De minimis

Anticompetitive practices

The UK Government publishes consultations on far-reaching reforms to competition and consumer laws which would substantially expand the powers of the Competition Authority and reduce procedural protections
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
The U.K. government is consulting on far-reaching reforms to U.K. competition and consumer laws, which would substantially expand the powers of the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) and reduce procedural protections. Key proposals include: Merger control jurisdiction enlarged: The CMA (...)

The EU Commission unveils its proposed regulation on foreign subsidies
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 5 May 2021, the Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation on foreign subsidies distorting the internal market (“Proposed Regulation”), following on from an initial framework laid out in a White Paper in June 2020. Broadly speaking, through the Proposed Regulation, the Commission aims to (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority imposes administrative monetary fine on a major paint supplier for resale price maintenance and exclusive distribution (DYO)
ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
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ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
This case summary aims to shed light on the Turkish Competition Board’s (“Board”) DYO Decision, whereby the Board imposed an administrative fine of TL 21,036,866.58 to DYO Boya Fabrikaları Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. (“DYO”), a major paint supplier in Turkey, on the ground that DYO has violated Article 4 (...)

The German Parliament passes the digital competition act bringing significant changes to the competition law landscape
Herbert Smith Freehills (Düsseldorf)
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Herbert Smith Freehills (Düsseldorf)
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Herbert Smith Freehills (Brussels)
Today, the German parliament passed the “Digital Competition Act” which is the 10th amendment to the Act against Restraints of Competition (ARC). The amended law – which will very likely enter into force January 2021 – will bring about significant changes to the German competition law landscape. (...)

The German Parliament approves the competition law reform providing the Competition Authority with regulatory tools to impede market-dominant companies active in the digital markets from possible abuses of their competitive dominance
Bird & Bird (Dusseldorf)
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Bird & Bird (Dusseldorf)
On 14 January 2021, the German parliament approved the so long discussed reform of German competition law which was now also confirmed by the second parliamentary chamber - the “Bundesrat”. The innovations to be implemented in the German Act against Restraints of Competition (“ARC“), will in (...)

The EU Commission adopts a White Paper with proposals for sweeping enforcement powers to address potential distortive effects of foreign subsidies in the EU
Dechert (Brussels)
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Dechert (Brussels)
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Dechert (Brussels)
Background On 17 June 2020, the European Commission (Commission) adopted a White Paper which contains far-reaching proposals for new enforcement powers against companies benefitting from subsidies granted by non-EU countries. While there are already well-developed systems of anti-trust/merger (...)

The UK Court of Appeal upholds the ruling of the Competition Appeal Tribunal in its schemes governing suppliers’ access to its infrastructure (Network Rail / RISQS)
Ashurst (London)
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ADNOC Group (Abu Dhabi)
The Court of Appeal on 5 March 2020 handed down a judgment upholding the ruling of the Competition Appeal Tribunal ("CAT") of July 2019 which found Network Rail had infringed the Chapter I and II prohibitions of the Competition Act 1998 by requiring, in its schemes governing suppliers’ access to (...)

The Italian Council of State reverses a banking cartel decision on account of the negligible competition impact (Raiffeisen)
Giannino SI (Monserrato)
Determining the appeal claims lodged in the Raiffeisen case, the highest administrative court or Council of State (hereinafter the Court) has reversed a previous infringement decision made by the Italian Competition Authority (ICA). The Court found that the contested restrictive business (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice quashes a decision which had ruled that minimum resale pricing did not result in an appreciable restriction of competition given its limited timeframe and scope (Almased Wellness)
Commeo (Frankfurt)
In its judgment of 17 October 2017, the Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof - “BGH” or the “Court”) quashed a decision taken by the Celle Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht Celle – “OLG Celle”) in April 2016 which had ruled that minimum resale pricing did not result in an appreciable (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority declares exempt retail price maintenance practices by a cosmetics laboratory on the basis of the de minimis theory (Laboratorio Martí Tor)
CMS Albiñana y Suárez de Lezo (Madrid)
The Spanish Competition Authority (“SCA”) has considered in a decision dated 15 December 2016 that certain retail price maintenance (“RPM”) practices carried out by cosmetic laboratory Martí Tor was not capable of significantly affecting competition, and thereby, of infringing Article 1 of the (...)

The Competition Commission of India passes an order on assessment of vertical restraints under the Competition Act but leaves several questions unanswered (Shri Ghanshyam Das Vij / Bajaj)
Luthra & Luthra Law Offices (New Delhi)
The Competition Commission of India (CCI) on 12 October 2015 passed an order on assessment of vertical restraints under the Competition Act, 2002 (Act) — leaving many questions unanswered. Factual background A distributor of various ayurvedic and general health products of various companies (...)

The EU Court of Justice rules on issues concerning retroactive rebates and the procedures through which these rebates can be characterized as abusive (Post Danmark II)
Herbert Smith Freehills (Madrid)
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Herbert Smith Freehills (Brussels)
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Herbert Smith Freehills (Paris)
This article has been nominated for the 2016 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. Introduction On 6 October 2015, the European Court of Justice (the Court) issued its preliminary ruling in Post Danmark A/S v Konkurrencerådet (Competition (...)

The ECJ Advocate General Kokott deals another blow to the economic assessment of rebates (Post Danmark II)
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (Brussels)
Advocate general deals another blow to economic assessment of rebates* It is never a good sign when an advocate general’s opinion warns the European Court of Justice (ECJ) not to be swayed by “ephemeral trends” or the “Zeitgeist” of economic analysis, but instead to stick to the “legal foundations (...)

De minimis: An overview of EU and national case law
Helmut Schmidt University of the Armed Forces (Hamburg)
1. De minimis in Article 101(1) TFEU The appreciability requirement has received renewed attention after the CJEU held in Expedia that ‘an agreement that may affect trade between Member States and that has an anti-competitive object constitutes, by its nature and independently of any concrete (...)

Mergers

The German Parliament passes amendments of antitrust law affecting the merger control regime
Hogan Lovells (Brussels)
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Hogan Lovells (Munich)
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Hogan Lovells (Dusseldorf)
On 14 January, the German Parliament passed far-reaching amendments of German antitrust law, the Act against Restraints of Competition (ARC), which also affect merger control. The amendment, also known as the "German Competition Digitalization Act", focuses especially on the reform of (...)

The German Parliament increases turnover thresholds for merger control with the 10th amendment of the Act against Restraints of Competition
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (Dusseldorf)
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Clifford Chance (Dusseldorf)
In a Nutshell What’s new? Significantly increased turnover thresholds for German merger control. The good Many transactions will no longer be subject to German merger control. This will lead to a much smoother process for lots of transactions, specifically for clients in the tech sector and (...)

The US FTC starts accepting stakeholder comments for upcoming virtual consultations on proposed amendments to HSR rules
US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (Washington)
FTC to Hold Virtual Q&A Sessions in November on Proposed Amendments to HSR Rules and Advanced Notice of Proposed HSR Rulemaking* The Federal Trade Commission will host three public Question and Answer sessions as part of its ongoing HSR Rulemaking initiative. These one-hour virtual events (...)

The US DoJ supports the FTC’s proposal of modernizing merger filing exemptions for certain investments
US Department of Justice (Washington DC)
Antitrust Division Supports Modernizing Merger Filing Exemptions For Certain Investments* The Time Has Come to Update the Merger Filing Rules On Monday, September 21, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim concurred in the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) Federal Register publication of a (...)

The US FTC and DoJ announce proposed changes to the regulations governing when a filing must be made under the HSR Act
Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton (Washington)
On September 21, 2020, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Department of Justice (DOJ) announced proposed changes to the regulations governing when a filing must be made under the Hart-Scott-Rodino (HSR) Act that would likely significantly expand the filing requirements and increase the HSR (...)

The US FTC proposes rules that will increase HSR filing requirements for investment funds and others
Hogan Lovells (Northern Virginia)
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Hogan Lovells (Washington)
On 21 September 2020, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced for comment sweeping changes to the Hart-Scott-Rodino (HSR) Act rules. First, the FTC proposed changing the definition of "person" to include HSR associates. This proposed change will result in certain acquisitions (especially (...)

The US FTC and DoJ jointly release two proposed rules changes to the HSR pre-merger filing requirements for acquiring parties
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (New York)
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Fenwick & West (New York)
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Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom (New York)
On Monday, September 21, 2020, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Department of Justice (DOJ) jointly released two proposed rule changes to the Hart-Scott-Rodino (HSR) premerger filing requirements for acquiring parties. In an extension of a 2011 rule change that established the concept of (...)

The US DoJ and FTC announce proposed changes to the HSR premerger notification rules and seek public comments
Covington & Burling (Washington)
The Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) (the “Agencies”) announced proposed changes to the premerger notification rules (“Rules”) promulgated under the Hart-Scott-Rodino (“HSR”) Act on September 21, 2020. Although the Agencies’ proposals are (...)

The US FTC and DOJ propose changes to two aspects of the HSR rules
Shearman & Sterling (Washington)
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Shearman & Sterling (New York)
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Shearman & Sterling (Washington)
Overview The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and U.S. Department of Justice Antitrust Division (“DOJ” and collectively, the “Agencies”) recently proposed changes to two aspects of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act (“HSR Act”).The proposed rules are subject to public comment and are unlikely to come into (...)

The US DoJ and FTC announce HSR rule changes that would increase burdens, especially for asset managers and private equity
Dechert (Washington)
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Dechert (Washington)
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Dechert (New York)
Key Takeaways Proposed HSR rule changes would require an acquiring fund to aggregate its holdings with those of its broader fund family. This will substantially increase the number of transactions subject to HSR reporting requirements, especially for asset managers and private equity funds. (...)

The US DoJ and FTC propose to renew their HSR rules to create new exemption for minority acquisitions and increase filing obligations for certain entities
Covington & Burling (Washington)
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Covington & Burling (Washington)
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Covington & Burling (Washington)
Agencies Also Seek Public Comments that Could Lead to Additional Changes to the HSR Rules The Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) (the “Agencies”) announced proposed changes to the premerger notification rules (“Rules”) promulgated under (...)

The German Competition Authority approves a merger in the glass recycling market under de minimis rule (Rethmann GRI VSB)
German Competition Authority (Bonn)
Bundeskartellamt clears acquisition of glass recycling companies by the Rethmann group* Bonn, 4 August 2017: The Bundeskartellamt has cleared plans by the Rethmann group to acquire two glass recycling companies, G.R.I.-Glasrecycling NV (Lummen, Belgium) and VSB Holding NV (Lummen, Belgium). (...)

The Indian Government revises the method of calculation of thresholds for merger control and extends target exemption to mergers and amalgamations
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
Central government revises method of calculation of thresholds for merger control and extends target exemption to mergers and amalgamations* The Ministry of Corporate Affairs, through a Gazette notification dated March 27, 2017 has modified the method of calculation of assets and turnover for (...)

The UK Competition and Markets Authority is consulting on proposed changes to the UK merger regime to reduce the burden of investigations into mergers where the parties operate in small markets
DLA Piper (London)
UK merger control process The UK operates a two-stage merger control regime. Before starting a formal merger investigation, the CMA will conduct pre-notification discussions with the parties, which typically last one to two months. Upon conclusion of these discussions, the CMA opens a formal (...)

The Indian Competition Authority fines merging parties for failure to disclose the global acquisition of a healthcare antisepsis business (Schulke / ASP Division of Ethicon)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
CCI penalizes Schulke and Mayr GmBH (Schulke) for delayed filing in relation to the acquisition of Healthcare Antisepsis Solutions (HAS) business of Johnson & Johnson Private Limited (JJPL)* CCI, by its order dated January 13, 2017 has imposed a penalty of INR 25,00,000 on Schulke on (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority fines a company for failure to notify, taking into account that the actual market share resulting from the transaction in the market of diagnostic business of blood transfusions met the legal notification threshold (Grifols)
Callol, Coca & Asociados (Madrid)
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Callol, Coca & Asociados (Madrid)
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Callol, Coca & Asociados (Madrid)
The NMCC has fined with € 106.500 Grifols for failure to comply with the obligation to notify a concentration subject to the minimis market share threshold (i.e., when the turnover of the target does not exceed the € 10 million the market share threshold increases up to 50%). In particular, the (...)

The Indian Competition Appellate Tribunal reverses the Indian Competition Authority’s fine imposed on a travel agency for not notifying an otherwise exempt transaction (Thomas Cook / Sterling)
Vaish Associates Advocates (New Delhi)
Competition Appellate Tribunal sets aside penalty imposed on Thomas Cook & others for nonnotification of an otherwise exempted transaction* In its first decision on substantive aspects of merger control, the Competition Appellate Tribunal (COMPAT) by its order dated August 26, 2015 has set (...)

State Aid

The EU Court of Justice rules that compensatory payments may be categorised as State aid and must comply with relevant de minimis regulations (Satini-S / Dabas aizsardzības pārvalde)
Maastricht University
Compensation for Damage and De Minimis Aid* Compensation for damage caused by protected animals is State aid. Member States may categorise compensatory payments as de minimis aid and refuse to make payments in excess of the de minimis threshold. Introduction Advantage in the meaning of (...)

The EU Commission invites comments on proposed revision of EU State aid rules for agriculture, forestry and fishery sectors
European Commission - DG COMP (Brussels)
State aid: Commission invites comments on proposed revision of EU State aid rules for agriculture, forestry and fishery sectors* The European Commission is inviting all interested parties to comment on proposed revised State aid rules for the agricultural, forestry and fishery sectors. The (...)

The EU Court of Justice examines whether a national measure providing for the payment of compensation to farmers for the slaughter of diseased animals constitutes new or existing aid (Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale di Catania / Assessorato della Salute della Regione Siciliana)
Maastricht University
Introduction Any change to an approved aid measure that affects its compatibility with the internal market turns it into a new aid that has to be re-notified to the European Commission for authorization. If it is not re-notified it becomes illegal aid and possibly incompatible aid, unless it (...)

The Serbian Government publishes rules on regional State aid for further alignment of the legislation with the EU’s acquis
BDK (Podgorica)
The Government of Serbia adopted on 11 March 2021 two new bylaws under the State Aid Control Act (Zakon o kontroli državne pomoći, Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia no. 73/2019): the Regulation on Conditions and Criteria for Compliance of Regional State Aid (Uredba o uslovima i (...)

The UK Government publishes a consultation paper outlining proposals for a new subsidy control regime
Ashurst (London)
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Ashurst (London)
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Ashurst (London)
On 3 February 2021, the Department for Business, Energy & Industry Strategy ("BEIS") published a consultation paper outlining proposals for a new subsidy control regime in the UK ("Consultation Paper"). The need for a new subsidy control regime has been prompted primarily by: the State (...)

The EU Commission and the UK Government agree on post-Brexit State Aid law in their Trade and Cooperation Agreement
White & Case (Brussels)
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White & Case (London)
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White & Case (London)
State aid remained one of the key sticking points in Brexit negotiations right until the announcement of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement ("TCA") on Christmas Eve 2020. One of the key priorities of the European Union ("EU") during the negotiations was to secure a "level playing field" on (...)

The EU Court of Justice clarifies conditions under which request for de minimis aid can be modified to comply with the ceiling (INAIL / Zennaro)
Hogan Lovells (Brussels)
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Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 28 October 2020, the Court of Justice (“ECJ”) answered a reference for a preliminary ruling from the Consiglio di Stato (Council of State, Italy) concerning the interpretation of Articles 3 and 6 of Regulation (EU) No 1407/2013 of 18 December 2013 on the application of Articles 107 and 108 (...)

The EU Commission prolongs EU State aid rules and adopts targeted adjustments to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak Free
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
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Hogan Lovells (Brussels)
On 2 July 2020, the European Commission (the “Commission”) announced the prolongation of several existing State aid rules which would have otherwise expired at the end of 2020, with the purpose of mitigating the impact of the coronavirus outbreak on companies. In particular: The following texts (...)

The EU Commission prolongs State aid rules and adopts targeted adjustments to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak Free
European Commission - DG COMP (Brussels)
State aid: Commission prolongs EU State aid rules and adopts targeted adjustments to mitigate impact of coronavirus outbreak* The European Commission has prolonged the validity of certain State aid rules which would otherwise expire at the end of 2020. In this context, and to take the effects (...)

The EU General Court provides guidance on the notion of State aid under EU law following action for annulment brought by airline companies against a decision of the Commission finding an Italian aid to be illegal and incompatible with the internal market (Volotea / Germanwings / EasyJet)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 13 May 2020, the General Court delivered three judgments in Cases T-607/17,T-716/17,T-8/18, concerning Volotea, Germanwings and easyJet, respectively (the “Applicants”). These judgments follow actions for annulment brought by the Applicants against a decision of the Commission finding that (...)

The EU General Court reaffirms the Commission’s decision declaring illegal the aid from Italy to several airlines serving Sardinia (Volotea / Germanwings / EasyJet)
General Court of the European Union (Luxembourg)
The General Court dismisses the actions against the Commission decision declaring illegal the aid from Italy to several airlines serving Sardinia* The operators of the Sardinian airports were not the beneficiaries of the aid but merely intermediaries between the Autonomous Region and the (...)

The EU Commission launches an evaluation of several sets of State aid rules that expire in 2020 and plans to extend them for two more years
European Commission - DG COMP (Brussels)
State aid: Commission to prolong EU State aid rules and launch evaluation* The European Commission plans to prolong for two years seven sets of State aid rules, otherwise expiring in 2020. The Commission has also launched today an evaluation of those rules and of other State aid rules to (...)

The EU Commission finds a Cypriot State aid scheme for vulnerable households borrowers to be compatible with the internal market
Maastricht University
* Article published on StateAidHub: http://stateaidhub.eu, republished in e-Competitions with the courtesy of the author. The original title of this article appears below the e-Competitions title. Authors are welcome to write an alternative article on this case/text, provided they have no (...)

The EU Court of Justice finds that Bulgaria’s refusal to grant de minimis aid on exports is valid as it related to the promotion of sales in another Member State (ZPT AD)
Maastricht University
Article published on StateAidHub: http://stateaidhub.eu, republished in e-Competitions with the courtesy of the author. The original title of this article appears below the e-Competitions title. Authors are welcome to write an alternative article on this case/text, provided they have no (...)

The Madrid Administrative Court of Spain dismisses the action against assessment of the works on buildings tax on the ground that the exemption claimed by a religious congregation constitutes unlawful state aid
Judicial Ethics Commission (Madrid)
Madrid Administrative Court, after having referred the matter to the ECJ for a preliminary ruling, dismisses the action against the refusal of the work on buildings tax exemption applicable to a religious congregation, the Piarists, on the ground that it constitutes unlawful aid and without (...)

The EU Commission finds that Danish support for local sports associations is not State aid and that if it were, it would be compatible according to the General Block Exemption Regulation
Maastricht University
Article published on StateAidHub: http://stateaidhub.eu, republished in e-Competitions with the courtesy of the author. The original title of this article appears below the e-Competitions title. Authors are welcome to write an alternative article on this case/text, provided they have no (...)

The EU General Court reminds Member States that individual awards of de minimis aid must remain below the relevant threshold as well as the sum of all individual awards in any three-year period (Italy)
Maastricht University
The Use and Abuse of De Minimis Aid & State Resources* Individual awards of de minimis aid must remain below the relevant threshold as well as the sum of all individual awards in any three-year period. Introduction This article reviews a case that, among other things, deal with the use (...)

The EU Commission reminds that aid measures which are funded by beneficiaries themselves are unlikely to constitute State aid (Flemish Centre for Agricultural and Fisheries Marketing)
Maastricht University
Commission in decision SA.39652* Aid measures which are funded by beneficiaries themselves are unlikely to constitute State aid. De minimis aid may be granted on condition that not only individual awards of aid remain below the various thresholds defined in different de minimis regulations (...)

The EU Commission finds a measure allowing a rental agreement to accommodate medical practitioners at a preferential rate not to constitute State aid for being to limited and lacking of affectation of interstate trade (Medical centre in Durmersheim)
Maastricht University
Germany Scores a Hat-trick of Non-Aid Measures!* At the end of April, the European Commission announced that seven measures were found not to constitute State aid because they could not be reasonably expected to affect cross-border trade. The finding of no affectation of trade is rare. That (...)

The EU Court of Justice and General Court explain how to determine whether state guarantees constitute State aid and how much aid is involved (Banco Privado Português)
Maastricht University
State Guarantees* The amount of State aid in a guarantee that makes possible the granting of a loan to a well-collateralised firm in difficulty is not the difference in premium but the difference in interest rates. Beneficiaries of guarantees not notified to the Commission do not have any (...)

Procedures

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, declares that a class can be certified without considering whether there are more than a de minimis number of uninjured class members (Olean Wholesale Grocery / Bumble Bee Foods)
Hausfeld (San Francisco)
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Hausfeld (Washington)
Rule 23(b)(3) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure has been the basic mechanism for antitrust classes to obtain monetary damages. This is because antitrust violations usually meet the requirement of issues predominantly common to all class members. For more than a decade now, however, courts (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit clarifies class certification standards in an antitrust appeal (Olean Wholesale Grocery / Bumble Bee Foods)
Jones Day (San Francisco)
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Jones Day (San Francisco)
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Jones Day (Irvine)
The Ninth Circuit approved use of statistical analysis that relies on averaging but reversed class certification because the district court failed to resolve whether more than a de minimis number of putative class members were injured. On April 6, 2021, in Olean Wholesale Grocery Coop. v. (...)

The Turkish Competition Authority introduces an up-to-date settlement mechanism
ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
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ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
(1) Introduction Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (“Competition Law”) has recently gone through the most comprehensive set of amendments since its initial adoption back in 1994. Law No. 7246 on Amendments to the Law on Protection of Competition (“Amendment Law”), which entered into (...)

The Turkish Parliament approves amendments to the national competition law which introduces mechanisms for the selection of cases for the Authority to focus on, a substantive test for merger control, behavioral and structural remedies for anti-competitive conduct and procedural tools
ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law (Istanbul)
After rounds of revisions and failed attempts of enactment over a span of several years, the proposal for an amendment to the Law No. 4054 on Protection of Competition (“Law no. 4054”) (“Amendment Proposal”) has finally been approved by the Turkish parliament, namely the Grand National Assembly of (...)

The US Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit affirms the denial of class certification for failing to satisfy the requirement for predominance (In re Rail Freight Fuel Surcharge Antitrust Litigation)
Paul Weiss (New York)
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Paul Weiss (Washington)
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George Mason University - Antonin Scala Law School (Arlington)
This article has been nominated for the 2020 Antitrust Writing Awards. Click here to learn more about the Antitrust Writing Awards. On August 16, 2019, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit affirmed the denial of class certification in In re Rail Freight Fuel (...)

The German Federal Ministry of Economics proposes a transaction value threshold to require notification of high value deals even with no / de minimis sales in Germany
Latham & Watkins (Brussels)
Germany proposes transaction value threshold to require notification of high value deals even with no / de minimis sales in Germany* With little fanfare, on Friday, 1 July 2016, among a raft of other amendments to the Act against Restraint of Competition (‘ARC’; 9th amendment), the Federal (...)

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