On 9 July 2021, the European Commission (EC) published for public consultation a draft revised Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (VBER) and draft revised guidelines on vertical restraints (Vertical Guidelines). The EC has made substantial revisions, including adjustments to the rules governing dual distribution, dual pricing, and parity obligations. The VBER and Vertical Guidelines The VBER provides parties to vertical agreements (i.e., agreements entered into between businesses operating at different levels of the supply chain) with increased certainty about the compatibility of their agreements with Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), by creating a safe harbour exemption. If neither party's market share exceeds 30%, vertical agreements,

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