This foreword provides an overview of the practice of the European Commission (EC) and European national competition authorities (NCAs) as regards the application of competition rules to unilateral conduct in the energy sector. It is based mainly on cases reported in e-Competitions. The reference period for this latest update is October 2021 to October 2022. We look at the way that the EC, NCAs and national courts have been applying Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), or its national equivalents since Regulation 1/2003. It will be seen that the competition rules have been used extensively across Europe in support of liberalisation and promotion of cross-border trade in energy.