1. Introduction Delimitation of national law and EU law and the proper qualification of ‘purely national situations’ has been a consistent source of questioning, leading up to an important body of case-law in all fields of EU law (again recently illustrated by the McCarthy case in relation to movement of EU citizens) . Two recurrent questions are where to draw the line and at what level, EU or national, this divide should best be determined. In EU competition law this topic was early on identified and tackled by the CJEU. In Völk, the CJEU held that a restriction of competition must be ‘appreciable’ for it to be caught by Article 101(1) TFEU . Accordingly, where the market share to the parties is ‘insignificant’ on the relevant market concerned by the agreement, the alleged
De minimis: An overview of EU and national case law
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