On 4 February 2021, the Federal Court of Australia ("Court") convicted Norwegian shipping firm Wallenius Wilhelmsen Ocean AS ("WWO") of criminal cartel conduct, and imposed a fine of AUD $24 million. This is only the third sentence for criminal cartel conduct handed down in Australia since criminal sanctions were introduced in 2009. What you need to know - key takeawaysThe seriousness of criminal cartel conduct will not be measured solely by revenue or profit, but by the capacity to limit or distort competition in the relevant market.The pecuniary penalty or criminal fine imposed by a court for cartel conduct will typically be one that deters the accused from considering anti-competitive conduct as an "acceptable cost of doing business".An early guilty plea, limited financial gain and
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