In two separate non-binding opinions in Super League and International Skating Union issued on 15 December 2022, Advocate General Rantos concluded that sports federations can – under certain circumstances – impose pre-authorisation requirements on third party events without violating EU competition law. Key takeawaysThe legality of most sporting federations' rules will be judged based on whether in practice they generate anti-competitive effects. The rules at issue in the cases were not per se illegal under competition law.The effects test looks at whether third parties are unduly denied access to the market.Sports federations can adopt rules with potentially anti-competitive effects without violating EU competition law, but those rules must pursue legitimate objectives in a
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