Should Traditional and Online Sales Channels Constitute Separate Relevant Markets? (The TCA’s D&R Decision) On November 23, 2018, the Turkish Competition Authority (“TCA”) published its reasoned decision  (“D&R Decision”) concerning the investigation conducted against Doğan Müzik Kitap Mağazacılık ve Pazarlama A.Ş. (“D&R”), which is the largest brick-and-mortar book retailer in Turkey. The TCA examined whether D&R had violated the Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (“Competition Law”) by abusing its dominant position through preventing new entries to the market by way of lease agreements conducted with shopping malls that contain exclusivity clauses. In the end, and after a detailed market definition process, the TCA concluded that D&R’s conduct did not restrict
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