Introduction In re Cardizem CD Antitrust Litigation (“Cardizem”)  is one of the first in a long line of cases challenging the so-called reverse payment or pay-for-delay settlement agreements between the pharmaceutical companies. In Cardizem, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that an interim patent litigation settlement between a brand-name pharmaceutical manufacturer and a generic would-be competitor was a per se violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act. The reverse payment agreement in Cardizem did not settle the underlying patent litigation, but rather provided for payments from the brand-name company to the generic, beginning on the date that the generic company would receive approval to sell a generic version of the brand-name drug and ending on the date the
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