On June 3, 2009, the Japanese Diet passed a bill that will amend the Japanese Anti-Monopoly Act (“Amendments”) to impose larger surcharges (administrative fines) on companies engaged in cartels and certain types of unilateral conduct and increased prison sentences for individuals participating in cartels. To further strengthen cartel enforcement, the Amendments permit affiliated companies to file a joint leniency application and increase the number of entities that can receive some degree of leniency. The Amendments also require pre-closing notification for share acquisitions. The Amendments will become effective within one year from the date of enactment, on a date to be announced by the Cabinet Office. I. Cartel Enforcement Strengthened The leniency system was introduced in 2005 and
The Japanese Parliament passes amendments to the Anti-Monopoly Act to strengthen cartel enforcement and expand the scope of single-firm conduct subject to fines
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