facebook)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
The German Federal Cartel Office (the FCO) has announced that it has initiated proceedings against Facebook for the company’s alleged abuse of its dominant position in a market for social networks. The FCO appears to be taking the position that, as a firm with a possibly dominant position, (...)

The UK High Court throws out a private claim for damages based on abuse of dominance in the online mapping sector (Streetmap / Google)
Constantine Cannon (London)
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Constantine Cannon (London)
Google wins court battle against StreetMap in the UK*Google won a big victory Friday in the High Court of England and Wales, which ruled that Google did not abuse its dominant position to the detriment of the now-defunct UK online mapping provider, Streetmap.The Court’s ruling against (...)

The German Competition Authority prohibits "best price" clauses implemented by an online hotel booking company (Booking.com)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Narrow ’best price’ clauses of Booking also anticompetitive* Today the Bundeskartellamt prohibited Booking (Booking.com Deutschland GmbH, Berlin, and Booking.com B.V., Amsterdam) from continuing to apply its ’best price’ clauses and ordered the hotel booking portal to completely delete the clauses (...)

The Irish Competition Authority publishes commitments made by an online hotel booking company (Booking.com)
Irish Competition Authority (Dublin)
Commission secures 5-year commitments from Booking.com* Commission secures 5-year commitments from Booking.com Accommodation providers in Ireland will have increased ability to offer lower prices Consumers will have greater access to more competitive rates Tuesday, 6th October 2015: The (...)

The Russian Competition Authority finds that a smartphone operating system developer abused of its dominance on the market of pre-installed app stores (Google)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
“Google” abuses its dominant position on the market of pre-installed application stores in “Android” OS* The FAS Commission arrived to that conclusion on 14th September 2015, based on investigating the case against “Google Inc, Google Ireland” Ltd., “Google” Ltd. FAS found that “Google Inc. Google (...)

The German Competition Authority decides not to open formal proceedings against a search engine company in ancillary copyright dispute (Google)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt takes decision in ancillary copyright dispute* Bonn, 09 September 2015: In the dispute between the copyright collecting society VG Media and Google, the Bundeskartellamt has decided not to open formal proceedings against Google regarding its conduct in connection with the (...)

The German Competition Authority condemns an athletic equipment company for restricting online sales of its small and medium-sized authorized dealers (Asics)
Ashurst (Milan)
Germany’s Federal Cartel Office finds ASICS’ restrictions of online sales illegal* On 27 August 2015, the Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”) concluded its proceedings concerning certain anticompetitive restrictions in the distribution system of ASICS Deutschland (“ASICS“), and found that ASICS breached (...)

The Croatian Competition Authority opens an ex officio investigation regarding an apps sales market (Google)
Croatian Competition Agency (Zagreb)
CCA investigation in Android apps sales market* Following some press articles claiming that the Croatian software companies were forced to open branch offices or find partners abroad because Google did not allow them to register for direct sale of their apps via the Google Play store, the (...)

The EU Commission opens an investigation on e-book’s distribution agreements concluded between several publishers and an electronic commerce company (Amazon)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Commission opens formal investigation into Amazon’s e-book distribution arrangements* The European Commission has opened a formal antitrust investigation into certain business practices by Amazon in the distribution of electronic books ("e-books"). The Commission will in particular investigate (...)

The French Competition Authority obtains extensive commitments from an online hotel booking company (Booking.com)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Online hotel booking sector* The Autorité de la concurrence, in coordination with the European Commission and the Italian and Swedish authorities, has obtained particularly extensive commitments from Booking.com aiming to boost competition between online booking platforms and give hotels more (...)

The Italian Competition Authority renders legally binding the commitments proposed by an online hotel booking company (Booking.com)
Italian Competition Authority (Rome)
Commitments offered by booking.com: closed the investigation in Italy, France AND Sweden* On 21 April 2015, the Italian Competition Authority has rendered legally binding the commitments offered by Priceline Group’s companies Booking.com BV and Booking.com (Italy) and closed, with respect to (...)

The Swedish Competition Authority approves voluntary commitments of an online hotel booking company subject to a fine (Booking.com)
Vinge (Stockholm)
The Swedish Competition Authority decided, on 15 April 2015, to approve the voluntary commitments presented by Bookingdotcom Sverige AB and Booking.com BV (below, jointly referred to as “Booking.com”). The commitments are associated with a fine of SEK 5 million (approx. EUR 550 000) for (...)

The German Competition Authority sends a statement of objections to an online hotel booking company suspected to abuse of dominance (Booking.com)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt issues statement of objections regarding Booking.com’s ’best price’ clauses* Today the Bundeskartellamt has informed Booking.com Deutschland GmbH, Berlin, of its competition concerns regarding the continued use of ’best price’ clauses in its contracts with hotels in Germany. This (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California dismisses an antitrust claim for lack of proof of both the conduct and the injury (Google)
DLA Piper Weiss-Tessbach (Vienna)
Two recent victories for Google in the United States* On 20 February 2015 a federal judge in California dismissed an antitrust lawsuit against Google alleging that it violated antitrust laws by requiring makers of Android tablets and smartphones to designate Google as the default search engine (...)

The French Competition Authority and the UK Competition and Markets Authority publish their joint report on digital ecosystems
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The French Autorité de la Concurrence and the UK Competition and Markets Authority have produced a joint report on ecosystems and their effects on competition.* The digital economy gives consumers and firms increased access to products, services, and information. These different products and (...)

The French Competition Authority receives commitments from an online hotel booking company aiming at ending practices likely to constitute an abuse of dominance (Booking.com)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Online hotel booking sector* Booking.com has proposed to the Autorité de la concurrence to remove the so-called “pricing parity clause” obliging hotels to grant it pricing conditions that are at least as favorable as those granted to the other online platforms Hotels can now place booking.com in (...)

The EU Parliament passes a resolution calling on the Commission to unbundle search engines from other commercial services (Google)
Ashurst (Milan)
EU Parliament passes resolution calling on the Commission to unbundle [Google’s] search engines from other commercial services* On 27 November 2014 the European Parliament has passed a non-binding resolution, which called on the Commission to “properly enforce the EU competition rules in order (...)

The French Competition Authority forces the incumbent train company to open online ticket selling to competition (SNCF / voyages-sncf.com)
EDHEC (Nice)
French train company SNCF forced to open online ticket selling to competition Summary SNCF, which has a monopoly on rail transport in France, had to agree to let distributors other than its affiliate Voyages-Sncf.com sell its train tickets in France. Facts SNCF operates trains in France, (...)

The Slovenian Competition Authority fines a broadcasting and internet media company in abuse case (Pro Plus)
European Commission (Brussels)
Slovenia: The Competition Protection Agency fines Media Company PRO PLUS in Abuse Case* On 21 July 2014, the Slovenian Competition Protection Agency (CPA) imposed a fine of nearly € 5 000 000 on PRO PLUS, a leading broadcasting and internet media company in Slovenia, for having abused its (...)

The Italian Competition Authority initiates antitrust proceedings concerning the use of most favored nation clauses in the online hotel reservations space (Booking.com / Expedia)
Ashurst (Milan)
Italian competition authority investigates online hotel bookings* On 7 May 2014, the Italian Competition Authority (“Agcm”) initiated proceedings (decision only available in Italian) against Booking.com and Expedia in the online hotel reservations space. This is yet another case in the wake of (...)

The French Competition Authority makes legally binding the commitment of the holder of a legal monopoly over horserace bets placed in physical outlets, to separate its online horserace betting activity from its point of sale network (Betclic / PMU)
Ashurst (Milan)
French Competition Authority orders PMU to separate its online horserace betting activity from its physical point of sale network* On 25 February 2014, the French Competition Authority (“AdlC”) issued a decision (available only in French) making legally binding the commitment of Pari Mutuel (...)

The German Competition Authority initiates proceedings on the suspicion of abuse of dominant position in the sale of rail passenger tickets (Deutsche Bahn)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Proceedings initiated against Deutsche Bahn AG Suspicion of restricting competition in ticket sales* The Bundeskartellamt has initiated proceedings against Deutsche Bahn AG on the suspicion that it has abused its dominant position in the sale of rail passenger tickets. Andreas Mundt, (...)

The German and UK Competition Authorities close investigations against leading online retailer concerning its price parity policy applicable to third party sellers (Amazon)
European Commission (Brussels)
Germany and United Kingdom: Antitrust Cases against Amazon formally closed* On 26 and 29 November 2013, the German Bundeskartellamt (BKartA) and the UK’s Office of Fair Trading (OFT) terminated their respective antitrust investigations into Amazon’s price parity policy applicable to third (...)

The Taiwan FTC fines electronics company for disseminating false online information to disparage competing products (Samsung)
Chung Yuan Christian University (Taiwan)
Introduction On October 31, 2013, the Taiwan Fair Trade Commission (TFTC) imposed a fine of NT$10 million (US$340,000) on Samsung for hiring an independent marketing company to disseminate false online information regarding cellphones and other electronic devices produced by its competitors in (...)

The EU Commission expresses concerns that the revised commitments do not address abusive practices in the online search space (Google)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission not convinced by improved commitments offered by Google* On 21 October 2013 Google offered improved commitments to the European Commission in order to close the three-year long investigation into four practices that the Commission considered had amounted to a possible abuse (...)

The OECD holds a roundtable on vertical restraints for online sales
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
Executive summary, by the Secretariat In light of the written submissions and the oral discussion, the following points emerge: (1) The developments of e-commerce have impacted the way competition works and the type of competition concerns that may arise. The literature on e-commerce has (...)

The EU Commission begins market testing of commitments offered by the leading web search operator to address competition concerns (Google)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 25 April 2013, the Commission issued a press release announcing that it had begun market testing commitments offered by Google in relation to online search and search advertising. In its press release, the Commission stated that it continues to have concerns that Google may be abusing (...)

The EU Commission seeks feedback on commitments meant to address competition concerns on the market for web search (Google)
Ashurst (Milan)
This article has been nominated for the 2014 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. European Commission market tests Google commitments in relation to online search and search advertising* On 25 April 2013 the European Commission published a (...)

The EU Commission carries out a market test of commitments in its investigation of the online search service provider (Google)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
The Google Commitments – Testing Substantive Theories Through Remedy Discussion* Over the last two months, the Commission has been market testing commitments that Google has offered to resolve the Commission’s pending investigation. Many have made thoughtful comments. But there has also been (...)

The EU Commission receives a complaint alleging abuse of dominant position in the market for smartphone operating system (FairSearch / Google)
Garrigues (Brussels)
This article has been nominated for the 2015 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Some thoughts on the new anti-Google (Android) complaint* Some background to the complaint Back in April the FairSearch coalition in this case only two of its (...)

The Guangdong High Court rules against a plaintiff in high-profile on-line abuse of dominance case (Qihoo / Tencent)
First Principles Economics (London)
On the 28th March 2013 the Guangdong High Court published their eagerly awaited decision regarding the abuse of dominance antitrust dispute between Qihoo 360 (Qihoo, the Plaintiff) and Tecent QQ (Tencent, the Defendant). The decision was over fifty thousand Chinese characters in length. This (...)

The Chinese High People’s Court of Guangdong issues a judgment on the definition of the relevant market in alleged abuse of dominance case in the IT sector (Qihoo / Tencent)
Renmin University of China
I. Introduction 1. Beijing Qihoo Technology Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to “Qihoo”) is the copyright owner and operator of 360 safe software. Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., and Shenzhen Tencent Computer System Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to “Tencent”) are respectively the (...)

The French Competition Authority rejects complaint based on allegations of abuse of dominance on the market for online advertising (E-Kanopi)
Ashurst (Milan)
French Competition Authority dismisses E-Kanopi’s complaint against Google* On 4 March 2013 the French competition authority dismissed (only available in French) a complaint by E-Kanopi alleging that Google abused of its dominant position by seeking to force it out of the market in breach of (...)

The US FTC closes its investigation and approves the voluntary commitment of an internet search engine (Google) Free
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Washington DC)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Palo Alto)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (New York)
This article has been nominated for the 2014 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Thoughts On Google’s FTC Settlement On Jan. 3, 2013, the Federal Trade Commission ended its highly publicized and wide-ranging investigation into Google Inc.’s (...)

The U.S. FTC announces proposed settlement concerning practices in online search and advertising (Google search)
Stanford University - Stanford Law School
U.S. Federal Trade Commission announces proposed settlement with Google* On 3 January 2013 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced that Google Inc. has agreed to not seek injunctive relief against rivals using its essential patents. The FTC also announced that Google has altered its (...)

The EU Commission considers that the commitments proposed by the dominant undertaking in the worldwide market for consolidated real-time datafeeds were sufficient to address the abusive restrictions concerning the use of financial instrument codes (Reuters Instrument Codes)
Norton Rose Fulbright (Brussels)
The Thomson Reuters Commitment Decision* On November 12, 2013, the European Commission published a summary of its December 20, 2012 decision (the “Decision”) accepting commitments offered by members of the Thomson Reuters group (“Thomson Reuters”). The Decision ended a three-year-long (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts commitments proposed by the editor of printed and online directories and puts an end to its investigations in the market of sale of advertising space in those directories (PagesJaunes)
White & Case (Paris)
In a decision issued on November 22, 2012, the French Competition Authority (hereafter “the FCA”) accepted the commitments proposed by PagesJaunes SA, thereby putting an end to a procedure following complaints for abuse of dominant position, without imposing any fine. PagesJaunes is the leader (...)

The French Competition Authority issues a first commitment decision addressing competition concerns in the Internet connectivity market (France Telecom / Cogent)
European Commission (Brussels)
France: First Commitment Decision related to Internet Neutrality issued by the Autorité de la concurrence* On 20 September 2012, the Autorité de la concurrence (the Autorité) issued for the first time a commitment decision concerning competition concerns relating to certain restrictions allegedly (...)

The EU Competition Commissioner makes a statement on the progress of the on-going investigation into the alleged abuse of dominance in the search engine market (Google)
Ashurst (Milan)
Almunia offers Google settlement talks* Last 21 may 2012, Competition Commissioner Joaquin Almunia made a statement on the progress of the on-going investigation into Google’s alleged abuse of dominance in the search engine market, which the Commission was investigating since November 2010 (see (...)

The EU Commission invites leading web search engine to submit remedies to address alleged abuse of dominance concerns (Google)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 21 May 2012, the Commission issued a press statement inviting Google to submit remedies to address four concerns it identified pursuant to the antitrust investigation it launched in November 2010 into a potential abuse by Google of its dominant market position. The Commission noted (...)

A Russian Commercial Appeal Court imposes a significant amend for a breach of competition on the market of domain name registration (Ru-Center)
Deloitte (Moscow)
On March 19, 2012 the 9th Commercial (Arbitrazh) Appeal Court of the Russian Federation issued a landmark antimonopoly case decision concerning distribution of domain names. The dispute concerned significant abuses of the organization entitled to manage Russian domain name system. As it was (...)

The Paris Commercial Court finds that leading internet search company abused its dominant position on the maps market (Bottin Cartographes / Google)
Google (Paris)
Facts Is free an anticompetitive behavior? Bottin Cartographes, a French company which offers solutions to firms which want to integrate maps in their websites, realized that it was losing clients to Google. Its clients, which used to pay for the display on their pages of their location and (...)

The Chinese National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) confirms investigation for abuse of dominance against two giant State-owned telecommunication operators (China Telecom / China Unicom)
King & Wood Mallesons (Beijing)
Earlier Rumor Confirmed: China Telecom and China Unicom under Antitrust Investigation* On November 9, 2011, an earlier rumor indicating that China Telecom is under antitrust investigation for alleged abuse of dominance in the broadband market was confirmed by the National Development and (...)

The US Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Antitrust conducts hearings in an abuse of dominance investigation on the web search industry (Google) Free
Rimm-Kaufman Group (Charlottesville, VA)
Google Antitrust Hearing: 5 Takeaways* While yesterday’s Senate antitrust hearing on Google practices may have been more about spectacle than action, it was an opportunity to gain insights into the mindset of Google and the government officials that may seek to intervene in their operations. (...)

The US FTC opens an in-depth investigation for alleged antitrust violations in the online search market (Google) Free
David A. Balto (Washington)
Internet Search Competition: Where’s the Beef?* On [24] June 2011, Google announced that the FTC had opened an investigation of its search practices. This is an issue I have given considerable thought to. In an article I just released—Internet Search Competition: Where’s the Beef?—I explain (...)

The EU Commission assesses whether a company in the online search market has abused its dominant position under Art. 102 TFEU (Microsoft / Google)
European University Institute (Florence)
Microsoft v. Google – Clash of the Titans* On Behalf of the Antitrust Community, A Big Thank You – Antitrust law professors should be grateful to Microsoft (hereafter, “MSFT”). As a repeat offender of the competition laws, MSFT has provided scholars with loads of research and educational material (...)

The US District Court Southern District of New York rejects settlement between online search provider and copyright owners in the digitized books sector (Google Books Settlement)
Garrigues (Brussels)
Google Books Settlement Rejected* Some of you will recall that roughly a year ago I wrote a post on the Google Books settlement (“Google Books Settlement: It’s the search market stupid!”) in which I argued that the only competitive problem, if any, posed by the amended settlement related to the (...)

The US District Court Southern District of New York rejects a proposed settlement in the digitized book search sector (Google Books Settlement)
University of Chicago - Law School
Moving Forward in Google Book Search* On Tuesday, after more than a year of silence, Judge Denny Chin rejected the proposed settlement in the Google book search case. The innovative settlement asked more than Rule 23 could deliver. In his words, the settlement “would simply go too far.” Others (...)

The Italian Competition Authority accepts commitments proposed by the main IT operator closing the investigation for abuse of dominance on the online collecting advertisement market (Google Italy)
Criterion Economics (Washington)
The Italian competition authority accepts Google’s commitments in the investigation concerning Google News in Italy* In January 2011, the Italian Competition Authority announced that it closed its investigation against Google Italy, for the alleged abuse of dominant position. The decision was (...)

The Paris District Court fines an online retail site for infringing a famous clothing brand’s trademark by illegally selling its branded products online (Hugo Boss / Club Privé)
EDHEC (Nice)
Summary CLUB PRIVE was fined for illegally selling HUGO BOSS branded clothes online. Facts In 2009, CLUB PRIVE conducted a short time selling of HUGO BOSS branded clothes on their website www.club-prive.fr. HUGO BOSS sued CLUB PRIVE on several grounds. In the first place, HUGO BOSS sued CLUB (...)

The French Competition Authority issues an opinion concerning the dominant position of a search engine company in the market for online advertising (Google) Free
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The Autorité de la concurrence considers that Google holds a dominant position on the advertising market linked to search engines. It considers that competition law can apply limits to Google’s actions and provide a response to the competitive stakes brought to light by the actors, without the (...)

The EU Commission opens in-depth investigation over the alleged antitrust violations in the online search market (Microsoft / Google)
Wolters Kluwer (Riverwoods)
Microsoft Files Antitrust Complaint with European Commission Against Google* Microsoft Corporation has filed a formal complaint with the European Commission (EC) against Google Inc. as part of the EC’s ongoing antitrust investigation into the search engine company. In a March 30 blog post, Brad (...)

The EU Commission investigates in-depth competition concerns on the internet market as regards unfavourable treatment of competing services in unpaid and sponsored search results coupled with an alleged preferential placement of own services (Google)
Sheppard Mullin (Del Mar)
EC Investigates Google for Potential Abuse of Dominance in Online Search Market* In July 2010, Vice President of the European Commission (EC) responsible for competition policy, Mr. Joaquin Almunia, referred to the essential role that competition policy has in ensuring “market access and (...)

The Chinese State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) receives requests for review in the internet industry (Baidu / Tencent)
AnJie Law (Beijing)
Market dominance and the Internet: new industry, new rules?* China’s biggest encyclopaedia website, Hudong.com, has requested an anti-monopoly review of Baidu, the leading Chinese internet search engine. Hudong.com is asking the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) to fine (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts commitments relating to online advertising service (AdWords)
Hewlett Packard (Boulogne-Billancourt)
In its decision n° 10-D-30 dated 28 October 2010, relating to practices implemented in the online advertising sector (relative à des pratiques dans le secteur de la publicité en ligne), the French Competition Authority (the «Competition Authority«) accepted the commitments offered by Google to solve (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts the commitments undertaken by a search engine company as regards possible exclusionary conduct on the market for online advertising (AdWords)
Ashurst (Milan)
French Competition Authority makes Google’s commitments in Navx case binding* On 28 October 2010, the French Autorité de la Concurrence (“FAC”) formally accepted and thereby made binding on Google a set of improved commitments (available only in French) which the FAC considered to properly address (...)

The French Competition Authority launches a market test following leading internet corporation commitments (Google)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
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Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 21 July 2010, the French Competition Authority published commitments offered by Google in an effort to resolve competition concerns identified by the Competition Authority in a decision of 30 June 2010. The 30 June decision granted interim measures to Navx, a company which sells online (...)

The EU Commission recognises that due to their dynamics internet markets such as online search engines are characterized by innovative business models that are constantly evolving and therefore market dominance on the internet might be difficult to establish (Google)
Sheppard Mullin (Del Mar)
EC Investigates Google for Potential Abuse of Dominance in Online Search Market* In July 2010, Vice President of the European Commission (EC) responsible for competition policy, Mr. Joaquin Almunia, referred to the essential role that competition policy has in ensuring “market access and (...)

The French Competition Authority issues an interim decision opening an investigation to ascertain abuse of dominance by refusing to display advertising (Navx)
Ashurst (Milan)
Google under investigation in France for alleged abuse in the online advertising market* On 30 June 2010, the French Competition Authority (“FCA”) issued an interim decision opening an investigation to ascertain whether Google abused its dominant position, as well as Navx’s state of economic (...)

The French Competition Authority grants interim measures regarding online advertising system (Navx / Google)
Simmons & Simmons (Paris)
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cxLoyalty Group (London)
In a decision dated 30 June 2010, the French Competition Authority (the "Competition Authority") has considered that Google had implemented the content policy of its AdWords service in a way that lacked objectivity and transparency and resulted in a discriminatory treatment of speed camera (...)

The French Competition Authority orders interim measures and assesses commitments to remedy antitrust concerns of abuse of dominance in the online advertising market (Google)
Jones Day (Paris)
Google offers commitments to get off the radar screen* A case involving Google confirms that the French Competition Authority is keen on using a combination of interim measures and commitment proceedings in order help it quickly resolve maters which it perceives as competition issues. This may (...)

The French Competition Authority imposes interim measures to ensure that a company providing advertising services, implements its content policy in an objective, transparent and non-discriminatory manner (Navx / Google - AdWords)
White & Case (Paris)
Background On June, 30, 2010, following a complaint coupled with a request for interim measures lodged by Navx, the French National Competition Authority (thereafter “NCA”), by way of interim decision, ordered Google Ireland and Google Inc. (hereafter “Google”) to implement in an objective, (...)

The Italian Competition Authority publishes commitments offered to put an end to an antitrust investigation under article 102 TFEU concerning the use of newspaper content (Google)
Ashurst (Milan)
Google offers commitments to close investigation in Italy* On 14 May 2010, the Italian Competition Authority (“AGCM”) published the commitments (available on the AGCM website) offered by Google to put an end to an antitrust investigation of its Google News service under Article 102 TFEU (see (...)

The Italian Competition Authority closes investigation into an online news aggregator service following commitments (Google)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
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Practising Law Institute (New York)
The Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) has recently terminated an antitrust investigation into Google after accepting and making binding commitments offered by Google to resolve two concerns raised during the ICA’s investigation. The ICA’s investigation started in August 2009, when Google was (...)

The EU Commission renders legally binding commitment offered by U.S. software undertaking concerning web browsers (Microsoft)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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DG COMP (Brussels)
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European Commission (Brussels)
"The Commission’s decision in the Microsoft Internet Explorer case and recent developments in the area of interoperability"* I. Commitment decision on the tying of Internet Explorer to Windows A. Introduction On 16 December 2009, the Commission adopted a commitment decision (‘the Decision’) (...)

The EU Commission market tests commitments proposed by a leading software company to address allegations of tying an internet browser (Microsoft)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
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Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 7 October 2009, the Commission announced that it was beginning a market test of commitments offered by Microsoft to address allegations that it tied its web browser Internet Explorer with its client PC operating system. The move follows the publication of a Statement of Objections earlier (...)

The EU Commission holds a public hearing on the U.S. settlement with class of authors and publishers (Google Books Settlement)
Ashurst (Milan)
European Commission holds public hearing on the “Google Books” US settlement* On 7 September 2009, the European Commission held an “information hearing” to establish the effect on the EU market of Google’s settlement with a US class of authors and publishers, which disputed steps taken by the (...)

The Portuguese Competition Authority adopts landmark decision concerning an abuse of dominant position case in the Internet broadband access markets (PT / ZON)
Luís Silva Morais & Associados (Lisbon)
In the beginning of September, 2009, the Portuguese Competition Authority (hereinafter, ’ADC’) has adopted a decision concerning an important case of abuse of dominant position in the wholesale and retail markets for internet broadband access. This decision confirms the special attention that the (...)

The Italian Competition Authority starts proceedings against online search provider for an alleged abuse of dominant position against Italian newspaper and magazines editors (Federazione Italiana Editori Giornali / Google Italy)
Luiss Guido Carli University (Rome)
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Luiss Guido Carli University (Rome)
On the 26th August 2009 the Italian Competition Authority (the ICA) decided to start a proceedings against GOOGLE Italy (the Italian branch of the GOOGLE Group) for alleged infringement of article 82 of the EU Treaty (abuse of dominant position). The proceedings follows a complaint by the (...)

The Italian Competition Authority investigates alleged abuse of dominance in the market for online advertising (FIEG / Google)
Ashurst (Milan)
Italian Competition Authority investigates Google’s alleged abuse in the market for online advertising* On 26 August 2009, the Italian Competition Authority opened an investigation (see also press release of 27 August 2009) to determine whether Google is abusing its dominant position in online (...)

The Italian Competition Authority starts an investigation against the main IT operator for abuse of dominance on the online collecting advertisement market (Google Italy)
Codacons (Rome)
Google Italy is an Italian company belonging to the US Google Group INC. It is active world-wide and it is the most popular engine search. Among others, Google provides also "Google News" and it gains the majority of its turnover from the collection and intermediation of advertisement on line . (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts the commitments made by the telecommunications incumbent to address competitions concerns about the marketing of its wholesale broadband offers (Mediaserv / France Télécom)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Marketing of wholesale broadband offers: France Télécom makes commitments before the Autorité de la concurrence, designed to improve the quality of services provided to third-party operators in France’s overseas départements.* Following a complaint by the company Mediaserv, the Autorité de la (...)

The Italian Competition Authority accepts the commitments offered in the voice communications and broadband internet access services markets following its investigation into alleged abuse of dominant position (Telecom Italia)
Bonelli Erede (Rome)
By its Decision delivered on 11 December 2008, the Italian Competition Authority (the "ICA") decided to close the proceedings initiated against Telecom Italia ("TI"), by adopting a commitment decision under Art. 14-ter of Law 287/1990 (the Italian Competition Act) which implements the provision (...)

EU Court of Justice Advocate General Mazák proposes the setting aside of the CFI’s judgment in an abuse of dominant position case in the telecommunication sector (France Télécom)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
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Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 25 September 2008, Advocate General Mazák issued his opinion in France Télécom‘s appeal of the judgment of the Court of First Instance (CFI). This judgment upheld a Commission decision which concluded that France Télécom had abused its dominant position on the French market for high-speed Internet (...)

The Macedonian Administrative Court confirms the Competition Authority’s decision prosecuting the incumbent telecom operator for refusing access to its network by independent Internet providers (Macedonian Telecom)
University of Macau - Faculty of Law
Summary The Macedonian Administrative Court affirmed the decision of the Macedonian Competition Authority prosecuting the incumbent telecom operator for abuse of dominant position manifested in denial of access to its own ADSL network by independent internet providers, while the same (...)

The Warsaw Court of Appeal quashes the first instance ruling reversing the Competition Authority’s decision having imposed a €21.5M fine on the telecommunications incumbent for tying of Internet services contrary to cost-oriented prices principle (Telekomunikacja Polska)
European University Institute (Florence)
On 10 April 2008 the Court of Appeal quashed the verdict of the lower court, the SOKiK (the Polish Court for Competition and Consumer Protection), which in 2007 reversed the decision of the President of the UKE (the Office for Electronic Communications), imposing a 100 million PLN fine (...)

The EU Commission closes its investigation into an online music distributor with UK price cut (iTunes)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 9 January 2008, the European Commission announced that it has dropped its antitrust investigation into Apple after the US technology company agreed to lower the prices it charges for music downloads from its UK iTunes online music store within six months. This move by Apple will standardize (...)

The Polish Competition Authority fines the largest telecom operator a record fine of € 20 M for abusing its dominant position on the Internet access market (Telekomunikacja Polska)
Allen & Overy (Warsaw)
On 20 December 2007 the President of the Polish Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (OCCP) issued a decision imposing a fine of PLN 75 million (approximately EUR 20 million) on Telekomunikacja Polska S.A. (TPSA), the incumbent telecom operator in Poland, for abusing its dominant (...)

The US District Court for the Southern District of New York finds that an association demanding its members to combine their websites into one unified website does not constitute an unreasonable restraint of trade in the hockey industry (Madison Square Garden / NHL)
Entwistle & Cappucci (New York)
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Epstein Baker Green (Newark)
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Ferro Labella & Zucker (New Jersey)
The Southern District of New York recently denied Madison Square Garden L.P.’s ("MSG") attempt to enjoin the National Hockey League (the "NHL") from transferring MSG’s Rangers team website to a server primarily run by the NHL. The Court found that seizing MSG’s website was not a naked restraint on (...)

The French Competition Authority fines an Internet operator for implementing discriminatory practices on the high-speed internet access market (France Télécom / Wanadoo)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
After a negotiated settlement with the company, the Conseil de la concurrence imposes €45m fine on France Telecom for having hindered the development of internet access providers competing with its Wanadoo subsidiary* Following the referrals by T-Online and Liberty Surf companies, respectively (...)

The French Competition Authority inflicts a 45 Million € fine on the telecommunications incumbent for abusive discrimination and denigration on the ADSL high-speed Internet access market and specifies the notion of repeated infringements (France Télécom / Wanadoo)
Concurrences (London)
The facts In the beginning of 2000, the incumbent telecommunications operator France Telecom has tried to dominate the emerging market of high-speed Internet access. Some of these attempts lead to important decisions from both the French Competition Council (the “Conseil”) and the European (...)

The Polish Competition Authority reverses on procedural grounds the telecom regulator’s decision having fined the former incumbent for tying Internet and telecommunications offers (Telekomunikacja Polska)
DeBenedetti Majewski Szczesniak (Warsaw)
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Bartkowiak Wojciechowski Halupczak Springer (Warsaw)
In May, the Polish Court for Competition and Consumer Protection reversed the decision of the President of the Office for Electronic Communications (OEC) imposing a fine of 100,000,000 PLN on Telekomunikacja Polska S.A. (“TP S.A.”) for the unauthorized binding of offers of Neostrada tp (an (...)

The Cypriot Competition Authority dismisses a complaint filed by a consumer against the Cyprus Telecommunications Authority for abuse of dominance on the Internet services market (Philippides / CYTA)
Queen Mary University (London)
On 26 June 2006 the Cyprus Commission for the Protection of Competition (C.P.C.) dismissed a complaint filed by Mr. Alexis Philippides, a consumer and client of the Cyprus Telecommunications Authority (CYTA), against the latter for abuse of dominance in the market of Internet connection (...)

The Lithuanian Competition Authority fines the former telecom incumbent for margin squeeze limiting access to ADSL broadband internet access service (Teo)
Lithuanian Competition Council (Vilnius)
On 5 October 2006 the Lithuanian Competition Council (CC) issued a decision establishing a fine of LTL 3,011,000 (approx. EUR 872,046) on TEO LT, AB (TEO) for the abuse of a dominant position prohibited by Article 9 of the Law on Competition. This was the third time that TEO, a former telecom (...)

The Hungarian Competition Authority establishes that the telecom incumbent abused its dominant position on the ADSL Internet market (Magyar Telekom)
Hogan Lovells (Budapest)
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Hogan Lovells (Budapest)
In its decision of 5 September 2006 the Hungarian Competition Office established that the practice adopted by Hungarian Telekom for ADSL-modem removal infringed Article 21 (a) of the Hungarian Competition Act - the equivalent provision to Article 82 of the EC Treaty. Hungarian Telekom, which (...)

The French Competition Authority accepts commitments proposed to address competition concerns in the sector of directory assistance via telephone and Internet (France Télécom / PagesJaunes)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Directory assistance via telephone and Internet: The Conseil de la concurrence accepts commitments proposed by France Télécom andPages Jaunes and decides to close the case.* Following a referral in January 2006 by the company 118 218 Le Numéro, which provides directory assistance services, the (...)

The Court of First Instance of The Hague dismisses a complaint for abusive access tariff on the broadband Internet access (Educatief Net - Easynet / KPN Telecom)
European Commission - DG HR (Brussels)
Nl.tree was established by nine cable operators, in order to supply, following an agreement concluded with the Dutch Ministry of Education, internet access and related services, known as “Kennisnet”, to primary schools, secondary schools and vocational and adult learning institutions. Broadband (...)

The French Competition Authority imposes an unprecedented € 80 M fine to the telecommunications incumbent for abuse of a dominant position on the broadband internet market (France Télécom)
Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton (Brussels)
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Lni avocats (Paris)
In November 1999, Neuf Télécom, a telecommunications operator, filed a complaint with the French Competition Council (hereinafter “the Council”) against France Télécom, the French historic telephone and Internet provider, on the grounds that the latter was conducting anti-competitive practices on the (...)

The Swedish Market Court rejects a complaint against the incumbent for abusive mixed bundling and predatory pricing in the broadband internet access sector (B2 Bredband / TeliaSonera)
Cederquist (Stockholm)
Background Bredbandsbolaget sues Teliasonera for abuse of a dominant position on the market for fixed telephony through illegal mixed bundling, customer discrimination and predatory pricing but fails to prove dominance. Decision On 1 November 2005 the Swedish Market Court rendered its (...)

The Cypriot Competition Authority imposes a fine for price squeezing and excessive pricing on the Internet services market (CYTA)
Queen Mary University (London)
On 30 May 2005 the Cypriot Commission for the Protection of Competition (hereinafter C.P.C.) ended its own initiative investigation of the Cyprus Telecommunications Authority (hereinafter CYTA) by unanimously finding CYTA liable for abuse of its dominant position in the market for the provision (...)

The French Competition Authority dismisses a complaint regarding alleged anticompetitive practices in the sectors for Internet music downloads and digital walkmans (Apple Computer France)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Internet music downloads - The Conseil dismisses VirginMega’s complaint against Apple, due to insufficient evidence in view of the case elements available.* On 28th June 2004, the Conseil de la concurrence received a complaint from the company VirginMega regarding practices by the company Apple (...)

The EU Commission adopts a decision under Article 82 against French internet provider’s pricing policy for ADSL services (Wanadoo)
Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton (Brussels)
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KPMG (Paris)
"Two Commission decisions on price abuse in the telecommunications sector"* During the first half of the year 2003, the Commission adopted two formal prohibition decisions pursuant to Article 82 EC-Treaty regarding abusive pricing for the provision of telecommunications services. Those are the (...)

The French Competition Authority ends ban on ADSL packs provided by telecom incumbent (Wanadoo eXtense)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
High-speed ADSL Internet access : the Conseil de la concurrence lifts the suspension on sales of Wanadoo "eXtense" packs in France Télécom outlets* In a decision dated 19th July 2002, the Conseil lifted the suspension of sales of Wanadoo "eXtense" packs in France Télécom outlets. This decision (...)

The French Competition Authority grants interim measures in the ADSL line sector (France Télécom)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
High-speed Internet access via ADSL : the Conseil de la concurrence orders France Télécom to suspend sales of eXtense packs in its outlets* Following a referral by the company T-Online, an Internet service provider operating under the brand name Club Internet, the Conseil de la concurrence (...)

The French Competition Authority opens an inquiry in the WAP technology sector (France Télécom Mobiles / SFR)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
the Conseil de la concurrence opens an inquiry into practices by France Télécom Mobiles and SFR in the WAP technology sector* In a decision dated 7th November 2000, following a referral by the company Wappup.com, the Conseil de la concurrence decided to open an inquiry into practices by France (...)

Mergers

The German Competition Authority conducts parallel investigation into potential for cartelization and merger review proceedings resulting in a conditional approval of the joint venture (Telekom / EWE)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Telekom and EWE, two of Germany’s largest telecommunications companies, sought to form a joint venture (JV) to expand the fire-optic broadband network in north-western Germany. On 21 March 2019, the German Federal Cartel Office (FCO) launched two sets of parallel proceedings: an investigation (...)

The UK Competition Authority raises competition concerns regarding a merger in the markets of supply of IT systems used by airlines and travel agents to sell airline tickets (Sabre / Farelogix)
British Competition Authority - CMA (London)
Sabre’s takeover of Farelogix raises competition concerns* Sabre’s proposed takeover of Farelogix raises competition concerns in the supply of IT systems used by airlines and travel agents to sell airline tickets. The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has been investigating the proposed (...)

The UK Competition Authority clears a merger in the online and offline payment services market (PayPal / iZettle)
British Competition Authority - CMA (London)
CMA clears PayPal / iZettle deal* The CMA has cleared PayPal’s completed takeover of rival mobile payments company iZettle after an in-depth, Phase 2, investigation. Both companies provide mobile point of sale (mPOS) devices that enable businesses to take ‘offline’ payments through a card reader (...)

The UK Competition Authority clears the takeover of a mobile payments company after conducting an in-depth Phase 2 probe (PayPal / iZettle)
CRA International (London)
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CRA International (London)
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CRA International (Boston)
Acquisitions of Potential Rivals in Digital/Tech: Valuation Analysis as Key Economic Tool - PayPal/iZettle Antitrust authorities everywhere are increasingly concerned with so-called “killer acquisitions” – cases where an established incumbent buys up a small rival which might have the potential (...)

The Mexican Competition Authority submits to public consultation the draft modifications to the guidelines for concentration notification via electronic means and the draft modifications of the regulatory provisions on the use of electronic means
Mexican Competition Authority (Mexico City)
COFECE submits for public consultation the modification to the Guidelines for Concentration Notification via Electronic Means and the Regulatory Provisions on the Use of Electronic Means* • The consultation period for the Guidelines is 30 working days, while the period for the Provisions is 20 (...)

The French Competition Authority re-examines and eases merger remedies made by a leading pay TV provider (Canal+ International)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Pay TV in French overseas departments and regions* The Autorité de la concurrence has re-examined the commitments made by Canal+ International as part of the take-over of Mediaserv (now Canal+ Telecom) in 2014. Certain obligations have been maintained to preserve the competitive dynamic. (...)

The EU Commission clears the acquisition of a music recognition app by a Big Tech company that provides a digital music streaming service (Apple / Shazam)
Slaughter and May (Brussels)
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Slaughter and May (London)
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Slaughter and May (Brussels)
This article has been nominated for the 2019 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Is Big Data a ‘friend’ or a ‘foe’ to consumers? Do the current EU merger control rules work for ‘Big Tech’ deals? The European Commission’s announcement that it has (...)

The French Competition Authority clears a merger on the online advertising market (Aufeminin / TF1)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Online advertising* The Autorité de la concurrence clears the acquisition of Aufeminin by TF1 On 16 March 2018, TF1 notified the Autorité de la concurrence of its acquisition of sole control of Aufeminin. Following the consultation of competitors and TF1’s clients along with an analysis of the (...)

The EU Commission decides to review a merger in the market of music recognition applications for smartphones (Apple / Shazam)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission to assess the acquisition of Shazam by Apple* The European Commission has accepted a request from Austria, France, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Spain and Sweden to assess under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed acquisition of Shazam by Apple. The Commission considers the (...)

The French Competition Authority unconditionally clears a merger between two real estate online platforms in Phase II (SeLoger.com / Logic-Immo.com)
Epex Spot (Paris)
On 1st February 2018, the French Competition Authority (“FCA”) unconditionally cleared in Phase II proceedings the planned acquisition of sole control of French company Concept Multimédia - which owns the real estate online platform Logic-Immo.com - by German group Axel Springer - which owns the (...)

The Russian Competition Authority clears the creation of a joint undertaking subject to remedies in the taxi market (Yandex / Uber)
Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (Moscow)
FAS cleared merger between Yandex.Taxi and Uber, subject to conditions* On November 24, 2017 FAS agreed on the application of the Yandex N.V., Uber International C.V. for conclusion of an agreement on the creation of joint enterprise, subject to conditions. The results of analysis of the (...)

The US FTC files an administrative complaint challenging a proposed acquisition in the market for third-party paid referral services for senior living facilities and enters into a proposed consent decree (Red Venture / Bankrate)
Shearman & Sterling (Washington)
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Shearman & Sterling (Washington)
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Shearman & Sterling (Washington)
This article has been nominated for the 2018 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On November 3, 2017, the Federal Trade Commission filed a complaint challenging Red Ventures’ proposed acquisition of Bankrate. The FTC alleged that the deal (...)

The EU Commission fines a big tech company for providing incorrect or misleading information during the merger control review process (Facebook / Whatsapp)
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
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McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
THE LATEST: EU Commission Fines Facebook EUR 110 million for Providing Incorrect or Misleading Information* The Commission’s EUR 110 million fine on Facebook for breach of its procedural obligations under the EU merger control rules underscores the need to submit full, accurate and reliable (...)

The EU Commission fines a social network company for providing misleading information during a merger investigation (Facebook / WhatsApp)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission fines Facebook €110 million for providing misleading information about WhatsApp takeover* The European Commission has fined Facebook €110 million for providing incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s 2014 investigation under the EU Merger Regulation of (...)

The EU Commission fines a company for providing incorrect or misleading information during its investigations on a merger (Facebook / WhatsApp)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (London)
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Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Brussels)
On May 18, 2017, the European Commission (the “Commission”) fined Facebook €110 million for providing incorrect or misleading information during its 2014 investigation of its acquisition of WhatsApp The magnitude of the fine dwarfs the few penalties the Commission has imposed in the past for (...)

The German Competition Authority clears a merger on the e-book online platform market (Rakuten / Tolino)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt clears acquisition of "tolino" e-book platform by Rakuten* The Bundeskartellamt has cleared the acquisition by the Japanese online retailer Rakuten Inc. of the assets for the technical operation of the "tolino" e-book platform. The seller of the assets is Deutsche Telekom AG, (...)

The EU Commission sends a statement of objections to a social network suspected of having transmitted misleading informations concerning a merger (Facebook / WhatsApp)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Mergers: Commission alleges Facebook provided misleading information about WhatsApp takeover* The European Commission has sent a Statement of Objections to Facebook alleging the company provided incorrect or misleading information during the Commission’s 2014 investigation under the EU Merger (...)

The EU Commission clears a merger subject to remedies on the professional social networks market (Microsoft / LinkedIn)
DG COMP (Brussels)
MERGERS: COMMISSION APPROVES ACQUISITION OF LINKEDIN BY MICROSOFT, SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS* The European Commission has approved under the EU Merger Regulation the proposed acquisition of LinkedIn by Microsoft. The decision is conditional on compliance with a series of commitments aimed at (...)

The EU Commission conditionnaly clears a merger in the professional social network market (Microsoft / LinkedIn)
McDermott Will & Emery (Brussels)
European Commission Approves Microsoft Acquisition of LinkedIn Subject to Conditions* On 6 December 2016, the European Commission cleared the acquisition of LinkedIn by Microsoft, subject to Microsoft granting LinkedIn’s competitors access to certain LinkedIn tools. “BIG DATA” CONCERNS ANALYSED (...)

The French Competition Authority holds that the relevant market for retail distribution of electronic products comprises both physical and online stores (Fnac / Darty)
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Rome)
THE FRENCH COMPETITION AUTHORITY HOLDS THAT THE RELEVANT MARKET FOR RETAIL DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC PRODUCT COMPRISES BOTH PHYSICAL AND ONLINE STORES* On 18 July 2016, the French Competition Authority (FCA or the Authority) cleared the acquisition of Darty by the Fnac group, a move which will (...)

The Chinese MOFCOM releases a company from conditions previously imposed in an e-commerce merger (Wal-Mart / Yihaodian)
China Competition Bulletin (Beijing)
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University of Melbourne
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University of Melbourne
On 30 May 2016, the MOFCOM decided to release Wal-Mart from the conditions that it had imposed on Wal- Mart’s acquisition of Yihaodian in 2012. Wal-Mart had applied for release from these conditions in July 2015. When the MOFCOM conditionally approved Wal-Mart’s acquisition in 2012, the (...)

The Lithuanian Competition Council prohibits a merger between two managers of classified ads websites for real estate and vehicles (AS Eesti Meedia / AllePAL OÜ)
Lithuanian Competition Authority (Vilnius)
Competition Council: Merger between classified ads websites restricted competition* On 6 May 2016, the Competition Council (hereinafter – KT) prohibited a merger whereby in 2014 AS Eesti Meedia acquired 100 per cent of AllePAL OÜ shares. KT found that the merger restricted competition in the (...)

The German Competition Authority clears a merger in the online advertising sector (Ströer / OMS)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
CLEARANCE OF TAKEOVER BU STÖER OF ONLINE MARKETING COMPANY OMS* In first phase proceedings the Bundeskartellamt has cleared plans by Ströer SE, Cologne, to acquire all the shares in OMS-Vermarktungs GmbH & Co. KG, Düsseldorf. The merger project affects the online advertising sector. Andreas (...)

The EU Commission approves the acquisition by rival of a data centre operator subject to the divestment of a number of data centres in Amsterdam, London and Frankfurt (Telecity / Equinix)
DG COMP (Brussels)
MERGERS: COMMISSION CLEARS ACQUISITION OF TELECITY BY EQUINIX, SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS* The European Commission has approved the proposed acquisition of data centre operator Telecity by rival Equinix subject to the divestment of a number of data centres in Amsterdam, London and Frankfurt. The (...)

The German Competition Authority clears a merger between major online dating platforms in phase II (EliteMedianet / Parship)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Major online dating platforms can merge* The Bundeskartellamt has cleared in second phase proceedings the planned acquisition of all the shares in EliteMedianet GmbH, Hamburg, by an investment fund of Oakley Capital Limited, London. The merger affects the market for online dating platforms, on (...)

The German Competition Authority clears a merger on the market of online real estate portals (Immonet / Immowelt)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
CLEARANCE OF MERGER BETWEEN IMMONET AND IMMOWELT* In the first phase of merger control the Bundeskartellamt has cleared plans by Axel Springer SE, Berlin to acquire sole control of Immowelt AG, Nuremberg and the launch of a joint venture between Immowelt AG and Immonet GmbH, Hamburg. The (...)

The EU Commission approves without commitments an acquisition in the information technology sector (Facebook / WhatsApp)
Squire Patton Boggs (Brussels)
EU Commission approves Facebook’s acquisition of WhatsApp* On 3 October 2014, the European Commission of the European Union (the “Commission”) approved the acquisition without any commitments. After the approval of the acquisition of Skype by Microsoft in 2011 and of the acquisition of Nokia by (...)

The EU Commission unconditionally clears an acquisition in the social media sector (Facebook / WhatsApp)
Ramón y Cajal (Madrid)
Background information On 3 October 2014 the European Commission ("Commission") unconditionally clears in first phase the €14 billion acquisition of WhatsApp by Facebook (the “Transaction”). The Transaction was already conditionally authorized in April 2014 by the US Federal Trade Commission (...)

The EU Commission unconditionally approves in first phase an acquisition in the digital sector (Facebook / WhatsApp)
DG COMP (Brussels)
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European Commission (Brussels)
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European Commission - Legal Service (Brussels)
"What’s Up with Merger Control in the Digital Sector? Lessons from the Facebook/WhatsApp EU merger case"* The Facebook/WhatsApp decision provides an insight into how the Commission tackles novel issues in the application of merger control rules to the digital sector, in particular to free (...)

The Cypriot Competition Authority clears an acquisition in the online payment services market (GCS Holding / Ingenico)
Neocleous (Nicosia)
On 16/07/2014, the Commission for the Protection of Competition of the Republic of Cyprus (hereinafter referred to as the “Commission”) received notification of a proposed concentration by Ingenico S.A. (hereinafter referred to as "Ingenico"), in accordance with section 10(2) of the Control of (...)

The Cypriot Commission for the Protection of Competition receives notification of a merger in the telecommunication sector (Rocket Internet Germany / MTN Dubai)
Commission for the Protection of Competition of the Republic of Cyprus (Nicosia)
Notification of concentration regarding the acquisition of share capital of Middle East Internet Holding S.a.r.l. by MTN (Dubai) Ltd* The Service of the Commission for the Protection of Competition received on behalf of Rocket Internet GmbH and MTN (Dubai) Ltd notification of a proposed (...)

The Cypriot Commission for the Protection of Competition receives notification of an international acquisition in the telecom sector (Africa Internet / Millicom)
Commission for the Protection of Competition of the Republic of Cyprus (Nicosia)
Notification of a concentration concerning the joint acquisition of the share capital of Africa Internet Holding GmbH by Mobile Telephone Networks Holdings (Pty) Ltd, Millicom International Cellular S.A. and Rocket Internet Holding GmbH* The Commission for the Protection of Competition (...)

The French Competition Authority conditionally clears an acquisition of sole control on the pay-TV market (Mediaserv / Canal Plus Overseas)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
Subject to a number of commitments, the Autorité de la concurrence has cleared the acquisition of Mediaserv by Canal Plus Overseas, a subsidiary of the Canal Plus Group* The Autorité de la concurrence has cleared, subject to a number of commitments, the exclusive takeover by the Canal Plus (...)

The US District Court for the Northern District of California finds evidence that the merging parties expected the transaction to have anticompetitive effects (Bazaarvoice / PowerReviews)
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (San Francisco)
Another Example of Why You Should Follow the “New York Times” Rule — the Bazaarvoice Decision* Have you heard of the New York Times rule? The rule is: don’t write something down in a business communication unless you’re comfortable with its text appearing in the New York Times. If everyone followed (...)

The EU General Court rejects a rival’s claim and gives the green signal for an acquisition in the communications services market (Microsoft / Skype)
Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas (New Delhi)
By its decision dated 11 December 2013, Luxembourg based European General Court approves the acquisition of Skype by Microsoft. Background On 02.09.2011 the EU Commission was notified of a proposed concentration by which, Microsoft Corporation, USA acquired 100% of the outstanding shares and (...)

The US FTC imposes divestiture and "unusual" conduct remedies to protect the competitor after an acquisition in commercial real estate databases and information services (CoStar / Loopnet)
Weil, Gotshal & Manges (Washington)
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Weil, Gotshal & Manges (Washington)
On April 26, 2012, the FTC challenged CoStar Group’s proposed $860 million acquisition of LoopNet and accepted a settlement that required not only divestitures, but also “unusual” additional conduct remedies. CoStar is the largest provider of commercial real estate (CRE) information services in (...)

The US FTC seeks divestiture and conduct remedies before approving an acquisition in the highly concentrated market for commercial real estate information (CoStar / Loopnet)
Venable (New York)
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Venable (Washington)
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Venable (Washington)
After a year of scrutiny, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) resolved its competitive concerns over the merger of two firms that provide commercial real estate (CRE) listings and other data. In April 2011, CoStar Group, Inc. announced plans to acquire LoopNet, Inc. for approximately $860 (...)

The UK OFT decides not to refer an anticipated acquisition in the social networking industry to the Competition Commission (Facebook / Instagram)
Herbert Smith Freehills (Brussels)
In May 2012 the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) opened a merger investigation into the acquisition by Facebook Inc (Facebook) of Instagram Inc (Instagram). This was the first time a merger involving Facebook, the global colossus in the social networking industry, publicly came under the scrutiny (...)

The US DoJ takes action against CEO of cable television services company for failure to comply with HSR Act in connection with acquisition of vested shares (Roberts / Comcast)
Linklaters (New York)
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Linklaters (Washington)
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Linklaters (New York)
The US antitrust authorities recently took action against an executive for violation of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act (the “HSR Act”) in connection with the acquisition of stock as part of his compensation, resulting in a $500,000 fine. The HSR Act requires acquirers of certain voting securities (...)

The French Competition Authority clears a merger in the e-commerce sector (Altarea / Rue du commerce)
Autorité de la concurrence (Paris)
The Autorité de la Concurrence clears the acquisition of Rue du Commerce’s sole control by Altarea*. The Autorité de la concurrence examined the acquisition of Rue du Commerce by Altarea, by means of the acquisition of a bloc of shares and a public takeover bid on Rue du Commerce’s securities. (...)