This chapter provides an overview of the practice of the European Commission (“EC”) and the European national competition authorities (“NCAs”) regarding the application of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (“TFEU”) and its national equivalents  in the energy sector since the adoption of Regulation 1/2003 . After an introductory discussion on Article 101 TFEU enforcement trends we provide short summaries of EU and national cases, the latter grouped by sector, i.e., electricity, gas and fuels. Enforcement at EU level EU antitrust enforcement in the electricity and gas sectors has been highly influenced by the process of market liberalization and integration of national energy markets by successive regulatory packages. Particularly the Third Energy
Energy and anticompetitive practices: An overview of EU and national case law
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