On December 31, 2007 the President of the Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (hereafter: the OCCP President) issued the second decision applying leniency provisions. The first ever leniency concerned a vertical agreement between Polifarb Cieszyn-Wroclaw, a producer of paints and (...)
On 31 December 2007, the President of the Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (the OCCP) issued a decision imposing a fine of PLN 4.5 million (approximately EUR 1.3 million) on PKN Orlen(Polski Koncern Naftowy Orlen) and PLN 1 million (approximately EUR 300.000) on the Lotos Group (...)
In December 2002, the Dutch Competition Authority (hereafter the ‘NMa’) imposed fines upon five Dutch mobile phone companies for breach of Article 6 of the Dutch Competition Act (a provision equivalent to Article 81 (1) EC). The NMa found that those mobile phone operators exchanged confidential (...)
On 31 December 2007, the President of OCCP issued decision n° RKT-79/2007 finding one of the biggest paints and polishing products manufacturer in Poland guilty of implementing anti-competitive retail price maintenance practices.
The antimonopoly procedures have been initiated in October 2007 (...)
On 31 December 2007, the Polish President of the Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (“the OCCP”) fined both PKN Orlen S.A (“Orlen”) and Grupa Lotos S.A. (“Lotos”), two leading Polish oil and petrochemical companies, for a concerted practice regarding the discontinuation of the manufacture (...)
I. The facts of the case
The decision of the Federal Cartel Office (FCO) deals with the pharmaceutical sector in Germany. In 2004 the German market for non-prescription pharmaceuticals was further liberalized. According to the new pharmaceutical law the prices for non-prescription (...)
On 21 December 2007, the Harju County Court (a court of first instance) convicted a railway freight services provider, AS Spacecom (“Spacecom”), and its management board member Oleg Ossinovski of an attempt to agree on restrictions of competition with its main competitor Eesti Raudtee (Estonian (...)
On 21 December 2007, the German Federal Cartel Office (FCO) imposed a fine on nine state associations of pharmacists, five pharmaceutical companies and the Federal Association of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers for organising and accomplishing a lecture series intended to convince pharmacists to (...)
I. Relevant facts
In the following decision, the Slovak Antimonopoly Office stated that the agreement between competitors restricted competition. The competitors coordinated their behaviour by pricing, dividing the markets, maintaining market shares, and limiting themselves in contracting, and (...)
This case arose from a complaint lodged by a retail pharmacy outlet (“the applicant”) before the Belgian Competition Council (“the Council”)
Initially, the complaint targeted the Belgian Pharmacists Association (“BPA”), but the Council subsequently decided on its own motion to extend the (...)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority.
The Conseil de la concurrence imposes a €37 million fine on 5 toy manufacturers and 3 distributors*
Following a referral by the ministry of Economy, the Conseil de la concurrence issues a decision against (...)
On 20 December 2007, the French Competition Council (the “Council”) fined five manufacturers (Chicco - Puériculture de France, Goliath France, Hasbro France, Lego and MegaBrands) and three distributors (Carrefour France, EPSE-JouéClub and Maxi Toys France) for entering into vertical agreements to (...)
In 18 January 2007 the Italian Competition Commission (Autorita Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato, ‘ICC’) launched an investigation in order to examine allegations of violation of article 101 TFEU and law 287/1990 consisting in restrictions in the italian market of automotive fuels by the (...)
On 19 December 2007, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) charged three UK businessmen with cartel offence under the Enterprise Act. This is the first time that charges have been brought for the cartel offence which came into force in 2003. The three men were arrested at the airport, where they (...)
On 19 December 2007, the Greek Competition Authority adopted a decision concerning a price-fixing infringement committed by the major dairy producers (Vivartia, Megval, Fage, Olympos and Rodopi) and the major supermarket chains (AB Vassilopoulos, Sklavenitis, Afoi Veropouli, Carrefour, (...)
On 19 December 2007, the Finnish Market Court found seven construction companies guilty of having participated in a market-sharing and bid-rigging cartel in the asphalt sector in Finland. The Court found that the cartel had been active during the period of 1994-2001 and had affected public and (...)
On 19 December 2007, the British Office of Fair Trading (“OFT”) announced that an oil industry executive trio was charged with cartel offences under the Enterprise Act 2002 (the“Act”). This is a historic move for the OFT as it uses its powers under the Act for the first time since the Act came (...)
In December 2007, the German Federal Cartel Office (FCO) imposed fines totalling almost € 208 million on seven companies active in the liquid gas sector and their managers for participating in an anti-competitive customer-sharing arrangement. The companies concerned, which represent (...)
"Commission prohibits MasterCard’s multilateral interchange fees for cross-border card payments in the EEA"*
On 19 December 2007 the Commission adopted a decision prohibiting MasterCard‘s multilateral interchange fees (MIF) for cross-border card payments with MasterCard and Maestro-branded (...)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority.
The Conseil de la concurrence fines five defibrillator manufacturers for agreeing to boycott a nation-wide call for tender organised by 17 hospitals.*
The Conseil de la concurrence issues a decision against (...)
The 18th of December 2007, the French « Conseil de la Concurrence », applying L. 420-1 of the Commercial Code, condemned 5 companies to pay a € 3.3 million fine for sharing information and agreeing on prices while responding to public procurement calls for tenders organised by the STNA (technical (...)
On 18 December 2007, the French Competition Council imposed fines totalling more than € 2 million on twelve removal companies for their involvement in a price-fixing and market-sharing cartel, but granted total immunity to two companies which had revealed the existence of the cartel. The (...)
On 18 December 2007, the Hungarian Competition Authority (“GVH”) fined Kortex Mérnöki Iroda Kft. (“Kortex”), a company specialised in the construction of hospitals and the distribution of medical equipment, HUF 77m (approximately € 300,000) for concluding an anti-competitive agreement with Olympus (...)
MF Design is one of the three hundred retailers in the Netherlands selling bedroom necessities manufactured by Eastborn Slaapsystemen (hereafter “Eastborn”). Eastborn used to issue recommended retail prices, which were published in its price catalogue.
In 2004, MF Design announced on its website (...)
Summary of the decision
Following an investigation with dawn raids and seizures initiated further to a leniency application, the French Competition Council has sanctioned a horizontal cartel between twelve companies in the sector of national and international removals to and from France, (...)
According to its press release of 21 December 2007 in its decision concerning an exclusive supply agreement between two undertakings, the Competition Office imposed a fine of HUF 77 million (ca. € 308 000) on Kortex Mérnöki Iroda Kft., a Hungarian engineering company, while it granted immunity (...)
On 17 December 2007 the Italian last instance administrative Court (“Consiglio di Stato -Consiglio di Stato”) decided on the appeal brought by Lottomatica and Sisal against the judgement of the first instance administrative Court which had upheld the Italian competition Authority’s decision.
On 12 December, 2007, the Investigatory Directorate of the National Competition Commission ("IDNCC") formally re-opened a sanctioning proceeding against several banks and saving banks for allegedly conditioning the concession of mortgages to the subscription of certain guarantees (life (...)
Press Release published on the official website of the French Competition Authority.
Distribution of medicines: GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer commit themselves in front of the Conseil on the operating of their medicine quota system for wholesale distributors.*
History of the case
"European Court of Justice confirms Commission’s approach on parental liability"*
I. The 2004 Commission Decision
The case concerns a cartel which operated in the 1990s between the main European producers (and initially US producers) of choline chloride, also known as vitamin B4, a feed (...)
On 12 December 2007, the Italian Council of State (ICS) issued a judgment relating to an earlier decision of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA) concerning a cartel affecting the lottery games and betting sector in Italy. In November 2004, the ICA imposed fines totalling € 8 million on (...)
In a recently published judgment of 11 December 2007, the Italian Council of State partially annulled the judgment of the Lazio Administrative Tribunal upholding the decision of the Italian Competition Authority in the Disinfectants cartel case. The Council of State entirely upheld the appeals (...)
On 11 December 2007, the Gazdasági Versenyhivatal, (GVH, competition authority of Hungary) adopted an infringement decision establishing that several provisions of the Code of Ethics and Discipline, the Code of Tariffs and the draft Code of Competition of Magyar Építész Kamara (MÉK, Hungarian (...)
In a recently published judgment of 11 December 2007, the Italian Council of State (“ICS”) has handed down its ruling on the appeals presented by several companies and the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) against the judgment of the Lazio Administrative Tribunal (“LAT”) in the industrial gases (...)
The OFT has issued a Statement of Objections alleging that certain supermarkets and dairy processors colluded to fix the prices of milk, cheese and butter,. Some of those players have now admitted their involvement and have agreed to pay individual penalties that collectively reach (...)
On 20 September 2007, the UK’s Office of Fair Trading (OFT) issued a Statement of Objections (SO) in which it provisionally found evidence of collusion on the retail price of certain dairy products between a number of large supermarkets and dairy processors. The SO found that these (...)
On 6 December 2007, the Versailles Court of Appeal (the “Court”) found that a motor vehicle supplier (DaimlerChrysler France) was entitled to terminate its dealership agreements on one year’s notice before the end of the transition period (i.e., 30 September 2003) provided for in Commission (...)
Surcharge Payment Order issued to bidders for high pressure gas pipe related works procured by Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., and medium pressure gas pipe related works procured by Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. *
The Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC) had conducted investigations against the bid participants for (...)
On 4 December 2007 the German Regional Court of Hamburg issued a decision on the compatibility with competition law and the law against unfair practices of the exclusive distribution agreement concluded between the German mobile network operator T-Mobile and the American multinational (...)
The Hungarian Competition Office fined Navi-Gate Kft HUF 43 million (ca. EUR 170 000) for entering into illegal vertical agreements with sub-distributors fixing the retail price of Garmin navigation (PNA) devices and the I-Go navigation software for PDA devices. Although the investigation was (...)
Description of the impugned case
A number of distribution agreements by Navi-Gate for the sale of navigation devices and PDA software contained straightforward RPM clauses. Albeit certain agreements contained the express term « recommended » prices, the HCO found that the language of the (...)
On 27 December 2007, the Slovak Antimonopoly Office imposed a fine of 525.8 million SKK (approximately € 15.5 million) on Slovak Telekom for abusing its dominant position in the telecommunication market under both Slovak and EC competition law by charging its competitors unfair interconnecting (...)
The interactions between competition law and intellectual property rights give rise to a series of interesting legal issues. What is currently being debated in Switzerland is the scope of the rights that are to be granted to the holder of a Swiss patent and the impact of such (...)
The German parliament voted on a reform to the Act against Restraints of Competition (ARC) which is inter alia aimed at improving the fight against price abuses by companies in the energy and food trade sectors. Both reforms are unrelated to each other even though both were intensively (...)
On 21 December 2007, the Danish Eastern High Court upheld a decision by the Danish Competition Appeals Tribunal according to which the national postal operator, Post Danmark, had abused a dominant position on the market for unaddressed mail by charging different prices to its own customers (...)
Competition Bureau Reaches Agreement with Canada Pipe Company Ltd.*
The Competition Bureau announced today that it has filed a consent agreement with the Competition Tribunal in the Canada Pipe Company Ltd. case.
Under the terms of the agreement, Canada Pipe has agreed to implement a new (...)
On 20 December 2007 the President of the Polish Office for Competition and Consumer Protection (OCCP) issued a decision imposing a fine of PLN 75 million (approximately EUR 20 million) on Telekomunikacja Polska S.A. (TPSA), the incumbent telecom operator in Poland, for abusing its dominant (...)
Belgacom used to be the autonomous public-sector company that ruled the government monopoly in telecommunications. This was the case until 1994, when the company changed into a “société anonyme”, and the liberalization of the telecom sector was initiated (which was fully (...)
By a decision of 11 December 2007, the Competition Council issued yet another decision concerning the (difficult) competition between princeps and generics at the time when the latter enter a market which becomes accessible upon expiry of the former’s intellectual property rights. Although this (...)
Running of cinemas: The Conseil de la concurrence condemns the GIE Ciné Alpes for having conditioned the access to certain distributors to areas where it had a monopoly to the obtaining of exclusivity or priorities in areas where it was in competition with other cinema owners.*
Following a (...)
The Conseil de la concurrence orders Schering Plough laboratory to remind doctors and pharmacists the exact bioequivalence of its brand name drug Subutex® with competing generic drugs*
Following a complaint by Arrow Génériques company for practices implemented by Schering Plough laboratory, at (...)
Deregulation in the market for electricity supplies: A new wholesale offer proposed by EDF will allow alternative retail suppliers to effectively compete with the incumbent operator’s retail sales on the free market.*
Following a complaint filed by Direct Energie on 22 February 2007, concerning (...)
The Authors’ Association ZaiKS (hereafter: ZAiKS) is the biggest and the oldest music collecting management organization in Poland and a member of CISAC, i.e. the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers. While at the EC level the EC Commission has condemned the use of (...)
In 1999 Moser Holding (the publisher of the Tyrolean daily newspaper "Tiroler Tageszeitung") filed an application pursuant to sec. 35 Austrian Cartel Act 1988 before the Austrian Cartel Court, alleging its competitor Mediaprint (the publisher of national daily newspapers "Krone" and (...)
In its recently published decision dated 5 December 2007, the Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf held that a leading undertaking in the travel services market had abused its dominant position by refusing to supply to a travel lodge card supplier authorisations to issue VAT information on the (...)
In a decision dated 5 December 2007, the Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf (the Court) ordered Deutsche Lufthansa AG (Lufthansa) to grant the permit to Royal Bank of Scotland plc. (RBS) to list the turnover tax for the travel services supplied by Lufthansa inner-Germany on its credit card (...)
By a decision dated 29 December 2007, the Lithuanian Competition Council authorized in phase II the acquisition by Rautakirja OY (« Rautakirja ») of 100 % shares of UAB Impress Teva (« Impress Teva »), increasing the shareholding from 51 % to 100 % and acquiring a single control (...)
On 11 January 2008, the Competition Council of the Republic of Lithuania (hereinafter the “Competition Council”) conditionally cleared the acquisition of sole control in Impress Teva UAB (hereinafter “Impress Teva”), of Lithuania, by Rautakirja Oy (hereinafter “Rautakirja”), of Finland. Prior to the (...)
On 20 December 2007, the Portuguese Competition Authority (PCA) issued its clearance decision regarding the acquisition of GB Airways Limited (GB Airways) by EasyJet Airlines Company Limited (EasyJet).
I. The Parties
EasyJet is one of the biggest European airlines, a wholly subsidiary of (...)
On 27 December 2007, the Portuguese Competition Authority (the “AdC”) adopted a merger control decision according to Law 18/2003 of 11 June (the Portuguese Competition Act), providing clearance to the envisaged acquisition of sole control over Carrefour’s hypermarket chain in Portugal (...)
Sonae Distribuição (Sonae) is a sub-holding of the Sonae Group which operates in food and non-food retail markets. Carrefour Portugal (Carrefour) is a company of the Carrefour Group which operates in food retail markets. Sonae proposed acquiring 99,8648% of Carrefour issued share (...)
GE is a publicly held company that the shares of GE are being traded on New York, Boston and London Stock Exchanges. GE consists of six business lines which are GE Infrastructure, GE Industrial, GE Commercial Finance, NBC Universal, GE Healthcare and GE Money. The contemplated (...)
UFH Holding GmbH (UFH) is based in Vienna, Austria and is active in the market for collecting and recovering raw materials from waste and in particular collecting and recovering electrical and electronic appliances.
Remondis Electrorecycling GmbH (Remondis) is a world-wide waste (...)
In November 2006 BSkyB (“Sky”), the leading pay TV-provider in the UK, purchased a 17.9% stake in ITV, one of the leading commercial free to-air broadcasters in the UK. The timing of the purchase was widely commented on given that it came within days of NTL announcing a possible (...)
Federal Trade Commission Closes Google/DoubleClick Investigation*
Proposed Acquisition Unlikely to Substantially Lessen Competition
The Federal Trade Commission today announced that it will not seek to block Google Inc.’s proposed $3.1 billion acquisition of Internet advertising server (...)
On 25 September 2007, E.ON Energie AG (“E.ON Energie”) on behalf of E.ON Avacon AG (“E.ON Avacon”) notified the Bundeskartellamt of its intention to increase its stake in the equity capital of WEVG Wasser- und Energieversorgungsgesellschaft mbH Salzgitter (“WEVG”) from 10% to 50.2%. (...)
The Federal Trade Commission earlier this week obtained a $1.1 million civil penalty against ValueAct Capital Partners, L.P. (“ValueAct”) for ValueAct’s failure to file the required Hart-Scott-Rodino (“HSR”) premerger notifications before acquiring additional shares of voting securities of (...)
On 19 December 2007 the French Minister of Economy, Finance and Employment (hereafter “the Minister”) cleared, after a “Phase I” investigation, the acquisition by the group LVMH of Les Echos S.A., publisher of the leading business newspaper Les Echos and of magazines specialised in economic and (...)
ECJ upholds Commission decision in Dutch building materials case CVK*
On 18 December 2007, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) dismissed an appeal lodged by the Dutch firm Cementbouw against the Court of First Instance’s (CFI) judgment of 23 February 2006 in Case T-282/02 Cementbouw v (...)
Morais Leitão, Galvão Teles, Soares da Silva (Lisbon)
Portugal20 contributions2467 visits
On October 11, 2007, the Portuguese Competition Authority (PCA) was notified of a concentration under which Associated British Foods, Plc (ABF) notified the acquisition of sole control over several assets and companies of GBI Holding, B.V., including in Portugal GBI, (...)
Owens is a USA based company active worldwide in the production and sale of glass fibre reinforcements, composite fabrics and building materials. It does not carry any manufacture activities in Turkey.
Saint Gobain is a French company active worldwide in the manufacture and sale (...)
By a decision dated 13 December 2007, the Lithuanian Competition Council authorized in phase II the acquisition by TEO LT AB (« TEO LT ») of 100 % shares of UAB Nacionalinë skaitmeninë televizija (« Nacionalinë skaitmeninë televizija ») .
The relevant markets have been (...)
A) The proposed merger
The Italian Competition Authority has unconditionally approved a merger between two publicly-owned multiutility firms, AEM and ASM Brescia (ASM). According to the merger agreement, AEM shall absorb ASM and the resulting entity shall be denominated A2A. The municipality (...)
By a letter dated 30 August 2006, a Norwegian company called Pan Fish informed the French Minister of Economy (the Minister) of a closed merger operation which it had failed to notify pursuant to the French merger control rules. This transaction related to the acquisition by the second world (...)
On 7 December 2007, the Irish Competition Authority (ICA) cleared the acquisition of three radio stations of Scottish Radio Holdings (SRH) by Communicorp subject to remedies.
Communicorp’s main business interests are in radio broadcasting in Ireland as well as Eastern and (...)
By a letter dated 7 December 2007, the French Minister of Economy, Finance, and Employment authorised the merger between two companies in the sector of daily and weekly regional press and Internet : Groupe Hersant Media (hereinafter « GHM ») and Groupe Lagardère (hereinafter « (...)
On 15 May 2008, the European Commission announced that it has formally asked Spain to withdraw, within one month, the conditions that were imposed by the Spanish National Energy Commission (CNE) and the Spanish Minister of Industry and Tourism on the Enel/Acciona/Endesa transaction, in spite of (...)
On 25 April 2007, the Norwegian Competition Authority (NCA) was notified 之f the acquisition by Nortura BA of 51% of the shares of Hå Rugeri AS.
Nortura is a co-operative owned by approximately 30,000 farmers. Nortura is organized as a group with several subsidiary companies and (...)
"Mergers: Main developments between 1 September and 31 December 2007"*
Also in December the Commission cleared the acquisition of Lentjes GmbH of Germany by Energy & Environment AG & Co KG (AEE), which is part of the Austrian A-Tec group.
Both AEE and Lentjes are active in engineering (...)
On 9 August 2007 Globus Fachmärkte GmbH & Co. KG (“Globus”) notified the Bundeskartellamt of the proposed acquisition of 100% of the shares of the following businesses from Distributa Gruppe: (1) G.V.M. Gewerbe- und Verbrauchermarkt GmbH, (2) Distributa Verbrauchermarkt GmbH (...)
Mergers: Main developments between 1 September and 31 December 2007*
The acquisition of joint control of Endesa by Enel and Acciona was notified to the Commission on 31 May and cleared on 5 July. Under the relevant national law, Enel and Acciona requested the Spanish energy regulator (Comision (...)
"Mergers: Main developments between 1 September and 31 December 2007"*
In December the Commission decided to clear the acquisition by the US technology group Syniverse of the BSG Group’s wireless business, providing data and financial clearing services to wireless telecommunication companies (...)
The appellant seeks the annulment of a decree relating to the calculation and the rate of a tax on slaughtering. The tax is instituted in application of a provision of the General Tax code (Article 302 bis ZD) is applied to slaughterhouse and is designed to finance the (...)
The applicant was a major company in the telecommunications sector, and had benefited from pension contribution breaks with respect to work and formation contracts (i.e. CFL, contratti di formazione e lavoro) between 1995 and 2001.
The European Commission, through Decision (...)
The new Regulation 1535/2007 on de minimis aid in the sector of agricultural production entered into force on 1 January 2008, and repeals Regulation 1860/2004. The new Regulation raises the de minimis ceilings in the agriculture sector so that aid not exceeding € 7,500 per beneficiary over any (...)
Woningstichting Sint Servatius (Servatius), an approved institution within the meaning of the relevant Dutch housing laws, had applied for an authorisation from the Dutch Minister of Minister of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (the Minister) to invest in a planned, cross-border (...)
The appellants seek the annulment of the administrative tribunal of Nice decision rejecting its demand for tax paid on meat purchases.
The tribunal had judged that considering that the tax had been integrated in the general budget of the State, it was not obliged to rule on (...)
"Citynet Amsterdam: an application of the market economy investor principle in the electronic communications sector"*
Broadband networks are considered to be the key infrastructure of the knowledge economy. Access to broadband services has become vital for businesses and (...)
"Italy gets all clear for R&D tax credits"*
In September 2007 Italy notified the Commission of a tax credit for expenditure on research and development (R&D) activities of up to a maximum of €15 million offering (i) 10% credit for R&D expenditure incurred in-house and (ii) 15% (...)
From the beginning of 2010, Italian consumers have been able to bring or join a collective damages action regarding unlawful commercial practices (including breaches of competition rules). Indeed, following two years of amendments being made to the legislation in question and its postponed (...)
The commented decision presents a new important step regarding the integration of competition rules into French administrative law and its consequences for administrative litigation rules. It also puts an end to an important dispute opposing SNCF, the French public railways operator, and (...)
Following its ratification by the Czech Republic, the last Member State to do so, the Treaty of Lisbon enters into force on 1 December 2009. On 30 October 2009, at the European Council, EU leaders agreed to offer the Czech Republic an opt-out from the EU’s Charter of Fundamental Rights, the same (...)
On 10 December 2007, the Minister of the Economy and Foreign Trade submitted a draft bill (No 5816) (the Draft Bill), proposing substantial revisions to the law of 17 May 2004 on competition (the Law on Competition).
Under the Draft Bill, the substantial rules (relating to the prohibition of (...)
1. Luxembourg only abolished its price control regime in May 2004, when it introduced a completely new competition law and created two competition authorities, both members of the European Competition Network. Compared with its neighbors - France, Belgium and Germany - Luxembourg (...)
In December 2007, the Minister of the Economy and Foreign Trade (Minister) submitted a draft bill to Parliament (Draft Bill) with the aim of reforming the law of 17 May 2004 on competition, as amended (the Law on Competition). Although no serious assessment was made concerning the three years (...)
On 20 December 2007, the French Parliament adopted a new law on the development of competition for the benefit of consumers, which was promulgated on 3 January 2008 (see Law No. 2008-3 of 3 January 2008 on the development of competition for the benefit of consumers, French Official Journal, 4 (...)
On 11 December 2007, the OFT issued the results of its market study into the distribution of medicines in the UK.
The review was initiated after Pfizer announced it would be introducing a Direct to Pharmacy (DTP) distribution model, appointing Unichem as its exclusive Logistics Service (...)
1 The regulatory background
Directive 98/30/EC followed by Directive 2003/55/EC liberalized the market by broadening progressively the category of eligible clients, authorized to choose their supplier. Pursuant to article 23-1 of Directive 2003/55/EC, “Member States shall ensure that the (...)
In 2004, the UK Office of Communications (Ofcom) conducted a strategic review of the UK telecommunications sector (the Review). The Review led to the imposition of a set of undertakings on British Telecom (BT), the UK incumbent telecoms provider (the BT Undertakings), which were (...)
I. Background and facts of the case
The claimant is a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn (DB) and operates the predominant part of the railway network in Germany. The defendant is a private railway company offering services in the field of railway cargo transportation. In this respect it is (...)
The Estonian Competition Authority fined AS Eesti Postin expedite proceedings for an abuse of dominant position (unequal treatment, fidelity rebates). Eesti Post appealed the decision. On October 3, 2007, the Supreme Court decided to partially satisfy the cassation and declared the decision of (...)