On 27 April 2021, the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) imposed a fine of over € 102 million on Alphabet Inc., Google LLC and Google Italy S.r.l. (collectively, “Google”) after concluding that Google had infringed Article 102 TFEU by refusing to include in Google’s own Android Auto app a third party app which enables users to locate car recharging stations, to book and manage a recharging session, and to pay directly through the app. The ICA’s decision is another illustration of how competition authorities feel emboldened to pursue vigorous enforcement action against large digital platforms and are willing to push the boundaries of competition law analysis in order to find an infringement and shape a remedy. Factual background The case centered around Google’s Android Auto app, an

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