1 Introduction Damages actions under competition law have become a mainstream in many EU Member States. Competition practices in law firms and economics consultancies trumpet their expertise in damages alongside mergers, cartels and abuse of dominance. National judges are increasingly aware of these cases, and have shown interest and confidence in tackling the complex legal and economic issues that arise. Member States are currently in the process of implementing the EU Damages Directive, published in 2014, and itself the result of a long policy process, from the European Commission’s Green Paper in 2005 and White Paper in 2008 . The Directive emphasises the following principles: The full effectiveness of Articles 101 and 102 TFEU, and in particular the practical effect of the
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