Direct effect

State Aids

The EU Commission approves a Greek aid scheme whose objective is to support vulnerable and less prosperous households and micro or small enterprises struggling to repay mortgages and loans
Maastricht University
An Innovative Scheme to Support Individual Borrowers* Individuals and households are not undertakings. However, any public funding of individuals or households may constitute indirect aid to undertakings. Such aid may be exempted on the basis of Article 107(2)(a) TFEU. Introduction Article (...)


The EU Court of Justice clarifies the eligibility requirements of claims for indirect damages caused by a violation of Art. 101 TFEU (Otis / Land Oberösterreich)
University of Liège
The parties Otis GmbH, is an Austria based manufacturer and provider of maintenance services for elevators and escalators. Taken over in 1969, they are now a subsidiary of the American Otis Elevator Company Corp. Schindler (Schindler Liegenschaftsverwaltung GmbH and Schindler Aufzüge und (...)

The US Supreme Court holds that App store consumers are direct purchasers of the Big Tech company and are thus not precluded from suing for damages under federal antitrust law (Apple / Pepper)
Bona Law (San Diego)
This article has been nominated for the 2021 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. This is part two of an article about the Supreme Court’s 2019 decision in Apple v. Pepper, the classic antitrust cases of Illinois Brick and Hanover Shoe, (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules that the authorities of a Member State may rely on the provisions of a non-transposed directive against a body holding a public service concession (Portgás)
University of Bristol - Law School
CJEU: vertical effect of Directives goes both ways (C-425/12)* The Judgment of the CJEU of 12 December 2013 in case C-425/12 Portgás may appear to be of interest only for public procurement aficionados (and, even then, only for hardcore ones), as it deals with the potential applicability of the (...)


The EU Commission publishes a draft on a legislative package promoting a single market for digital services
University Littoral-Côte d’Opale (Boulogne-sur-Mer)
University Littoral-Côte d’Opale (Boulogne-sur-Mer)
Toward New European Rules for Digital Players in the Internal Market GAFAM (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon & Microsoft), the providers of core platform services, are dominating the digital market. In other words, globally, almost all digital services depend on GAFAM. This phenomenon was (...)

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