The literature on the modernisation of EU competition law has paid little attention to interim measures ordered by the European Commission and national competition authorities (NCAs). Yet their asymmetric development under the modernised system has proven to be a fascinating area for the analysis of the decentralisation of powers under Regulation 1/2003 . Interim measures are a keystone of competition enforcement: they allow competition authorities to intervene rapidly in order to prevent anticompetitive practices from irreparably harming the evolution of the markets, and can therefore reconcile the inherent slowness of the legal process with the swifter pace of the economic sphere. If the role of competition authorities is to guarantee the efficiency of EU and national
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