On 12 April 2021, the German competition authority ("FCO") closed its investigation against Liebherr, a producer of household appliances, without a fine after Liebherr agreed to abandon or amend certain clauses in its newly introduced distribution model which, in the FCO's view, discriminated against online and hybrid retailers. Key takeaways Brand manufacturers can define quality requirements to be met by retailers. However, brand manufacturers may not discriminate against online and hybrid retailers by imposing (considerably) stricter
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