September 2008

Anticompetitive practices

The Czech supreme administrative Court confirms regional Court’s cancellation of NCA’s decision concerning participation in alleged price fixing concerted practices (Bakery Cartel)
Skils (Prague)
On 30 September 2008, the Czech Supreme Administrative Court rejected the cassation appeal lodged by the Office for Protection of Competition (“Office”) against the judgment of Regional Court in Brno that cancelled Office’s concerning participation in alleged price fixing concerted practices on (...)

The Spanish Competition Authority declares that five pharmaceutical companies are not coordinating their distribution systems in Spain (Laboratorios Farmacéuticos)
European Court of Justice (Luxembourg)
Garrigues (Brussels)
During the last two years, a number of important pharmaceutical manufacturers active in the Spanish market have introduced significant changes in their distribution systems. Under the new terms of these systems, the pharmaceutical companies select a reduced number of wholesalers to work with, (...)

The Local District Court of Bonn rules on access to the file in pending antitrust case (Listenpreis)
Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen
I. Introduction One of the most problematic aspects of civil antitrust litigation with respect to hardcore cartels is the factual substantiation of the claim. Although § 33 of the German Act against Restraints of Competition (ARC) lowers the burden of proof in several ways, it remains upon the (...)

The Swedish Gota Court of Appeal dismisses a claim for damages, arising from a non-compete clause unlimited in time being deemed null and void (Gimranäs / Möller)
Vinge (Stockholm)
Judgment of Gota Court of Appeal (Sw. Göta Hovrätt), Sweden, Gimranas v Moller (Sw. Gimranäs v Möller) T3287-07, of 18 September 2008 regarding a non-compete clause. The complainant, Gimranas, acquired a competitor from three members of the Moller family (“the Mollers”). In the Transfer Agreement, (...)

The German Federal Court of Justice upholds the judgment of the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court rejecting the Federal Cartel Office’s definition of the relevant market for professional indemnity insurance (Versicherungsstelle Wiesbaden)
University of Münster
University of Münster
1. The «Versicherungsstelle Wiesbaden» is a co-insurance pool offering professional indemnity insurance to public accountants, accounting firms and mutual auditing associations (below: accountants). It is jointly operated by four major private insurance companies (Allianz, AXA, R+V and (...)

The Polish Competition Authority reviews contracts between a building products manufacturer and its distributors and recalls that resale price maintenance is prohibited (Plannja)
French National Research Agency - ANR (Paris)
During the last months, the issue of price fixing of building products has frequently arisen before the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (hereafter: the OCCP President) . By rendering on 15 September 2008 this decision n° RWR 42/2008 concerning contracts reached (...)

The US Second Circuit Court of Appeals allows an association to hold the exclusive right to license intellectual property, finding it a reasonable restraint of trade when licensing the logos of professional baseball teams (MLB Properties/Salvino)
Weil, Gotshal & Manges (New York)
In American Needle v. National Football League and Major League Baseball Properties v. Salvino, the Seventh and Second Circuits, respectively, rejected antitrust challenges to professional sports league licensing arrangements. These decisions demonstrate the difficulties faced by antitrust (...)

The Hungarian Competition Authority applies a consistently stricter approach towards price recommendations issued by associations of undertakings (Magyar Ingatlanszövetség)
MVM OVIT (Budapest)
In its decision of 12 September 2008 (GVH Decision), the Competition Council of the Hungarian Competition Office (GVH) held that the Hungarian Real Estate Association (Magyar Ingatlanszövetség, MAISZ) is in breach of the Hungarian equivalent of Article 81 of the EC Treaty, namely, Section 11 of (...)

The Hungarian Competition Council refuses to accept commitments and adopts an infringement decision prohibiting recommended fees issued by a professional association (Magyar Ingatlanszövetség)
Baker McKenzie (Budapest)
The Competition Council found the Hungarian Real Estate Association (“MAISZ”) had infringed the national equivalent of Article 81 EC by issuing fee recommendations for certain real estate services of its member. Although MAISZ offered commitments to remedy the infringement and to bring its (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal holds lawful reduced 12-month notice period for dealership terminations for substantial network reorganization considered necessary by supplier in order to benefit from exemption under Reg. 1400/2002, provided it can be justified by objective circumstances (DAF Trucks)
Vogel & Vogel (Paris)
Terminations on the basis of network reorganizations taking place at the time of entry into force of motor vehicle Block Exemption Regulation n° 1400/2002 have given rise to a number of decisions by the ECJ and in the courts of various Member States, and particularly in France. The latest (...)

The European Court of Justice dismisses an appeal in the needles and haberdashery product cartel (Coats)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
By an order of 11 September 2008, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) dismissed an appeal brought by UK company Coats against a judgment by the Court of First Instance (CFI) of 12 September 2007 concerning the Commission’s decision in the needles and haberdashery products cartel. The ECJ ruled (...)

A Swedish court fines eight car dealers for participating in a cartel (Renault and Volvo dealers)
Vinge (Stockholm)
Svea hovrätt (Swedish courts)
On 10 December 2002 the Swedish Competition Authority (the “SCA”) carried out dawn raids at the premises of eight car dealers following complaints presented to the SCA. Subsequent to the dawn raids and an investigation, the SCA initiated proceedings before the Stockholm District Court claiming (...)

The Hungarian High Court of appeal upholds the competition office decision case and also accepts the approach of the first instance decision as regards the reduction of the fines (GIS cartel)
Oppenheim (Budapest)
Oppenheim (Budapest)
The Budapest Court of Appeal upheld, in its second instance judgment, the verdict of the Metropolitan Court of Budapest in the "GIS cartel" case: the judgment confirmed the existence of the infringement, whilst it accepted the lower court’s decision to decrease the fines imposed on the (...)

The ECJ Advocate General Trstenjak delivers opinion in Irish beef case (Beef Industry Development and Barry Brothers)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 4 September 2008, Advocate General Trstenjak gave her opinion on a preliminary reference from the Irish Supreme Court to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) concerning a case between the Irish Competition Authority, on the one hand, and the Beef Industry Development Society Ltd (BIDS) and (...)

Unilateral Practices

The Polish Competition Authority imposes a financial penalty on the electricity distributor for the delay in issuance of the connection conditions for wind farms’ access to electricity grid (ENEA Operator)
WKB Wiercinski Kwiecinski Baehr (Poznan)
WKB Wierciński Kwieciński Baehr (Warsaw)
The Polish competition authority imposed a fine of PLN 11 million (approx. EUR 3 million) on ENEA Operator S.A., a company distributing electricity in the northwestern Poland, which serves over 2,5 million customers. The President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (“the OCCP (...)

The Competition Commissioner Kroes discusses future role of guidelines in article 82 cases
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Practising Law Institute (New York)
In a speech on 25 September 2008, Commissioner Kroes provided an update on the status of the Article 82 Guidelines with respect to exclusionary abuses. In this regard, Commissioner Kroes noted that a new draft document was created and circulated to the Member States, and earlier in September (...)

EU Court of Justice Advocate General Mazák proposes the setting aside of the CFI’s judgment in an abuse of dominant position case in the telecommunication sector (France Télécom)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 25 September 2008, Advocate General Mazák issued his opinion in France Télécom‘s appeal of the judgment of the Court of First Instance (CFI). This judgment upheld a Commission decision which concluded that France Télécom had abused its dominant position on the French market for high-speed Internet (...)

A Hungarian Court of appeal upholds the NCA’s decision having established an abuse of dominant position by the monopolist electricity provider on sub-markets of the electricity supply sector (DÉMÁSZ)
Hogan Lovells (Budapest)
DIGI (London)
With its final judgment of second instance on 17 September 2008, the Metropolitan Court of Appeal upheld the judgment of first instance and therefore the decision of the Hungarian Competition Authority in the lawsuit brought by Dél-magyarországi Áramszolgáltató Zrt. (DÉMÁSZ) as Plaintiff against the (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal upholds the NCA’s decision according to which the modification of the charges of an undertaking, which has a dominant position on the market of periodicals’ retail, as soon as it is based on objective criteria and aims at a legitimate objective, is not discriminatory and thus does not constitute an abuse (NMPP/EPM)
Innovate Finance (London)
The Nouvelles messageries de presse parisienne (hereinafter, the NMPP) is a French company specialised in the retail of periodicals (daily, weekly and monthly newspapers) of which TV programs. It belongs to a French group, Hachette, which produces TV programs. The publishers, of which Editions (...)

The Japan Fair Trade Commission issues a cease and desist order against NAP clause preventing licensees from asserting certain intellectual property rights against its holder and customers (Microsoft)
Morrison & Foerster (Tokyo)
On September 16, 2008, Japan Fair Trade Commission (the “JFTC”) issued a ruling against Microsoft Corporation (“MS”) regarding its use of a so-called “NAP” clause in its software licenses. The MS NAP clause prevented licensees from asserting certain intellectual property rights against MS and its (...)

The Japan Fair Trade Commission orders the remove of Non-Assertion Provision (NAP) from Windows (Microsoft)
Japan Fair Trade Commission (Tokyo)
Hearing Decision against Microsoft Corporation* The Japan Fair Trade Commission (“JFTC”) decided on September 1,2004 to commence hearing procedures against Microsoft Corporation,(hereinafter referred to as “the Respondent”) and subsequently instructed the hearing examiners to go through the (...)

The EU Court of Justice issues judgment on restrictions of parallel trade in the pharmaceutical sector (Lélos kai Sia)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 16 September 2008, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) handed down its judgment in Joined Cases C-468-478/06, answering the questions posed by the Athens Court of Appeals in proceedings against a decision finding that Glaxo Smith Kline (“GSK”) had not abused its dominant position by limiting (...)

The ECJ Advocate General Trstenjak delivers opinion on remuneration model applied by a Swedish copyright collecting society (Kanal 5 and TV 4)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
Practising Law Institute (New York)
On 11 September 2008, Advocate General Trstenjak delivered her opinion on four questions referred to the ECJ by the Swedish Market Court. The questions arose in a dispute between two commercial TV channels, TV 4 and Kanal 5 (the “TV channels”) and the Swedish copyright collecting society Stim. (...)

The Portuguese Competition Authority condemns a provider of wholesale services for abusive practices in wholesale communications markets (Portugal Telecom Group)
Luís Silva Morais & Associados (Lisbon)
The Portuguese Competition Authority (“Autoridade da Concorrência”, hereinafter ‘ADC’), has adopted on the 1st September 2008 an important decision concerning abusive practices by PT Comunicações SA (hereinafter ‘PTC’), which is a part of Portugal Telecom Group, the former incumbent and monopolistic (...)

The Portuguese Competition Authority fines the telecom incumbent for abuse of a dominant position raising the issue of the interplay between the application of national and EC competition laws and application of ’ex ante’ sectoral regulation (PT Comunicações)
Luís Silva Morais & Associados (Lisbon)
In the last quarter of 2008 the Portuguese Competition Authority (hereinafter, ‘ADC’) has adopted an important decision concerning discount practices of PT Comunicações, which is part of the Portugal Telecom Group, the former monopolist operator in the Portuguese electronic communications sector. (...)


The UK Competition Appeal Tribunal delivers its judgment dismissing challenges on material influence, SLC and remedies brought by a broadcasting company (British Sky Broadcasting Group)
Linklaters (London)
Linklaters (London)
Linklaters (London)
In a judgment handed down on 29 September, the Competition Appeal Tribunal (CAT), dismissed an appeal brought by British Sky Broadcasting Group plc (Sky) against a decision of the Competition Commission (CC). The CAT upheld part of an appeal against the same decision brought by Virgin Media (...)

The UK Competition Appeal Tribunal rules on appeal against a merger control decision (BSkyB / ITV case)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 29 September 2008, the UK Competition Appeal Tribunal (“CAT”) issued its ruling on two rival appeals brought by BSkyB and Virgin Media against the decision of the Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform of earlier this year ordering BSkyB to reduce its interest in (...)

The US Nevada Attorney General, operating in conjunction with the US DOJ, imposes divestiture and other conduct remedies, such as making charitable contributions and prohibiting most-favored nation clauses, as conditions precedent to approving a merger of health plan insurance companies (UnitedHealth / Sierra Health)
Attorney General - State of Nevada
On February 25, 2008, Nevada Attorney General Catherine Cortez Masto filed a complaint in federal court in Nevada, alleging that the proposed acquisition of Sierra Health Services, Inc. (“Sierra”) by UnitedHealth Group Incorporated (“United”) violated federal and state antitrust laws, reducing (...)

The US DoJ seeks divestiture and conduct remedies after breaking new ground by analyzing the anticompetitive impact on the Medicare Advantage system (UnitedHealth / Sierra Health)
Baker Botts (Washington)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Washington DC)
On February 25, 2008, UnitedHealth Group (United) and Sierra Health Services, Inc. (Sierra) announced that they would proceed with a merger whereby United will acquire all outstanding shares of Sierra in a transaction valued at $2.6 billion. Their statement came shortly after the United States (...)

The US DoJ requires divestiture of the Medicare Advantage line, while the Attorney General of Nevada adds conduct remedies, such as the implementation of internal firewalls, before clearing a merger in the market for health plans (UnitedHealth / Sierra Health)
Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo PC (Washington)
UnitedHealth Group Inc. (UnitedHealth) recently entered into a consent decree with federal and stateantitrust enforcement authorities in connection with its proposed acquisition of Sierra Health Services, Inc. (Sierra). The remedies secured by theDepartment of Justice and the Nevada State (...)

The Danish Competition Council withdraws remedies that it had imposed in 2002 when approving a merger between two member-owned purchasing associations in the building materials market (Dendek / Ditas)
Kromann Reumert (Copenhagen)
In 2002 the Danish Competition Authority approved a merger between two member-owned pur-chasing associations in the building materials market: Dendek and Ditas. Because the merger created a dominant position for the continuing company Ditas, the Competition Council conditioned the approval upon (...)

The EU Commission conditionally clears a merger in the production of dry, compressed and liquid baker’s yeast (Associated British Foods / GBI)
JG Associates (Brussels)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers: main developments between 1 September and 31 December 2008"* On 23 September the Commission cleared the proposed acquisition of certain parts of GBI of the Netherlands by the UK-based company Associated British Foods (ABF), subject to conditions. Both companies produce dry, (...)

The EU Commission conditionally approves a merger in the baking industry after analysis of possible coordinated effects (ABF / GBI)
OECD - Competition Division (Paris)
DG COMP (Brussels)
Eurocompetition (Brussels)
"ABF/GBI Business: coordinated effects baked again"* I. Introduction Just a few months after the Court of Justice gave a key ruling in Sony/BMG v Impala, the Commission adopted its decision in the ABF/GBI Businesscase. This was the first case since Airtoursin which the Commission intervened (...)

The EU Commission gives conditional clearance to an acquisition in the information and communications services sectors (WPP / TNS)
JG Associates (Brussels)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers: main developments between 1 September and 31 December 2008"* On 23 September the Commission gave its conditional approval to the proposed acquisition of TNS by WPP, both UK-based groups globally active in the information and communications services sectors. The Commission’s decision (...)

The Stockholm District Court dismisses action brought by the Swedish Competition Authority to block a merger (Copiax / Assa Abloy)
Roschier (Stockholm)
On 19 September 2008, the Stockholm District Court (“District Court”) dismissed an action brought by the Swedish Competition Authority (“SCA”) to block the acquisition of Copiax AB (“Copiax”) by Assa Abloy AB (“Assa Abloy”) (together the “Parties”) on the grounds that the action was brought too late. (...)

The EU Commission conditionally clears a merger in the manufacture of equipment in the food service industry (Manitowoc/Enodis)
JG Associates (Brussels)
DG COMP (Brussels)
"Mergers: main developments between 1 September and 31 December 2008"* On 19 September the Commission cleared the proposed acquisition of Enodis of the UK by Manitowoc of the US. The Commission’s decision is conditional upon the commitment by Manitowoc to divest Enodis‘ entire ice-making (...)

The UK Government intervenes in a merger in the banking sector (Lloyds TSB/HBOS)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 18 September 2008, the Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform issued an intervention notice in respect of the recently announced acquisition of UK banking group HBOS by competitor Lloyds TSB. Lloyds TSB‘s acquisition of HBOS is effectively a rescue plan prompted by (...)

The British Government is reported to have assured a bank that its aim to create the UK’s largest retail bank would not be subject to competition scrutiny (Lloyds/HBOS)
Ofcom (London)
Compass Lexecon (London)
Summary On 18 September 2008 Lloyds TSB announced that it was to purchase HBOS, in a move that would create the UK’s largest retail bank . Although such a merger would normally cause serious competition concerns, the Government is reported to have assured Lloyds that the deal would not be (...)

The Swiss Competition Commission authorizes the pre-implementation of a merger before its formal notification (Schaeffler/Continental)
Lenz & Staehelin (Geneva)
Sigma Legal (Geneva)
On the 25th August 2008, Schaeffler KG (hereafter, “Schaeffler”) informed the Secretariat of the Swiss Competition Commission (hereafter, “Comco”) about its public takeover bid on Continental. Together with this information, Schaeffler asked for a pre-implementation eventually under conditions. By (...)

The Jersey Competition Regulation Authority conditionally clears a merger between the main farm machine supply company and the largest potato export firm (Jersey Royal Potato Marketing / E.C. Le Feuvre Agricultural Machinery)
Brown Brothers Harriman (BBH) (Luxembourg)
The operation On 16 September 2008, the Jersey Competition Regulation Authority (“JCRA”) has cleared the acquisition of E.C. Le Feuvre Agricultural Machinery Limited (“E.C. Le Feuvre”) by Jersey Royal potato marketing Limited (“Jersey Royal”). Jersey Royal is the largest grower of potatoes in (...)

The European Commission opens second phase investigation into a proposed acquisition in the airline sector (KLM/Martinair)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 8 September 2008, the Commission opened an in-depth investigation into the planned acquisition by KLM of fellow Dutch-carrier Martinair. Both KLM and Martinair, whose shares are currently split evenly between KLM and sea and land transport company Maersk, are active in air transport of (...)

The Greek Competition Authority imposes a fine for failing to submit a post-closing notification of an acquisition (Lafarge, Synergatiki)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
The Hellenic Competition Commission (HCC) has imposed a fine of € 9,000 on Lafarge AEVE for failing to submit a post-closing notification of its acquisition of Synergatiki AEVE with the HCC. Under Greek law, any concentration that results in or increases a market share of at least 10% in Greece, (...)

State Aid

The Italian Council of State annuls a Ministerial Decree providing for annual contributions in favour of traders of fertilisers on the grounds that it constitutes unlawful State aid, non notified, and for which the EC Commission opened the formal investigation procedure (Federchimica, Confagricoltura, Compag)
EUJUS Law Firm (Rome)
Factual background Article 123, paragraph 1, letter a) of Law No. 388/2000 (Italian Budget Law 2001) imposed - inter alia - on all traders of fertilisers the obligation to pay, starting from 2001, an annual contribution equal to 2% of their revenues. Such contribution was intended to finance a (...)

The Swedish Administrative Court in Stockholm rules that the sale of a local care centre to a private company is in line with national State aid legislation (Dag Larsson)
Mercer Sverige (Stockholm)
General Court of the European Union (Luxembourg)
Öberg & Associés
Factual Background On December 19, 2007, the Stockholm County Council (”Landstingsstyrelsen”) decided that a transfer of public activities to staff of the municipality (so-called “avknoppningar”), within particular areas, should be allowed. In line with this decision, the County of Stockholm (...)

The Finnish Administrative court holds that alleged State aid measures falls within the "municipal sphere of authority" (Kiinteistö Oy Säästöloma)
Dittmar & Indrenius (Helsinki)
Factual Background A number of companies operating in the hotel and accommodation business had contested the decision of Nurmes City Council, whereby it had decided on various measures in order to promote tourism and employment in that area. The City Council had, amongst other things, (...)

The European Court of Justice clarifies the criteria for assessing selectivity of regional tax measures (Unión General de Trabajadores de la Rioja)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In a judgment of 11 September 2008, the European Court of Justice (hereinafter the ‘ECJ’) clarified the criteria for determining whether tax measures adopted by a regional authority are to be considered as selective and thus amounting to State aid. This judgment relates to a tax measure adopted (...)

The German Financial Court of Hamburg holds it is seriously doubtful whether the duty for national courts under Community law to recover unlawful State aid shall supersede the national procedural laws on prescription (Mineralölsteuer 2)
Maersk (Copenhagen)
Brief description of the facts and legal issues The Hamburg Financial Court holds it is seriously doubtful whether the duty for national courts under Community law to recover unlawful State aid shall supersede the national procedural laws on prescription (Mineralölsteuer 2) Parties: The (...)


A Belgian Court makes preliminary reference to the ECJ regarding compatibility of Belgian procedural rules with EC regulation 1/2003 (VEBIC)
Sheppard Mullin (Brussels)
Hogan Lovells (Amsterdam)
European Court of Justice (Luxembourg)
Introduction On 30 September 2008, the Brussels Court of Appeal made a preliminary reference to the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) relating to the compatibility of the Belgian procedural rules governing appeal cases with EC Regulation (EC) n° 1/2003 on the implementation of the rules on (...)

The Brussels Court of Appeal refers several preliminary questions to the ECJ on the involvement of a NCA in appeal proceedings (VEBIC)
Arendt & Medernach (Luxembourg)
NautaDutilh (Luxembourg)
Facts of the case 1. On 25 January 2008, the Belgian Competition Council (Conseil de la concurrence) has condemned VEBIC, a professional association of Flemish bakeries, for having established a common cost index inciting Flemish bakeries to increase their prices in violation with the national (...)

The US FTC proposes new procedural rules for both merger and non-merger cases
Jones Day (Washington DC)
Jones Day (Washington DC)
On Thursday, September 25, the Federal Trade Commission announced and released for public comment proposed changes to the rules governing trials held before the Commission. The changes, if adopted, could have a significant effect on both merger and non-merger litigation. They should be of (...)

The Paris Court of Appeal suspends obligation to pay cartel fine (Plysorol)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 23 September and 1 October 2008, the First President of the Paris Court of Appeal ordered that the obligation to pay the fine imposed by the French Competition Council on two plywood manufacturers, Plysorol and Établissement Allin, be suspended. On 21 May 2008, the Competition Council had (...)

The European Court of First Instance largely dismisses an appeal against refusal by the Commission to disclose documents (MyTravel)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 9 September 2008, the Court of First Instance (CFI) rendered a second judgment regarding MyTravel (formerly Airtours) in which it largely dismissed MyTravel‘s appeal against the Commission’s refusal to disclose internal documents relating to the Airtours/First Choicemerger. The CFI only (...)

The EU General Court rejects damages claim for losses suffered as a result of the annulment of the Commission’s decision to prohibit a merger (MyTravel)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
On 9 September 2008, the Court of First Instance ("CFI") dismissed in its entirety the damages action brought by MyTravel (formerly Airtours) for losses resulting from its inability to complete its bid for First Choice as a result of the Commission’s prohibition of the Airtours/First (...)

The European Commission claims damages for lifts and escalators cartel before Brussels Commercial Court (Kone, Otis, Schindler and ThyssenKrupp)
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
In February 2007, the European Commission imposed a fine totaling € 992 million on Kone, Otis, Schindlerand ThyssenKruppfor having breached Article 81 EC by operating, from 1995 to 2004, a cartel for the installation and maintenance of lifts and escalators in Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and the (...)

The Greek Competition Authority clarifies the rules on the obligation to notify agreements, decisions and concerted practices
Van Bael & Bellis (Brussels)
The Hellenic Competition Commission (HCC) has recently issued a declaration clarifying the applicable rules on the obligation to notify agreements, decisions and concerted practices. The Greek Competition Act (Law 703/1977) provides in Article 21 that agreements, decisions and concerted (...)


The Spanish competition commission issues a report on professional services and associations (Informe sobre el sector de servicios profesionales y los colegios profesionales)
Hogan Lovells (Madrid)
Allianz (Brussels)
Introduction The Spanish Competition Commission (Comisión Nacional de la Competencia, hereinafter, the "CNC") has recently published a report on the competition problems detected within professional services and associations (the "Report"). The Report follows the announcement by the Spanish (...)

The UK Office of Gas and Electricity Markets reviews the use of biodiesel for generating electricity under the renewables obligations (Biodiesel, glycerol and the Renewables Obligation)
Jacobs (Glasgow)
Summary The UK Government’s aim is that renewable energy will make an increasing contribution to energy supplies in the UK, with renewable energy playing a key role in the wider climate change programme. Background The Renewables Obligation (“RO”) is concerned with the generation of electricity (...)

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