On September 29, 2022, the European Commission adopted guidelines on the application of EU competition law to the collective agreements of solo self-employed persons (hereinafter referred to as the “Commission Guidelines”), with the aim of defining when solo self-employed persons can collectively negotiate better working conditions without infringing EU competition law  Preliminarily, and according to the Commission Guidelines, a “solo self-employed person” is a “person who does not have an employment contract or who is not in an employment relationship, and who relies primarily on his or her own personal labor for the provision of the services concerned”. Legislative Background On the one hand, Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (known by TFUE)
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