Introduction Nearly a decade since the financial crisis first hit the European Union, financial services remain in the spotlight. Around 30% of the European banking sector has been subject to State aid control and more than 60 banks have been restructured: many of them still constrained by restructuring plans agreed with the European Commission. Behaviour within investment banks has also been under scrutiny over the period, with a number of banks subject to substantial fines for anticompetitive conduct. More generally, there has been a drive to examine how competition is working in the sector (as shown by various wholesale and retail market reviews undertaken in the UK) and to stimulate change through legislative measures such as MiFID II, MiFIR, PSD II and the Interchange Fee
Financial services and competition law: An overview of EU and national case law
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